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111 rot Là set Volume xxi. Helena, Montana, Thursday, November 17, 1887. No. 51 0|t < ^j)etklg Itjcralil. R E. FISK D. W. FISK. Ä. J. FISK Publishers and Proprietors. Largest Circulation of any Paper in Montana -O Rates of Subscription. WEEKLY HEIiALD: One Year, (in »»«Italic«*).............................53 00 Six Month«, (In advance)............................... 1 75 Three Months, (in advance)........................... ] 00 When not paid for in advance the rate will be Four Itollar» per ycaii Postale, in all cases, Prepaid. DAILY HERALD: City Subscribers,delivered by carrier 51.00a month One Year, by mail, (in advance)................. 5«.t 00 Six Months, by mail, (in advance)............... 5 00 Three Months, by mail, (in advance)........... 2 50 If not paid in advance, 512 per annum. «-AH communications should be addressed to KIHK BROS., Publisher!), Helena, Montana. NOTHING NEW. *3r "There is nothing new !" to me said one. Gravely quoting threadbare Solomon— ''There is nothing new beneath the sun !" ■> — r - "AhI what foolish wisdom this!" I cried. "Adages are pompous robes that hide The nothingness of that which goes inside. "Nothing is new? No silver second falls Tinkling through creation's echoing halls. But something blooms; some voice awakes and calls! "Spring, when she floats across the hills and seas, Hangs not her last year's garlands on the trees. Last autumn's fruits were not the twins of these. "Nothing is new? Ingenious sophist, go! Lift up your cradle's coverlet of snow— Is this the babe you lost go long ago?" —Anonymous. THE INFANT MEDUSA. 1 loved Medusa when she was a child. Her rich brown t resses heaped in crispy curl. Where now those locks with reptile passion whirl. By hate into disheveled serpents coiled; 1 loved Medusa when her eyes were mild. Whose glances, venomed now, perdition hurl. As her self tangled hair their mass unfurl, Bristling the way she turns with hissings wild. Her mouth I kissed when curved with amorous spell, Now shaped to the unuttered curse of hell, Wide open for death's orbs to freeze upon; Her eyes I loved ere glazed in icy stare. Lre mortals lured into their ruthless glare, She shriveled in her gaze to pulseless stone. —Thomas Gordon Hake. A GRAY DAY. Gray of stretching sea, gray of heaven's drooping, Gray of shore where waves sob low, Gray of sea gulls swooping; Not a light on wave or lea, not a shadow showing, Clouds not dense enough for rain, And an ocean gently flowing. Such this day to me; skies are dull and ashen, Hopes in flight but gray wings show, Over silenced passion; No glad light or shade to see, No regrets for saddened reaping; Gloom not sharp enough for pain. Eyes not sad enough for weeping. —Jennie Maxwell Paine in Brooklyn Eagle. Seasonable Rhymes. SERE AUTUMN. When on the ground the red leaf lies. And skies, erst blue, become austere, And fields are brown, we then surmise That autumn's sere. they put 'em away. When shorter daily grows the day And harvested are summer's fruits. Then gentle maidens put away Their bathing suits. GET READY FOR A CHILL. When twittering swallows leave the eaves. And songsters leave the rural grove. And harvested are all the sheaves. Put up the stove. CONTRARY TO THEIR PREDICTIONS. When weather prophets do begin To prophesy with all their soul A winter mild and warm, put in Ten tons of coal. —Boston Courier. None anted. "Eli! Going on a journey?" he queried as he halted a friend with a gripsack. "Only a short ride. Going out to the County fair." "Got anything to exhibit there?" "Oh, no. I'm down to make tbe^ig speech of the opening day." "You! What in flaxseed do you know of agriculture ?" "Nothing. It will all lie about the Revolu tionary war—George Washington—old pio neers, and my patent stump puller. They don't want an}' agriculture in it."—Detroit Free Press. Interior Decoration a la Turque. "I'm going to have a crayon of my father hung over the mantelpiece," remarked the proud owner of a new and beautiful man sion, as he expressed his perfect satisfaction with the decorations of the library. "Oh, pardon me, it is impossible!" ex claimed the architect 'The room is Turk ish 1" "All right," said the master of the house gravely. "Of course, we mustn't spoil the decorations. But if I have the artist touch him up a little, and put a fez on the old gentle man's head, you'll let him in, won't you?"— The Epoch. Innocence. ''What a lovely cane that is you have there, Mr. De Garmo," she remarked, as he struggled with a stick nearlv as big as him eelf. aas," he drawled. "The man I bought ihat from assured me that it was a piece of the genuine north pole. He procured it from the cook of the Greely expedition. Only one of its kind, yer know, in the country. "—Har per's Bazar. Eutliormion Eutlior. The following poem is a perfect gem. It is very deep, and we don't know what it means; but the enthusiastic Browning admirers to whom we have submitted it declare it ex quisitely beautiful: BY ROBERT BROWNING. Sec the pheenix flutter— (Worlds grow old and perish) Four is two times two. Non elastic butter, Bhades of Lemuel Gerrish, What is that to you? So the demon wooed her (If so, whence and wherefore?) Science, art and song. Brahma, Balum, Buddha, Seotus, Bede and therefore— I have talked too long. —Yankee Blada OX ENGLISH RAILWAYS. THE USUAL LINE OF PROMOTION FOR ENGINE DRIVERS. A Hoy's Beginning in a Locomotive Shed. Appointment as Fireman—Freight En gineer, or "Goods Driver''—Passenger Fireman Next—Final Position. Engine drivers are very little known as a class, though the duties they discharge are public and very responsible. The fact is that the engine driver, who must not only be skilled in the technicalities of his business, but must possess intellectual and moral quali ties of a high order, has never risen above the rank of the artisan; nor does he pretend to rise above it, and yet he must be almost as capable and as dutiful as the captain of a ship or the commander of a regiment. The workman, whose cool judgment and unceas ing watchfulness are more serviceable than any mere manual skill he may possess, is worthy attention. Engine drivers are neither born nor made; they grow. You cannot apprentice a boy to engine driving. Engine driving, however, is the goal of the ambition of most boys who ^legin their working life in a locomotive shed. From being a kind of "devil" to everybody the boy gradually becomes a "cleaner." Sup plied with a bundle of cotton waste, he rubs over the working parts of the engine, and thus acquires a knowledge of its construction. At this work he may be kept four or five years. If he is fit for nothing better he re mains at it all his life. But if he is steady, quick and handy he is sure to attract the no tice of the foreman, and the foreman occa sionally calls on him to fire an engine, or haply to run one out of or into the shed. It is a proud day for him when he first steps on the foot plate of an engine, charged to drive it a few yards—out into a siding, perhaps, or up to the train to which it is to be attached. From this point everything depends on him self. By and by he obtains an appointment as fireman, most likely on an engine which is never engaged in hazardous work. Perhaps it is a pug engine doing yard or station duty, and never permitted on the main line or prin cipal sidings. Here the growing engine driver learns something of the weight of trains, of the regular supply of steam, of the relation between the steam pressure and the work to be done, of economizing coal and generally of the management and w orking of an engine. Then a vacancy occurs among the firemen on the regular goods traffic and "the most steady and promising young hand in the shed" is promoted. He now obtains a knowledge of "the road," learns to read the signals, as well as the other multitudinous signs by which the experienced engine driver feels his wav along, and of course becomes proficient in the art of keeping up the motive power to the point needed by the driver. He may even now be working merely on a branch or on a slow goods train ; but he is de cidedly getting on. He fathoms the mys teries of shunting. Billiard players will un derstand what we mean when say that in shunting "strength" is everything. The en gine, like a cue, propels the trucks with just sufficient force, and no more, to land them at the desired spot, the engine itself pulling up as soon as the momentum has been applied. Front goods [freight] fireman he is pro moted to goods driver; an important move. He already knows the road, can read the sig nals and gauge the weight of a train; but he has yet to learn how to keep time on a jour ney, how to regulate the break so as not to waste power, how to utilize "straights" and descents, how to climb hills and go safely | round curves. Goods trains not being greatly pressed for time, he has a good margin to j work upon, and after a few journeys his ; difficulties disappear. Not only can he ' work his train in perfect accordance with the system laid down; not only does I he learn by heart the signals. poL'.ts, gradients i and other features of the road, but he is able to detect weak spots in the permanent way. In such cases he scribbles a line on a piece of paper and throws it out to the first platelayer he passes. That generally suffices; but if not, he makes a report to the chief engineer. He does not know what it is—bal last shifted, sleeper broken, chair defective, or rail giving way; but he feels there is something wrong, and until it is put right he passes over the spot with such caution as to neutralize the danger. His phase as goods driver is one of the most important in his progress. But he has not yet done with stoking. His next step is as passenger fireman. His other qualities, if he possesses them, are now coming into play. It is true he has simply to maintain the motive power for the service of the driver, but he is something better than the boy who blows the organ bellows. He is the driver's companion and helpmate ; he is probably as competent as the driver himself; and he necessarily exercises a moral influ ence which, if strong, proves invaluable to both of them in case of emergency. One might almost compare them to companion lighthouse keepers. Should an accident occur, it is the fireman's duty to run forward with a danger flag, just as it is the rear guard's duty to run back and "protect" a fol lowing train. Then from passenger fireman he becomes passenger driver. But there is a great difference in passenger drivers. The one whose development we have traced is one of the best. Passing over bis stages of em ployment on branch lines, siow main line trains, specials and so on, we come to his final phase as the driver of the great express —the Flying Dutchman, Scotchman, or Zulu, or the Wild Irishman, as the reader may choose to suppose. What is his position now? Well, he is a man whose efficiency and character will from any point of view stand the severest tests. He is an expert whose training has been of the most gradual, minute and thorough de scription, w ho has climbed step by step to the top of the ladder, where his foothold is now as firm as if he were standing on the solid ground. His wages are (say) ten shillings a day; his working hours are fifty-six to fifty seven a week ; he is exposed to ail sorts of weather—very peculiar it is, too, on the foot plate of a locomotive with your feet scorched by the heat while the bitter east wind freezes the moisture on your beard; and he is charged with the duty of taking (say) 300 passengers from London to Exeter, or Glasgow, or Edinburgh, or Holyhead within a certain time, at an average speed of fifty miles an hour. From the moment he starts to the moment he arrives he is under a constant strain. Not only are the peculiarities of the road, which he knows from experience, to be noticed; but every mile or two there is some official signal put up for him to read. Level crossings, point«, tunnels, bridges, viaducts, stations, platelayers, gradients, curves—all these he must look out for. Consider the operation of climbing and descending a "sum mit " or descending and tuen climbing a "vallev " At these times the driver's hand is J - T- * 1 .» course of a few miles Le will perhaps make fifty imperceptible changes in the speed of the train—accelerat ing it or diminishing ;t so steadily that not a passenger notices what is being done. That is the perfection of engine driving. That is the climax of the driver's skill, and he attains it coincidentally with the full development of those qualities which he has unconsciously trained within himself, and which are all governed by an overmastering sense of duty. —St. J anise' Gazette. LIABILITY OF PHYSICIANS. What a Supreme Court Ju<lgt> Said in Charging a Jury—Common Law. In a recent case, involving a charge of malpractice, tried in the supreme court of Massachusetts, the presiding judge in charg ing the jury used the following language: "Whenever men are called upon to act with dangerous agencies, the law holds them to some degree of criminal responsibility. If they are grossly careless or reckless and pre sumptuous, they are guilty. The same general principle applies to medical treatment. The government must show not merely the al> sence of ordinary care, but gross carelessness, amounting to recklessness. A man is not to be convicted of manslaughter merely because of his ignorance. His ignorance is only im portant as bearing ujion theouestion whether his conduct in the care and treatment of the patient was marked by foolhardy presumption or gross and reckless carelessness. 'The defendant is to lie tried by no other or higher standard of skill or learning than that which he necessarily assumed in treating ber—that is, that he was able to do so with out gross recklessness or foolhardy presump tion in undertaking it. It is not necessary to show an evil intent; if by gross and reckless negligence he caused the death, he is guilty of culpable homicide." Accordingly, it has been held that a dentist or surgeon using an anaesthetic is not bound to look for any but the probable and natural effects of the drug, and is not liable for results arising from the peculiar temperament or condition of the patient, of which he bad no knowledge, al though if this were discoverable upon such an examination of the patient as reasonable skill and diligence require, the dentist or sur geon would be responsible for negligently failing to inform himself. The fundamental idea on the subject is, where honesty, average intelligence, skill and learning are possessed and are applied to the treatment of the case with ordinary dili gence and caution, the physician is not liable for any mischance that may befall his pa tient. It is only where he has been culpable that he is liable in damages. A physician treating a patient in good faith, to the best of his ability, is not crim inally responsible for the patient's death, al though caused by medicine administered by him, but a person ignorant of the uses and properties of a poisonous drug is criminally liable for the negligent use thereof.—Hall's Journal of Health. Persian Ladies at tile Rath. The bath takes up a good deal of the time of all Persian women. Even the poorest will attend the bamman at least once a week. For the lady the bath is one of the serious affairs of life and takes up daily from two to four hours of her time. It is something more than our idea of a bath. The victim is scraped and rubbed and parboiled. The soles of the feet are pumiced until they are as soft and tender as those of a little child. The hair is thoroughly washed by means of hot water and the saponaceous clay for which Shiraz is celebrated. Then the attendants mix in a brazen bowl the aromatic henna with the requisite amount of lemon juice, till a brown paste of the consistency of gruel is produced, and several handfuls of the repulsive looking compound are smeared over the lady's head. Then the hair, collected into a mass, is bound up in cabbage leaves. Small quantities of the dye are smeared over the eyebrows; the soles of the feet, the toes, the palm of the hands and the finger tips are also covered with it. And now the lady has to sit perfectly still for from one to three hours, till, like a meer schaum pipe, she colors; and it is exactly the color obtained on the best specimens of the pipes that is most fashionable among the Persian ladies. Day after day the bath is thronged with women, each sitting perfectly still for the color to "take." But they have their reward, for the henna dyes the hair a beautiful deep warm chestnut; hence gray hair is unknown among Persian ladies.—St. James' Gazette. A Thunderstruck Huntsman. Alexander H. Stephens, of Georgia, had a negro man named Henry, who was very fond of 'possum hunting—a perfect Nimrod in that line. Having, as usual, gone out for that purpose, it was not long before his dogs struck a track and soon treed. The hur.ter, having arrived at the tree, deliberately laid down his torch, and drawing his ax from his shoulder, eager for the game, began laying on to fell it He had not given more than one or two cuts, when, to his consternation, he heard a voice from above, saying: "If you won't let the dogs bite me I'll come down and help you cut the tree down." Thunderstruck and amazed, the huntsman dropped bis ax, and made double quick time for home. It turned out in the sequel that another negro, a runa way, hearing the dogs, took to a tree, and the 'possum was treed in another about ten feet off; the runaway, seeing no other person but the hunter come up, volunteered his services to help him. But Nimrod thought the "varmint" was entirely too obliging, or "thar was a ghost somewhar about.' —Ben: Perley Poore. Large Vessels Better than Small Ones. The tendency to discontinue the building and use of small vessels for ocean transu >rta tion, and the inability of such vessels to "om pete with vessels of larger tonnage, is shown by the statement that while a steamer of from 200 or 300 tons requires one sailor for everv 19.8 tons, a steamer of from 800 to 1,000 tons requires but one sailor for every 41.5 tons. In like manner, while a sailing vessel of from 200 to 300 tons requires one sailor for every 28.9 tons, a sailing vessel of five times the size, or from 1,000 to 1,600 tons, requires but one sailor for every G0.3 tons. And as it is also claimed that other economies in the construction of the hull or the rigging, and in repairing, are concurrent with the reduction of crews, it is not difficult to understand why It is that large vessels are enabled to earn a percentage of profit with rates of freight which, in the case of small vessels, would in evitably entail losses.—Popular Science Monthly. ___ Translating Shakespeare. Three Frenchmen, who were studying a vol ume of Shakespeare in their native language, endeavored to translate into English the well known opening to Hamlet's soliloquy, "To be or not to be." The following was the result: First Frenchman: "To was, or to am." Sec ond Frenchman: "To where, or is not" Third Frenchman: "To should, or not to will. "—Exchange. A THEORY OF SLEEP. PROFESSOR LEO ERRERA GIVES A RESUME OF SOME POINTS. AYhat a Scientist Says on a Very Im portant Subject—Leuromaines and Pto maines—Work and Fatigue—Somnam bulism— Kohl sclil utter 's Experiments. In an address to the Anthropological soci ety of Brussels, Professor Leo Errera has given a resume of some points in the chemi cal theory of sleep. The phenomena of sleep have in common with other vital functions the character of periodicity. An examina tion of such periodic functions in general may aid in ascertaining the cause of sleep. The respiratory rhythm is regulated by the amount of oxygen and carbonic acid in the arterial blood. When the blood is charged with oxygen the respiratory' center momen tarily suspends activity; but soon the tissues yield their oxygen to the blood, have it re placed by carbonic acid, atid the blood thus modified acts as an excitant to the respiratory center. Ranke has shown that the fatigue and recovery of muscles is due to a similar alternation of the accumulation and discharge of certain "fatiguing substances," chief among which is lactic acid. An injection of this acid into fresh muscle renders it incapa ble of work; washing the acid out restores the activity. — «**»- SLEEP EXPLAINED. Cannot sleep be explained by a similar chemical theory? Prey er has extended the views of Binz, Obersteiner and others (who all agree in making the accumulation of cer tain products of fatigue—ermudungsstoffe— the cause of sleep) by calling all such fatigu ing products of activity "ponogens." These accumulate in waking life, are readily oxi dizable, and absorb the oxygen intended for glands, muscles and nerve centers until action is impossible and sleep sets in. Gradually the ponogens are destroyed by oxidation, slight excitation is sufficient to arouse the centers, and waking life begins. Among the ponogens Prey er counts lactic acid as the chief, but the experimental demonstration of this has been unsuccessful, and the theory, accordingly, not generali)' adopted. Since these researches Armand Gautier lias found in the human body a series of five or ganic bases akin to creatine, creatinine and xanthine, and calls them "leueonmines" and "ptomaines." The physiological properties of these substances are narcotic, fatiguing and sometimes lead to vomiting. This is just what the chemical theory requires. The periodicity of sleep would be explained by the conservation of energy being applicable to all bodily activity; work must be followed by repair; life is a slow suic^e. There is, moreover, reason to believe that the action ot these leucomaines is a direct one upon the brain ; it is a direct intoxication of the brain centers. A CONSTANT STRUGGLE. A theory of sleep must take account of three factors—work, fatigue and sleep. The chemical theory satisfies these demands. All work, muscular or cerebral, produces waste products. These accumulate, make work more and more difficult; this is fatigue. As the process continues, the waste products, notably the leucomaines, intoxicate the higher nerve centers (just as a dose of morphine does), and render them incapable of action; that is sleep. The picture is, however, much more complex. There is a constant struggle against the fatigue, which for a time, by dint of hard work shown in increased secretions and so on, may succeed. We probably never arrive at the extreme limit of work; the sen sation of fatigue intervenes to prevent such a disaster. Fatigue, as is well known, may extend from muscle to nerve, and from nerve to nerve center. We may be very tired from repeatedly lifting a weight, and not lie sleepy, and may be generally sleepy without any considerable local fatigue. One is peri pheral, the other central. As the waste pro ducts accumulate in the centers, motion and sensation become more and more sluggish, until the time comes when the ordinary stimulation no longer arouses them, and we sleep. Partial sleep can be similarly ex plained. The centers go to sleep in a hie rarchical order, the highest serving the most delicate function going first. In waking, the reverse is the case; the minor centers may be asleep wLile the intellectual centers are awake. In somnambulism the latter may be asleep while the former are awake. THE DEPTH OF SLEEP. The depth of sleep, according to this theory, ought to be proportional to the number of cortical molecules in combination with the leucomaines. In the beginning of sleep these are abundant, the cerebral cells inactive, and a combination easy. The sleep is deep. Soon the maximum number of combinations is reached and sleep is deepest. From here on, the leucomaines are gradually eliminated and destroyed, and sleep should decrease with a decreasing intensity. Kohlscblutter's ex periments on the intensity of'sleep, as tested by the noise necessary to awake t he patient, gives the curve for the intensity of sleep cor responding to what we should expect by our theory. Variations in our sleep, caused by an excess of work, etc., are evidently similar ly explicable. In short, fatigue i« a poison for which sleep is the normal antidote. This theory maintains (1) that the activity of all the tissues (and primarily of the two most active, the nervous aud muscular) gives rise to substances more or less allied to alkaloids, the leucomaines; (2) that these in duce fatigue and sleep; (3) that on waking, if the body is rested, these substances have dis appeared. —Science. "Pat" and "Paddy" lu Ireland. There was one thing that I specially noticed in my short visit, and that was the common use of the words "Pat" and "Paddy" to indicate the members of the common class. Pat is em ployed in Ireland as is John Bull in England or Brother Jonathan in the United States. No newspaper of the United States would venture to speak of an Irishman as a Paddy, but the Irish newspapers in Dublin speak con stantly of the Paddies, just as we would speak of the Brother Jonathan of the Yankees. You see in nearly every picture store funny illustrations of the wit of "Pat" in his roles of car driver, day laborer or agriculturist I remember one particularly, which represented Pat as a jaunting car driver standing in front of his horse, holding his great coat over his head as his very fat lady patron stands holding out her fare. She asks him why he holds his coat in that position, and Pat replies: "Sure 1 do not want him to see what a load he has been carrying for such a small fare, else the poor baste might become discouraged." This class of pictures and stories are much more appreciated by the cul tivated Irish people than by any other na tionality.—T. C. Crawford in New York World. NATIVES OF THE NORTH. Tremendous Appetites of tlie Inhabitants of tlie Arctic Regions. When we were at John Howland bay, a month ago, on the Arctic coast, I was visit ing on the Hunter, where the sailors were scraping off the pieces of tbe gum adhering to the butt ends of the whalebone. The na tives stood by, and as the long shavings were rolled off gathered them all up, eating what they could hold, and storing the rest away in their canoes. I tasted of the stuff out of curiosity's sake, but dropped it as soon as I could. The flavor is about as I would im agine a rotten raw peanut to be. For a steady diet, I should hesitate between that and faith, but the natives all evidently rel ished it exceedingly, and they chewed by tbe hour, as a schoolgirl would a piece of gum. The greatest feast I have seen the natives have was about two weeks ago, when several w halers were lying at anchor under East cape, on the Asiatic shore. A whale was raised at the southward, working'rapidly up along the shore. Twenty-five or thirty whale boats were immediately lowered, and the gauntlet was too much for the whale, lie was soon captured and alongside the Lucretia to be cut in. Seven canoe loads of natives came off to claim their share of the whale, which custom has defined as the fins, flukes (the tail), and all the lean they can cut off. The whale was a very large one, mak ing in the vicinity of 140 barrels of oil, and producing about 2,500 pounds of whalebone, hence there was a great amount of lean. How the natives did work to save this I To me the whole scene was most amusing. Work was begun about 8 o'clock and finished soon after midnight, but the sun set only to rise in an hour or two, so it was daylight all the time. The officers of the ship were giving their orders, the donkey engine was puffing away turning the windlass, which rattled like a dozen heavy log chains. Twenty or thirty natives were yelling like fiends. Huge sheets of blubber were being hauled in at the gangway. Everything was excitement and noise. The sea all about the ship was red with blood, and natives were crawling all along the whale's carcass, holding big sheath knives in their teeth, cutting off a piece of meat when oppor tunity offered, and jabbering away like so manj' monkeys. When they were through with the skeleton, it seemed as if they could not have removed any more meat even with a piece of sandpaper. All their canoes were loaded down as full as they could carry with meat. Now that the work was over, the feast followed. The most toothsome part of the whale to them is the black skin from the lips, the fins and the flukes, and these opened the feast. Imagine a man or a woman, with a slice of meat tlie size of a four or five pound steak, surrounding a corner with an expan sive mouth, then sawing off the corner and writhing all over in order to chew up the whole piece and not drop any from his mouth. This is tlie happiest moment one of these natives could wish for.—Cor. Chicago Times. Edwin Forrest's Turning Point. "In the following spring I went to New York and put up at a boarding house. I was without a dollar. I did not have two shirts in tlie world, lay clothes had been seized for board in Albany. I was thoroughly disgusted with the world and resolved to kill myself. I went to a drug store and bought some arse nic. I told the apothecary I wanted to kill rats. I went to my room and mixed it, and was on the point of taking it, when, just as such things happen on the stage, I heard a gentle rap on the door. A man came in and said he was an actor, and that his name was Woodhull. The object of his visit was to get me to play for his benefit. He said ho had never seen me act, but he had heard Ogden Hoffman, a member of the legislature, and others capable of judging, say that I was very fine. I told him hastily that I had done with acting, and that I did not know anything about him or his benefit. The actor looked downcast and said: T am a poor man, and have a long summer to run through. I had hoped you would come to my aid and assist me in supporting my family ; otherwise I am beggared.' These words touched me so," said Forrest, "that I finally consented. I played 'Othello' for him. It was a grand sweep, financially and dramatically, for hundreds were turned away from the doors of the theatre. Next morning Mr. Gilford, man ager of the Bowery, put 8.500 in ray hands (more money than I ever had in my life be fore), and engaged me for one year at his theatre. From that time till now my course has been upward and onward."—Dr. Kane in Baltimore American. Frozen In Midsummer. In speaking of tbe large number of deaths of English sparrows during the late rain storms, Professor Otto Lugger, of Baltimore, says that, instead of having been dashed to death, be believed they had been frozen in midsummer. One day last week he counted forty sparrow lying stiff and cold within a distance of three squares. He carried eight home, examined all of them and found no bones broken. Four of them he warmed and they revived. The other four never again showed signs of life. Professor Lugger gave the following explanation of the apparent lifelessness, after the storm, of tbe birds, most of which were young ones: In migrating birds fly against the wind. Should the wind suddenly change and blow in the same direc tion as the birds are flying, and at a greater late of speed, the birds' feathers are blown forward, the skin is exposed, and a cold driv ing rain will soon chill tbe birds and cause tueir death. In this way, strange as it may seem, the birds may be said to have been frozen in midsummer.—Boston Transcript. Outwitting the Alligators. The dogs of San Domingo have discovered a way of outwitting their adversaries. When ever a native dog ot the island comes to a stream he stops and barks furiously for some time, until gradually one by one the yacores gather near the bank on which he stands, poking their vicious jaws out of the water as if in expectation of a feast. The dog knows by instinct when he has gathered all the ya cores in the vicinity in one spot, and becom ing satisfied of this fact be scampers off at breakneck speed up or down the stream and swims across in safety. It is only the San Domingan dog, however, who possesses this instinct. An imported dog would plunge recklessly into the water and soon become the prey of the yacore.—New York Mail and Express. __ Cutting. Miss Haseltine and her dearest friend have had a tiff, and the air is getting a little lurid. "No matter what you say as to my personal appearance, good judges often sjieak of my startling resemblance to Marie Antoinette; so there !" "Yes, you do resemble her wonderfully; that is, at the somewhat late period of her —I can't say life—when she lost her head."— Tid Bits. THE .MAVERICK SYSTEM. HOW FORTUNES WERE MADE BY UNSCRUPULOUS COWBOYS. The Trick of Gathering a Herd of Young Cattle—Altering Brands as a High Art. Notable Instance« of Skillful Altera tion. f "Cattle raising in Texas is not what it used to be," said a veteran stockman. "I don't mean to say there's no money in the business now, only that it is carried on differently— more legitimately, I might say—than it used to lie. Why, when I was just learning to stick to bucking ponies, men without a cent in their jeans were coming into the state and branching out as big cattle owners. There were fortunes made in a couple of years that could hardly be accumulated in a lifetime at the business now. How was it done? I'll tell you. "What was known as the maverick system was in vogue then. A maverick is a yearling calf that has escaped the branding iron. Where there were large herds of cattle it often happened that some were overlooked at branding time, and many were calved in the bush and ran wild. These mavericks were considered common property by the stock man, and whenever he found one he'd rope it, tie it down and run his brand on it. Then the ears were sliced to correspond with the recorded ear marks of the ranchman and the calf turned loose. Maybe the ranchman was branding his own stock and maybe he wasn't. That cut no figure with him. "In those days we bad no pastures and cattle were simply loose herded on the range. Certain landmarks would be set down as lim its of his range by the stockmen and his herders instructed to keep the stock within these limits. In the morning the herders would round the cattle in sight to points within the limits. At night they would be headed for the salting or lied ground and left until morning. Of course there were many strays, hut each ranch sent out a hunt in the spring to round up the herds of neighboring stockmen and to cut out any cattle found among them bearing their ranch brand. And under this system of handling cattle stock men considered mavericking would even it self up in the long run. The only qualifica tion was that a man should own stock to be properly entitled to maverick. FORTUNES IN MAVERICKS. "Here's where foreigners coming into the state ijeimiless got the best of us. Some fel low worked in a cow camp long enough to learn that there was a fortune for him in mavericks. He invested his wages in cow ponies, went to the nearest town and had a brand recorded, got a bag of meal and a side of bacon, and took to the bush. In less than a year he had 1,000 bead of young cattle roaming over the country with his brand on them. Then he hired some men, built a ranch, and went on a jjrand round up. All the fat steers he drove to market, keeping the heifers to breed f rom. His men were not long in learning how he had worked it, and then they branched out for themselves. In a short time the country was overrun with maverick ers, and pretty soon the most barefaced thievery ever recorded got to be as common as dirt in a corn dodger. Your would bo honest stockmen had to steal to keep even, and the calves of milch cows in the corrals were stolen. "It got to be a common thing for the tame cattle that came in to the ranch for salt to be followed by calves wearing strange brands; and this led to the counter branding that used to make the hides of Texas cattle look like drawings of choice town lots. "Here's an instance: I had a little Durham heifer, one of the finest shorthorns brought into the state. Her first calf wasn't ten -Jays old when some of the boys told me that it had been mavericked. I bunted it up, and sure enough some cuss bad run a big B 4 on its side and undersloped each ear. I drove it to the ranch and put a big U after the other letters, making the brand read B 4 U. Then I sharped each ear, and turned it out. The next time I saw that calf both ears had been grubbed out at the head, and tli<* brand read B 4 U 2. AY as I mad ? Some. ALTERING BRANDS. "Then mavericks began to get scarce as water on the Llano, and the cow thieves turned their attention to altering brands. Old Jim Loving, up in Los valley, owned about 6,000 or 7,000 head of cattle. They were all branded with what he called a half diamond L on the left shoulder. The half diamond was over the L. He and I took a herd up the Chism trail to Kansas in '71, and somewhere between Sun City and Fort Dodge caught up with another herd that had gone up aheéd of us. It had been sold that day. Living counted 200 odd head of hi3 cattle in the herd. They were all branded on the left shoulder with an inverted T inside of a diamond. "Jim was hopping mad. A Ye learned that the fellow who sold the herd was a red haired Mexican called Colorau. Getting some of the boys, we started after him. He got almost to the Nation (Indian territory) before we caught him. The boys set him a straddle of his own pack horse and tied his legs under the animal's belly. Then a lariat was tied under his chin, and the other end thrown over the branch of a live oak, where one of the boys caught it and made it fast to the horn of his saddle. Then Colorau was given about five minutes to tell over hi9 beads. While the darned skunk was whimpering something about 'Sancta Maria, Madré de Dios,' Loving gave the signal. The herder with the rope tied to his saddle horn dug spurs into his pony and shot away like the wind. It was a forty foot lariat, and he reached the end with a jerk that threw his pony back on his haunches. That greaser's neck popped like tbe report of a six shooter. "It was the only way to deal with those fellows, and that kind of treatment has made them scarce. Since we have got to building big pastures with barbed wire fence around 'em, mavericking and cattle stealing have about died out. And we don't have to hire so many herders either. Men ride around the pastures every day or so to see that the fences are not down, but they don't carry branding irons with them. Branding is done at regular periods now."—Chicago Times. It Rnnr In the Family, Smith—I hear your son Patrick is about to take the vows of the church. I trust he will bear them well. O'Rourke—Ah, that he will, no doubt. One of them, especially, will give him r,o trouble at alL Smith—And what is that? O'Rourke—The vow of poverty, sure. Patrick was always brought up that way; not one of our family could ever get a cent ahead. It will come naturally to him, do you see?—Lowell Citizen. STORY OF A DINNER. Potatoes, Oat Cake ami Goat's Milk eu a Mountain Side—A Laughable Chase. AA'e entered the hut and found the owner, an Irishman, sitting on a stool beside a pot eating potatoes. His mode of eating was to break the potato in two pieces, dip the end of the half in salt that was spread on his knee, and then squeeze it out of its skin into his mouth. AA'hen I told him that we were hun gry, he expressed regret that he had nothing but potatoes to offer us, but what he had, he said we were welcome to "wi«l a heart and a half." His hospitable wife suggested that while we rounded the edge of our appetite* with the potatoe^ she would make a scone of oatineal bread, and if John, her husband, would catch the goat, we could have milk. John found the goat in the act of masticat ing the hair stuffing of a new horse collar. AA'hen he realized that his horse collar was being filed away in the digestive machinery of a 82 goat, the disastrous character of the misfortune dawned on him, and gave vent to his feelings in a yell that sounded like the wail of a lost soul prowling around a Chicago street at 1 a. in. AYith dismay in every feature and a singletree in his hand, he went for the goat. She did not wait for him, but, spreading her tail to the breeze, she prome naded off in a jaunty and delionair way peculiar to mountain goats. She went streak ing around the house, up the hill, then down and across the brook, and back, and around the house, with John in full cry at her wake. As the pageant came tearing past the door, the goat bleating a de risive defiance, John w aving the singletree in the ambient gloaming, and calling on us to head her off, and we trying to eat hot pota toes, trip up tbe goat, and laugh all at the same time, it was a spectacle the like of which is seldom seen. The goat went around tbe house so often and so rapidly that she looked like a procession of goats that wanted to go somewhere and was presse«! for time. John was suddenly possessed with an in spiration, aiid as suddenly he stopped in his mad career. AV liy should he pursue the ani mal; why not turn, meet, and intercept her on the next lap? AYith John to think was to act. He was no sooner struck with the idea than he turned, and—then he was struck by the goat, anti doubled up like the mattress of a folding bed. • AA'hen a goat, rushing through space, is suddenly confronted by a man, who hits her on the head with his stomach, the goat is in variably surprised. This goat was so aston ished that she stood still for A moment, and during that moment she was seized by tw'o of the white haired children and tied to a cart. AV'ehadto slam John on the back with a board to straighten him out. AA'hile this was going on the woman milked the goat. Soon the oat cake was cooked, and such a dinner as we had! There was nothing, absolutely nothing, but the oat cake, the milk and the potatoes. But how I enjoyed them, and how much of tlies- things I ate, words would fail me to express.—J. Armoy Knox in Boston Herald. The Wife In France. Take now the shop keeping classes. There you will see the wife the active partner of the husband. Behold them both as the commer cial traveler displays his gotxls on the counter. The wife is supreme. Her objec tions are without appeal, her opinion final. It is she who generally has charge of the books and the cash box, and neither books nor cash were ever intrusted to a better guardianship. She is not a mere housekeeper, with or without wages; she is the partner, not merely a sleeping partner. This not only enables her to be of great help to her hus band, but it also enables her, if she happens to become a widow, to carry on the business without her husband, to be independent, and to bring up her children. She has not, to ob tain her living on her husband's death, to be come a working housekeeper or a nurse; she is the mistress of her own house as before, and now the head of the firm. In her shop she is most polite and empressee, but never servile, and if you wish her to take you for a gentleman, don't keep your hat on while you are engaged with her in a commercial trans action. It is said that Louis XIA', the most haughty and magnificent monarch of modern times, used to lift his hat even to the female servants of his court. If so, no man need think that he derogates from his dignity by keeping his hat off in a respectable shop when he is served by a woman. I might say a word or two on tbe draw backs of tbe influence of women on French men, but there is no doubt that this influence has polished our manners. Even in busin?ss intercourse politeness is not banished. In England, for instance, checks are marked "Pay to." In France they aie worded, "Veuillez payer"—"Please to pay," "Kindly pay," etc.—Max O'Rell in Harjier's AA'eekly. Peculiar Freaks of Insanity. Keeper Maest, of the Erie county alms house, says that in his experience one of the peculiar freaks of insanity is the seeming re versal of natural tendencies. "For instance," be says, "we have in the male wards fine col lections of potted plants and climbing vines, which grow so luxuriantly that they curtain the windows. The men tend these carefully, pluck away the dead leaves, stir up the dirt in the pots, prune the vines, keep them care fully watered, and in divers other ways manifest the tenderest watchfulness. Not so with tbe women. Every attempt to intro duce plants and vines as a feature of the fe male wards, save in the cottage where the mildest cases are confined, has proved a flat failure. Tlie women pull out the plants by the roots, tear down the vines, and manifest other destructive tendencies entirely at va riance with the nature of the sex in general." —New York Sun. _ Floors Painted with Tax. Some months ago the floors of many Aus trian garrisons were painted with tar. and the results have proved so uniformly advan tageous that the method is becoming greatly extended in its application. The collection of dust in cracks is thus prevented, and a consequent diminution in irritative diseases of the eye has been noted. Cleaning of the rooms has been greatly facilitated, and para sites are almost completely excluded. The coating of tar is inexpensive, requires renewal but cnce a year, and presents but one disad vantage, namely, its somber color.—Boston Budget. Slaughter of Sea Fowls. There is a complaint that a new Paris fash ion, which requires the gray feathers of sea gulls for trimming, is causing a great slaugh ter of sea fowls on Eurrpean coasts.—Bottoc Budget. An Explanation. Cally—Miss Peterson has remarkably small eyes. Dally—Yes, they look small, but she has bad a young man in 'em fer a long time.— Boston Courier.