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FISK BROS. S. E. FISK, - Publishers. - Editor THURSDAY, JANUARY 5, 1888. A HAI'Pv new YEAE, friends, with all the L'ood wishes that the greeting implies THE largest sized papers and the largest editions, daily and weekly, are this week issued from the Herald effice. A SCHOLARLY CORRESPONDENT, writing from Mammoth Hot Springs, in classic language describes that alluring spot in Wonderland as the Gretna Green of Mon tana. Thomas Jeffebson asked : "Shall we suppress our imposts and give that advan tage to loreigu over domestic manufac tures?" And Grover Cleveland, away down at the foot of the class, promptly re plies : "Yeth thir." The current issues of the Herald, daily and weekly, are the largest sheets of their kind published in this Terri tory during the year. Both numbers are replete with interesting news, literary, miscellaneous and other matter. These magnificent sheets can be procured at all the news stores and at the Herald count ing room ready for mailing. Remember distant friends. Mail them copies. The editor of the New North - West makes note of the fact that he has passed his fiftieth birthday and the present week mark3 the twenty-first anniversary of his connection with the Montana press. Capt. Mills succeeded i'rof. Dimsdale on the Mon tana Post, and remained, with that paper at Virginia City and Helena to the close. In 1868 he established the New North-West at Deer Lodge, and through the interven ing years has been continuously its editor and proprietor. No fairer or abler man than Capt. Mills has ever been at the jour nalistic helm in this Territory, nor one who has more impressed the public thought for the public good. Our cordial congratula tions on the prosperous career of the New North-West nnd '.be editorial majority reached by its worthy founder. We admire Nast as a comic artist and we do not forget our gratitude for past ser vices in a good cause, but his exhibition o t himself as a mugwump is neither credit able nor entertaining. Mr. Nast is tor a tariff for revenue, but he abjures the policy of protection. The United States, under this policy of protection, has become the best market in the world and it is worth something to keep it lor ourselves. Every one who buys any manufactured article has to pay some profit to the manufacturer, or, as Mr. Nast chooses to characterize it, some tribute to capitalists. If we let other nations do this manufacturing we shall pay this profit or tribute to them. That is all the difference to those who are only interested as purchasers. And we say that it is better to keep our money at home and pay these profits to our own capitalists rather than to foreign ones. Mr. Nast says we produce more than we can consume and should seek markets outside. We could say to Mr. Nast that we produce more also than we can sell abroad with profit, and the only result of exporting more would be to glnt the markets and get less for it. If, on the other hand, we improve our home markets we can reap all the benefits of it, and for such a home market we patronize internal transportation and reap its benefits, but if we depend on foreign markets we pay tri bute to foreign ship-owners. Nast is a suc cess as a caricaturist, but a bad failure as an apostle of mngwnmpery. President Cleveland in selecting the wool growing industry of this country for his special object of onslaught was evi dently inlluenced by the fact that it was an interest that existed chietly in States that would vote against his re-election on general principles. He says nothing about reducing the duty on sugar, one of the greatest necessaries ot life, used by every one in all parts of the country and ot which we produce very little and that only in a narrow corner of the South. Excellent po litical discrimination is shown, but the poorest sort of statesmanshiD and political economy. But Mr. Cleveland has reckoned poorly from the standpoint of the make shift politician. He gains nothing and loses much. He has singled out one in dustry for attack, but he will find that all protected industrie will stand together and fight together and win together. There never was a day when manufactur ing industries were so strong and united as to-day. The «prosperity of the country is their liest argument. Seven billions of manufactured products in a single year shows something of the vast development we have attained in this direction. Hun dreds of millions are invested in this busi ness and millions of employes are depend ent on its continued prosperity for daily bread. It is not a combination of capital ists any more than it is a combination of men working in mills, factories, shops, mines and on farms producing the supplies for these thousands of mechanics and their families. There is too much general intelligence in the manufacturing class to stand idly by and see one industry selected for slaughter before theit eyes. There will be a contest in Congress this ses sion, but a mere preliminary sparring to the grand contest that will fill the country next summer. We have no great fears of the result. Protection stands oh an im pregnable basis and a siege will only reveal its strength. Protection makes ns inde pendent r and prospérons, and every one is able and willing to pay fair prices for labor and its products. Free trade throws profits to foreign producers and shippers and makes the people so poor that they cannot pay cheap prices. j conquered peoples the alternative of slavery or death, not as modern Brit FAREWELL TO 1887. Another circuit of the seasons has been run and the year of grace 1887 r-tands on his last foot, the other raised ready to join the funeral and shadowy train of the receding past. To many it has been a year of sorrow, disappoint ment, suffering and loss, and will be re membered with sad and gloomy associa tions, but on the whole there will be more to remember it with pleasure and gratitude as a year of prosperity and blessing. This is especially true of our own country. Our population has in creased a million and a half, and that, too, not by conquest or annexation. The United .States does not grow as did imperial Borne by bloody con quest over weaker nations giving to ain has gained her empire over two hun dred millions of unwilling and oppressed Hindoos. < )ur growth comes of our own prolific vigor and from those who volun tarily transfer their allegiance from for eign rulers to that of the mild sway of the popular will expressed in our laws. Those who come to us thus are con tented, helpful subjects, inspired by the noblest motives not only to help themselves, but to provide a better home and future for their chil dren. Admit that these voluntary exdes from foreign lands are generally poor in worldly goods. They have a wealth of courage and hope, else they would never have torn themselves away from the land of their birth, the graves of their ancesters and the hallowed social ties that the poorest have to some extent in every land. They have also enterprise, prudence and industry awaiting only in ter-marriage with favoring circumstances to produce a progeny of the most precious wealth. While some lament that people of money and culture, of higher talent and larger experience do not come to us from foreign lands, we ought to, be thankful that those chiefly come who are most docile and tractable, not only ready but eager to learn our ways and language and conform to the spirit of our institutions. The growth of the United States, as compared with other great nations in ancient and modern times, illustrates the difference between endigenous and exogenous plants and trees. The latter grow by additions from without, the former from within. The one may out grow the other for a time, but our nation is like the oak that can brave the storms of centuries. Our growth in population has been more than equalled by our growth in wealth. That growth has been under estimated at $3,000,000 every day. It is more than that. One item of that growth consists of 13,000 miles of fin growth consists of 13,000 miles of fin ished and equipped railroad, and with the direct investment and indirect en hancement of the values of land, mines, etc., alone represents more than half of that estimated gain in wealth. Thanks to our admirable system of protection to home industries, we havts become the greatest manufacturing country in the world, and though the annual value of our manufactures have swoolen to seven billions, we do little more than supply our own home market. It show's that a market of sixty-five millions of free, ac tive, intelligent, prosperous people is worth more than all the other markets in Christendom. But the year has not only been marked by growth in numbers and material w'ealth, but in every other respect that denotes a higher and better destiny. Scarcely a day passes that is not ren dered glorious by the announcement of some rich benefaction to found a new college, library, asylum, hospital, or some other inssitution to increase and diffuse intelligence or alleviate suffering and misfortune. Both the public and private citizens 'are emulously engaged in this glorious work. We count it as one of the distinctive blessings of the year past that the majesty of the law has been so conspicu ously vindicated in the execution of the anarchists. And it was done in that de liberate way that showed no vindictive ness, but calmly awaited the verdict of all the courts and the sober second thought and judgment of all people. To the long list of positive blessings the year has brought us is to be added another of negative blessings of almost equal proportions. We have not been wasted by war, pestilence, famine, earth quakes or other disasters and calamities of a general character. To Montana especially it has been the most permanently prosperous of any year of our entire history. Following a year of severe drouth and a winter of unparalleled hardship with heavy losses the contrast has been the more remarka ble. A large part of last year's losses were made good in the same fields where in they occurred, while in other direc tions the advance has been so great that our steady progress in general wealth and prosperity has not been even inter rupted. The bankruptcy of our Terri torial treasury under the ground squir rel cyclone was happily averted. In this general prosperity of Mon tana our fair and queenly city, the northern metropolis of the Rocky Mountains, has enjoyed a full aud generous share. Our noble, mag nificent court house, whose granite walls look as if planted to defy the w T aste of time, has been completed, dedicated, occupied and elegantly furnished. It is a pledge to all the world and the gener ations of coming centuries that this wild and inaccessible region of a single gen eration past has been permanently re deemed and occupied by a prosperous, enlightened, law-abiding people, who a of his have come to stay, to thrive, to reign over a rich, unstinted world of uncoined wealth. Not the least of our provocations to srratitude is the fact that Montana is one year nearer to Statehood, when she can become the responsible mistress of her own destinies. And so with a grateful affection, ting ed with sadness, we bid a final adieu to the year 1887. Even amid the greater glories of coming year? we will not for get you. RAILROADS. The year 1887 is about complete aud so far as the construction of railroads is concerned it is possible to state the re sults with considerable accuracy. The Railway Aye says the total construction for the year will reach 13,000 miles and exceeds that in any previous year in our history. The highest previous record was in 1S82, when the whole world, in cluding ourselves, were astonished at the completion of 11,599 miles. The con struction boom seemed at that time to have reached its culminating point, and every one predicted that the business had been so overdone that it would take the country twenty years to grow up to the railroads. And now, in only five years more, we see the boom record of 1882 eclipsed, and that, too, without any special booming of any sort. If we look to see where the work is being done, we shall find it greatest in those States where there is the greatest growth of population. Kansas has nearly double that of any other State, and Ne braska has about the same as the great State of Texas. Montana is underesti mated at 616 miles, and if all the other estimates are as conservative the total is considerably greater than stated. Mon tana has beat Missouri for once. The cost of this year's new road is estimated at $325,000,000, or at the rate of $25,000 per mile, including equip ments and buildings. This is a large sum of money for an overtaxed people, distracted bv a surplus in their national treasury. It is within $10,000,000 as much as the entire revenue of the gen eral government. The investment of so much in railroads probably will fully account for occasional stringency in the money market, rather than the few millions of nominal surplus in the treasury. Money is not allowed to be idle long in this country, and it is one of the best signs of heaithy aetHitv that our banks are not holding any large sur plus of idle funds. The total railroad mileage in the United States is now up to 150,000. At the end of last year the total mileage At the end of last year the total mileage of the world was reckoned at 319,152. Though the statistics do not extend to the construction during the year in other parts of the globe, we have no doubt that they will show that we are building more road every year than all the rest o Christendom. This railroad construction has in creased the values of adjacent lands and of lots in railroad towns and terminal points to an amount equal and perhaps double the cost of the railroads. These roads are better built and better equipped for service in every way than the earlier roads built in this country and laid with costly and poor iron rails imported from England. It is worth while to note where this large investment and enhancement of values is going on. It is in the interior of the national domain and not upon the sea or the seaboard. It is out in a region that a few years ago was a vacant waste and generally considered irreclaimable. There are hundred of millions of wealth now thrown into sight in a single year, where there was nothing worth assessing a short time ago. And this wealth has not been recklessly invested to lie idle and unproductive, but placed where its shrewd investors think it will yield the best returns. It is invested were people are going to build homes, found cities and open mines. These railroads are bringing together the most distant portions of our country and by the cheapness and facilities of travel making us one people, fusing all the diverse and refactory elements, native and foreign, and making one common, liberal minded, energetic, progressive people. When our civil war began in 1861 there were only about 30,0o0 miles of railroad in the country, and up to that time nearly the whole of it was laid with English iron. Now we have nearly or quite five times as much laid with Ameri can steel. The era of protection has been the great railroad era of the United States, and though we mourn the temporary loss of ocean commerce, w f e have as much to show in our railroads and the wealth they have created and represent to-day as all the ocean commerce of all the na tions of the earth. It is wealth, too, that cannot be wrecked by ocean storms or captured by hostile fleets. Just as it is our best policy to culti vate home industries to give profitable employment to our people, independent in the matter of necessaries and home markets, so it has been wise to invest in railroads in preference to ocean vessels. Crazy Johnson Abroad. W. H. Johnson a crack-brained indi vidual well known in Helena, who has been confined at periods for lunacy, is in Oakland, California, and was in charge of the authorities there a few days ago, either for some misdemeanor or for insanity. He impressed upon the officers that he wjs a particular friend of Sheriff Hathaway, of Helena, and the latter got a telegram yesterday asking what should be done with Johnson. He replied that he had no claims on him and that they could dis pose of him as they saw fit Johnson was watchman in the legislative council in 1885 and gave rise to comment then by his erratic behavior. WAR TARIFF. There is much in a name to some peo ple and it is enough to arouse the ire of those who feel sore over the results of the war to brand it as a war tariff. The vast expenditures of the war while in progress and the heavy load of debt left at its close required large revenues from some source and many sources. Most of the imports now taxed were taxed before the war. Our only revenue then was from duties on im ports. For a pure, unadultered war tax, the whisky tax and the tobacco tax are specimens. These sprung up with the exigencies of war and for revenue only. No one proposes to abolish the whisky tax, notwithstand ing it is a war tax. With what propriety then can any one speak of the tariff on wool and woolen goods as a war tariff? Whether this tariff should be higher or lower, so far as it is a mat ter ;or us to consider, it practically has not the remotest connection with the war. The more important and perti nent question pending is whether we shall protect a most important industry to the extent of keeping it alive, or for the sake of saving possibly a few shil lings this year take the desperate chance of paying twice as much the year after. If it was simply a question of raising the most revenue for the govern ment the proper course would be to reduce the duty. If the duty is reduced one-fourth the imports would be increased four-fold and the revenue from this source would be dou bled. But the administration pretends that we have too much revenue now, and that it should be reduced and not in creased. If Cleveland wants less revenue on the imports of wool and woolen goods, he would have recommended an increase of the duty. It is either a case of ignorance of economic laws or of false pretenses. The use of the term, "revenue tariff," is very ambiguous. A3 employed by some, it seem? to be a tariff so gaged as to produce as little revenue as possible. A tariff may be so high as to be prohibitory, and would then produce no revenue at all. What the administration seems to mean by revenue tariff, so far as we can fairlv judge, is one that will not yield a dollar more than enough to pay the current e^enses. The result of such experiment of skimming over shoals and hugging rocky reefs is that there is always danger of stranding and wreck ing. In a country like ours that is grow ing so rapidly with a necessary increase of expenses, the attempt to gauge the revenues so as just to meet expenditures will almost necessarily result in a defi ciency. Every nation in Europe aims to raise enough revenue to meet current expenses and yet not one of them does it. Such will be the result in this coun try as in every other. Our duties will be fluctuating and all business unsettled and in distress. With no surplus and constant danger of a deficiency our cred it would be impaired. Perhaps the scheme is devised to knock off the premium on our bonds. It will do that of a certainty. Some may think this a good thing to strike a blow at the bondholders. But pause and think if it is not a two edged sword. What will be done when the bonds fall due, as part will in 1891? With nothing in the treasury to pay and an impaired credit, we should probably have to pay four per cent to borrow more money, whereas we could now easily borrow all we need at 2i per cent. We might hurt the bondholders but we should hurt our selves most. Of course if we cut down our revenues to the closest estimate of necessities we could not think of building a navy, of could not think of building a navy, of improving the Mississippi, of reducing postage and taking the telegraph into government hands and doing many other things that our growth and proper am bition require. We more than suspect that the chief inspiring motive of trying to reduce our revenues, with a great share of those most warmly enlisted in the movement, is to furnish a pretext to cut down the pensions or at least to preclude the pos sibility of voting a service pension. At any rate the use of the expression, "war tariff" implies some appeal to those who dislike the results of the war. Our position is and always has been that this war debt that we are still carrying should be paid off as the last unpleasant reminder of tlm war. As long as any portion of this debt remains to be paid there is a necessity for a war tax of some kind. Pay the war debt and war taxes will cease. No Relation to Nina. [Inter-Mountain, j "Van Zandt, the forger,who got the money on several fraudulent checks purporting to have been drawn by Butte firms, was, it will be remembered, arrested in Winnipeg a fortnight since, and Sheriff' Lloyd left last week to bring him back to Butte. The authorities are in receipt of information to the effect that the Canadian authorities now refuse to give up the prisoner without virtually trying him there first. They de mand that two witnesses shall be sent on to establish his guilt, in which case they agrpe to turn him over to Sheriff Lloyd. Both Van Zandt and Lloyd are now at Ot tawa, the Canadian capital, and Mr. Lloyd has telegraphed here to have the necessary witnesses sent on. This will involve an ex pense of two or three thousand dollars, and the county commissioners are now try ing to find out who should pay the expense —the county, the Territory or the United States. The matter has been referred to Governor Leslie for decision, after which the witnesses will he sent on." As Governor Leslie distinctly stipulated in his order of December 6th, transmitting the papers to Sheriff Lloyd, that the Terri tory should be put to no expense whatever in the matter, the submitting of the ques tion to him will probably not result m its elucidation. The crime committed by Van Zandt is insignificant compared with the expense his arrest and return will en tail. He passed a few forged checks at Butte for small amounts and for that costs amounting to V3,000 must be entailed to visit him with j entice. It looks as though this proceeding would be the foundation for another "bill for relief" to be submitted to our legislature. TUE TERRITORIAL INSTITUTE. The gathering of the teachers of the Territory to the annual Institute is on all hands agreed to be the largest, ablest and most enthusiastic ever witnessed in the experience of the Territory. It is a matter of sincere rejoicing. It is much to be regretted that the holiday festivi ties detain so many of our citizens from attending the several session?, but a larger room than any we have in our public school buildings would have been necessary in that event. The character of the papers read and the discussions that followed have been marked by much ability, and -hows that Montana teachers rank well among those of the country. Without attempting comment on any of the special subjects that have en gaged the attention of the Institute, we would suggest the propriety of adopting a strong resolution calling for the early admission of Montana as a State, so that the children growing up might have some advantage from the fund to be realized by the sale of our school lands and to prevent the loss and waste to these lands that is continuaily going on, while no interested, responsible authority interposes to save the waste. Our admission as a State seems to be the only way to get anything to increase our school revenues. In new countries where so much is to be done in the way of public improvements and the cost of support for the poor aud insane are so high, it makes taxation extremely onerous and the schools do not get all that they deserve. It seems to us also that a resolution would be appropriate ask ng the general government, inasmuch as it has assumed to dictate what should be taught in the schools of the Territories, that it should contribute something more substantial than advice and promises for their sup port. _ The Miner , having stated that the "breach" in the Democratic party of this Territory would be healed by the employ ment of Major Maginnis as editor of the Independent , we have carefully examined that failing journal for some evidence of the Major's incisive pen, but without suc cess.— Inter- Mountain. The Major is there, according to our best information, don't you forget, and is articu lating loud and lu3ty for Cleveland, just as if he honestly felt and meant it—just as if head and heart were attuned to the new dispensation of Free Trade according to the gospel of St. Grover—just as if he had been of the elect of an administration that, twice rejecting a soldier of the Re public, honored rebellion sympathizer with the high office he sought. If any thing is calculated to modify the displeas ure not to say disgust of the Democracy of Montana with the appointment of stran gers and carpet-baggers—and these from sections of the country protesting the loud est against the practice—to the chief offi cial positions in this Territory, it is un questionably the attitude and expression of the party organ in Helena of recent date. The President, we may be sure, has not after all so very grievously offended those of the party he has con spicuously neglected in Montana when spicuously neglected in Montana when their long ascendant leader can so far for get or forgive injustice and ill-usage as to sound the presidential praise without stint, and against interests vitally important to the people of the Territory give endorse ment to the free trade fallacies of the late message. If, as asserted, it is the Major who through the- local party print is doing all this, there will be fewer tears wasted on his account than in the time past. INDIANA SENSATION Protest Against the Seizure of Streets by Railroad Corporations. Louisville, Ky., December 30.—The people of the town of Clarksville, Ind., which is situated between Jeffersonville and New Albany, on the Ohio river, are in a great state of agitation from various causes. Oue is a seizure of their streets by railroads, the State and other parties. Th* y mean to protest vigorously. A movement is now on foot to organize, hold an election, send delegates to the National Congress and demand admission as a Territory or district under the old Virginia charter, which they hold is still in force. Clarks ville, next to Vincennes, is the oldest town in Indiana. In October, 1783, Virginia caused a town to be snrveyed on the north bank of the falls of the Ohio, described as being situated in the county of Illinois. This was to be laid off in a reservation of of 150,000 acres, granted to Gen. Rogers Clarke and his men and officers who marched with him and reduced the British posts at Kaskasia and Vincennes. The fee simple, together with the government of the town, was vested in ten trustees. On March 1st, 1784, Thomas Jefferson, Arthur Lee, James Monroe and Samuel Hardy, in behalf of Virginia, executed a deed transferring to the United States all title ot Virginia to the northwest territory, but expressly excepting the rights of the settlers under the grant to Gen. Clarke, known as the Illinois grant. It is main tained that the claim will have a strong showing before the Supreme Court. THE ANARCHISTS. Assassination Openly Proclaimed. New York, December 30.—Copies of the following blood-thirsty document were circulated on the streets this morning where workingmen could get them : "The torch and bomb must be applied. Fellow workmen, the hour has come. The agencies of science must play a part in the straggle of the future. Y'esterday it was the slaughter of our comrades at Chicago. To day it is the assassination of 60,000 of oar brothers on the Philadelphia & Reading railroad system. True, the sword is the weapon of circumstances, but their victims perish all the same. Do not waste your force on scabs, they are only the effect of the present damnable commercial and competitive system. Destroy by all the agencies at your command the direct rep resentatives of the system—the Corbins, the Maxwells and the Gonlds. Let the torch, the bomb and the bullet strike them now. Let all they poasess be given to the flames. Hound them day and night. The strike must be made the war ot the classes. Brothers, remember Chicago and yoor oath." Destroyed by Fire. New Orleans, December 30.—A fire to day destroyed nearly half of the town of Helena, in Terrebonne Parish. The loss will exceed $100,000. One hundred fami lies are homeless. CLOSE OF THE INSTITUTE. Officers Elected for the Ensuing Tear ..Concluding Proceedings. The afternoon session of the Territorial Teachers' Association yesterday was marked by interesting papers and animated discus sions. Proceedings opened with singing by pupils of the Helena schools according to the Tonic Sol Fa system, which is now tsu^bt in the schools ot this city by Miss Ray G. Fowler, an able instructress and thorough musician. The class showed wonderful proficiency m reading music and singing by this method, reflecting great credit upon the teacher and demonstrating the excellent results of the Sol Fa system. This was followed by an interesting paper by Miss Fowler upon "Music in the Public Schools." Her remarks chained the atten tion of the assemblage and provoked a general discussion of the topic, which was entered iDto with spirit by Mrs. Howey, Mr. Howard, Miss Fowler and others. After a short recess Superintendent Logan illustrated his methods of teaching reading by calling upon some pupils of the Helena schools. The exhibition was inter esting and highly creditable alike to teacher and scholar. The subject was then discussed, Mrs. Howey, Miss Clarke, Mr. Howard and Mr. Allen expressing their views on different methods ct teaching reading. . Mr. Harmon, of Bozeman, secretary cl the association, then read an essay upon "What Topics in Common School Arithme tic," handling the subject in an able and interesting manner. His paper attacked the text books now in use and advocated the preparation of a text book tor use in the public schools that would contain only necessary matter and be tree from the antiquated and superfluous contents that now encumber the pages ot arithmetic text hooks. The interesting topic formed the subject for a discussion that brought out a wide diversity of views upon what should be taught in arithmetic and the best methods of teaching it. Mr. Rork, of Missoula, presented an original style that called forth much comment by its novelty and difference from the methods in YOgne. The association then adjourned until evening when it reassembled in the court house at 8 o'clock. The exercises opened with a glee, "Hail Smiling Morn," by the Encore club, which was received with ap plause by the large assemblage. Rev. A. D. Raleigh of the 'Methodist church then gave a lengthy and interesting lecture upon the intellectual features of mankind, entitled "Michael Scott and his Familiar Spirit." He told the story of Scott and his familiar, a persistent sprite who depended upon his master to set him tasks to keep him busy and was continu ally tormenting him unless he (the spirit) was always supplied with work. Finally Michael settled his tormentor by putting him at work to make a rope of sand and as this kept him constantly employed the master was freed from his persec u ' ions The speaker applied the story to mankind in general and denominated the soul a fa miliar spirit that must always be kept em ployed to prevent mischief. He enlarged upon the subject and talked upon it for up wards of an hour. The Reverend gentle man has a pleasing ^delivery and his re marks were received with much interest. Miss Selma Israel, a precocious little miss of twelve years, was then lifted upon the table by President Wylie and from that ; I ' 1 1 ! I > I ; I j 1 the table by President Wylie elevated rostrum delivered herself admira bly of the humorous poem, setting forth in witty strains the plurality and individual ity respectively of Mr. Socrates Snooks and his better half, Xantippe. The little girl recited it splendidly, with telling modula tion and appropriate gesture, immensely amusing her hearers and receiving pro longed applause on her conclusion. The Encore Club then sang a beautiful chorus, "Italia Beloved," from Lucretia Borgia, which was rendered splendidly and loudly applauded. Chester F. Lee, principal of the Butte high school, held forth for au interesting quarter of an hour upon "Natural Science Teaching," his lec ture being anticipated by one evening on account of the illness of Mr. Myers, of Deer Lodge, who was on the programme for a lecture last evening. Mr. Lee gave his views upon the importance and order of precedence of the sciences in high schools, giving first place to physical geography, as the most compreheusive, and then following it up with natural philoso phy, chemistry, geology and astronomy. He explained the nature and importance of each branch and dwelt with particular stress upon the peculiar significance of the science of chemistry in snch a great min ing country as Montana. Not a stage of the mining process, he said, from the time the ore was taken from the ground until the bullion was produced but what was founded upon or intimately connected with fundamental truths of chemistry. He ad vocated teaching by experiment and illustration throughout, and suggested the purchase of elementary apparatus to assist the teacher in expounding fundamental principles in each branch His remarks were highly interesting, and were received with applause. The Encore Club sang another chorus, "The Gloria," from Farmer's Mass, and did it in their usually excellent style. By request Miss Helen P. Clatke then gave a recitation,choosing "The Benediction" for the occasion and delivering it with dra matic effect. She was heartilj applauded. The institute then adjourned to meet this morning, President Wylie first an nouncing that both day and evening ses sions to-day would be held at the high school building. to day's proceedings. The seventh session was called to order at the high school this morning with a large attendance of teachers and many visitors present. Mr. J. C. Mahoney, of Silver Star, super intendent of Madison county, opened the proceedings with an exceedingly interest ing paper on "English Grammar in the Common Schools." He treated the subject from an experienced teacher's point of view, explained the vital importance of the study, and nrged that more attention be given it in the schools. His entertain ing remarks brought about a spirited dis cussion of the all important topic, in which Mr. Carleton, Mr. Harmon, Miss Layton, Mr. Wilson, Mr. Rork and Mr. Howard took part. After a warm debate Mr. Mahoney closed the discussion with a few additional remarks. The sentiment of the institute was generally in favor of paying more attention to grammar teaching tnan at present, and on the whole favored the combination of grammar and language lessons, now taught separately in the schools. An amusing feature of the discussion was a request by Mrs. Cummins. As every speaker referred to her paper on Latin, she arose and asked the privilege of reading her essay every hour for the greater con venience of those who had spoken of it so frequently. After a brief recess Miss L. Williamson gave an exhibition drill by her class in in termediate geography. The pupils called upon described different States and Terri tories and gave the principal features ;of Montana, Dakota, Ohio, Minnesota and Iowa. The recitations were perfect and afforded a thorough insight into the excel lent method employed by Miss .William son in teaching geography. The discussion of the topic was opened by Prof. Rignalda and maintained by Mr. Howard, Miss Cnmmins, Miss Darrow and Mr. Harmon. Mr. Carleton, principal of the Helena High School, then read a carefully prepare»! essay on "Our Corumou School System He pointed out several defects in the system, gave some interesting statistics upon school work of different nations and concluded with an attack upon Card' nal Gibbons and the Catholic church which he arraigned as the greatest foe o: the public schools and most formidable barrier to their success in this country. On his conclusion a few minor questions were considered and the institute took a recees until 1:30 o'clock this afternoon. The institute will close its session this evening at the school bailding, when the officers for the ensuing year will be elected aud President Wylie will deliver his ad dress. There are about seventy-five teachers, ail members of the association, In attendance upon the institute and their sessions fill the high school every day with interested spectators. To day the audience numbered about one hundred. The afternoon session of the Teachers* Association yesterday began with a class drill in primary arithmetic by Miss Mary 3eannell, of Helena. Work was placed on the board and performed by the pupila ae* cording to the method taught in the Helena schools. The scholars acquitted themselves creditably and the beauties ot* the system now in use were fully demon strated. Discussion of the subject followed, participated in by Mr. Howard, Mr. Lignai da and others. Next followed remarks upon the com mon school system. Rev. F. It. Kelsey,of the Congregational church, disagreed to some extent with the views expressed bv Mr. Carleton in the morning. Iu referring to the opposition of Catholics toward pul* lie schools he said he did not blame those holding Catholic tenets from opposing them and maintaining schools of their own. He paid a high compliment to Catholic institutions and said he never passed a Catholic college, hospital or acade my without raising his hat and sav;j^ "God bless you in your good work.' Be thought religion a necessary part of edu cation, but would not advocate teaching sectarian doctrines in the common schools Good morals should be inculcated and the fundamental truths common to all re ligions should receive attention. Rev. A. D. Raleigh, of the Methodist church also indulged in a few remarks on the common school system. He disagreed, with Mr. Carletoc's criticism of Cardinal Gibbons' definition of education, and held that the latter was correct. Religion, he thought, was a necessary element of Chris tian education, though he would not have sectarianism introduced in the common schools. Mr. Will Kenuedy delivered his lecture, on "What Should be Taught in the Com mon Schools," during the afternoon. He explained his late appearance by saying that business had p~evented him from at tending sooner, whereat the assembled teachers, mindful of the fa^c that Mr. Ken nedy was reveling in the delights of the honeymoon, laughed knowingly. After thiß there was a discussion upon the subject of school text hooks and then the report of the committee on resolutions was received and taken up. The reso lutions embraced much that was not in accord with the general sentiment of the institute, such as strict temperauce senti ments, condemnation of saloon? and other ill timed contents, besides omitting to cover some important points. They were warmly discussed, fiually amended in several particulars and then passed. The association then adjourned until evening. They resumed at 7:30 o'clock and pro ceeded with the consideration ot commit tee reports. On ^motion of Miss Houston tee reports. On ^motion of Miss Houston the resolutions passed in the afternoon were rescinded an 1 others passed in lien thereof. The secretary left for home last night and took w r ith him the minutes of the session, so it is impossible to publish the resolutions in full to day. One of the resolutions passed contained a recommen dation to the school boards of various coun ties to allow teachers' salaries to go on during short vacations. The whole set included a vote of thanks to singer?, reci tationists, musicians and lecturers who bad assisted in the exercises, and also an ex pression of thanks to the citizens of Helena for their hospitality. After the adoption of Ihe resolutions a delightful vocal quartette was rendeied by Miss Shüand, Mrs. H. W. Foote, Mr. Jack son and Mr. Eddy. The selection so pleased the audience that an encore was demand ed and graciously accorded. Miss Clarke then recited "Lasca* in her usually clever manner and received hearty applause. It was one of her best efforts and was duly appreciated. This was followed by a flute duet by Messrs. R. J. and J. B. Walker, accom panied on the piano by Miss Shiland. and then business was resumed and the election of officers begun. This resulted in the choice of the following officers for the en suing year : President— W. W. Wylie, Bozeman. Vice President—Mrs. M. S. Cummins, Helena. Secy, and Treas.— W. E. Harmon, Eo/e man. Executive Committee—C. L. Howard, chairman, Helena; Miss Mary Layton, Batte; Dr. D. J. McMillan, Deer Lodge. The next meeting of the association will be held at Butte next winter. After concluding these proceedings [the business was found to lie finished and the association adjourned sine die. Most of the visiting teachers departed for home last night or this morning, a few of the Butte delegation being the only ones remaining in the city. The institute has been most successful and brought to gether a larger assemblage of teachers than was ever before seen in Montana. THE RESOLUTIONS. Resolved :—That the thanks of this as sociation are due :— 1 To Mrs Laura E. Howey and Rev. A. D. Raleigh fer their able and plea?ing lec tures . 2 To Chief Justice McConnell for his encouraging remarks. 3 To the Ladies and gentlemen who fa vored us with music and recitations at the evening sessions. 4 To the press of Helena. 5 To the R. R. companies for reda^ rates. 6 To the school board for courtesies ex tended. 7 To the residents of Helena for the generous hospitality shown visiting teach ers. New Year Salute. Cincinnati, December 30.—A salute ot 300 guns will be fired, 200 in Covington and 100 in Cincinnati, immediately alter midnight, during the first hour of the New Year. This will bo done under thear spices of the Centennial Exposition t om mission in celebrating the event ot the centennial year and the settlement ot the Northwest Territory. A Church Burned. Milwaukee, December 31. — The Eman uel Presbyterian chnrch, one of the finest in the city, was totally destroyed by h f0 at an early hour this morning. Nothin« but the bare stone walls are left. Loss $200,000 ; insurance, $85,000. The baild ing was erected in 1873, at a cost of $9P0'* 000. The organ was valued at $13,000. A fierce blizzard was ragging at the time, and it was with the greatest difficulty that the fire engines reached the scene. There w* :e no casualties.