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r a j Li Sot No. 12 Helena, Montana, Thursday, February io, 1888. Volume XX2. <fv llîrchln ^fjcralil. R. E. F!SK D. W. FISK. A. J. FISK Publishers and Proprietors. Largest Circulation of any Pap9r in Montana -O Rates of Subscription. WEEKLY HERALD: One Year, (in advance).............................S3 00 Mi Months, (in advance)............................... 1 75 Three Months, (in advance).......................... 1 00 When not paid for in advance the ra»e will be Four Dollars per year! Postage, in all cases, PrepaiQ. DAILY HERALD: f '•vPnbscribers.deliveredbycarrier $I.00amonth One Year, by mail, (in advance)................. Î0 00 Si X Months, by mail, (in advance) ............... 5 00 Three Months, by mail, (in advance)........... 2 50 If not paid in advance, 812 per annum. Entered at the Postoflice at Helena as second class matter.] t*-All communications should be addressed to FISK BROS., Publishers, Helena, Montana. MY NORTHERN GIRL. My Northern girl has an eye of blue Where the violet its skyborn colors show. Penciled with azure soit and true ; And her brow is white as the stainless snow. The rose tint flashes sublimely red (<n her damask cheek in its maiden glow, Where alternate pink ana crimson spread In plHvful blushes that come and go; And her rosy lips are fairer far Than the pearly gates of heaven ajar. The blue in her eye is serenely bright, Here queenly brow is supremely fair. She rivals the moon in tier home of light Enthroned in the realms of upper air. The queen of the night has no hand of grace. Dimpled and white, like my august maid, And no smile that plays o'er a queenly face, (.lowing alike in the sheen and shade Oh' .say! is there anything half so sweet \s her lips where the doors of Eden meet THINGS NEVER DONE. (heater deeds than have ever lieen seen, brighter songs than the poet lias sung, Are the things that are dreamed and tried, I ween. But which have never been done. The fairest picture the artist paints Is hung on the wall of his brain ; On ins canvas rests but the shadow faint Of what he wished to attain. Alove success hovers ever the thought. Marring sadly its bliss; Better than this was the thing I sought— Better, lar better, than this. For, strive as we may, we cannot grasp The visions that lure us on— They are ever held in our mental clasp, atkJ out best is never done. But thin fancy iloe.i of my senses woo: That perhap« in the world to t ome We shall find the things we have tried to do. But which have never been done. TREASURES. Have 1 ope ! Though clouds environ round. And gladness hides her face In scorn, Put thou the shadow from thy brow; j ». ^ o night but hat h its morn ! Have faith! Where er thy bark is driven. The calm's disport, the tempest's mirth. Know this; ( iod rules the hosts of heaven, The inhabitants of e^rth. Have love 1 Not love alone for one. But man, as man, thy brother call, ___ And scatter, like the circling sun, .'4 Thy charities on all. Thus grave these lessons on thy soul— Hope, faith and love—and thou shalt find Strength w hen life's surges fiercest roll. Eight wheu thou else wert blind. -Schiller. EVER ONWARD. "Onward,'' shouts earth with her myriad voices Of music, aye answering the Song of the Seven, As like a winged child of God's love she rejoices, Swinging her censer of glory in heaven; And lo! it is writ by the finger of God. In sunbeams and flow ers on the smiling, green sod; Onward forever, forever more onward. And ever she turueth all trustfully sunward. —Gerald Massey. A Dog Who Wore Spectacles. An Optician—I was told some time ago the following remarkable Btory of a Kentucky dog that had become almost totally blind. The sound of the liorn no longer aroused his blood, and while the other dogs of the house went forth eagerly to the hunt, the old afflicted animal remained behind, sad and discouraged. While at play one day some children, who knew the jKXjr brute's infirmity, placed upon Ins nose a pair of common spectacles, the glasses of which happened to be very strong. The dog at once awoke from his stupor and showed his pleasure in unmistakable signs. The glasses were thereupon adjusted in the best possible manner so as to remain on the rejuvenated animal's nose. The next morning he started off to the hunt with the other dogs, and soon it was he 'vko led tho pack. But unfortunately his spectacles brushed up against a bush and were tom from their resting place. The old dog allowed the others to pass him, and then picking up the glasses ho carried them to his master to have them readjusted. The dog is now a confirmed spectacle wearer, s<> much so that when anyone at tempts to remove his goggles he becomes Ter}' savage.—Jeweler's Weekly. Orrumstenrcs Against Her. Wife (at breakfast)—Oh, dear, I have so Much to do, and the children and servants try me so! Husband—And you don't look well, either, tny dear. Wife—No ; but when there is nothing but turmoil and confusion, and ono is expected to i 'ok after everything, what possible pleasure is there in being sick (—New York Sun. A Slight Mistake. . First Scientist—Ehf What did you sdy? Second Scientist—I said nothing. A couple of burses attached to a big wagon loaded with f ono just ran away and dashed into that stone quarry up there. "Oh, that was it. I thought you spoke to tne iu volapuk."—Omaha World. What Fie Had Found. I heard a good story the other day on a freshman in ono of our New England col leges. On l*eing asked by his professor by whom and on what occasion the term "Eu reka was first used, he replied: ''By Demos theifes, when he -sat down on the pin for which he was hunting."—Boston Record. Not the Solitary Oyster. At the church sociable: Vivacious young lady—Guess what we arc going to hâveto Digfct, Mrs. lia scorn—charades! Mrs. Bascom—I knowed it! I smelt e'm clear out to the gate.—Burlington Free Press. FIFTY YEARS AGO. A TIME WHEN RAILROAD TRAVEL WAS VERY UNCOMFORTABLE. Passengers Carried in Open Trucks Fit ted with Wooden Seats—The Story Told by an English Kail way Journal—Rules and Regulations. Fifty years ago third class passengers were carried in open wagons or trucks, fitted with wooden and uncushioned seats, and the car riages were attached to the goods trains. The second class carriages were, in regard to com fort, but little, if anything, better than tho thirds. They were open throughout at the sides. There was no glazing, and the parti tions above the level of the doors, dividing the carriage into six compartments, each made to seat twelve persons, were formed of laths interlaced, and admitting free currents of wind and air, to tho discomfort of the un fortunate travelers. The passengers for the various intermediate stations were put into separate compartments and the doors locked. The clear length of each compartment on some lines was only 8 feet 7% inches, and the width 4 feet 4}.j inches, each seat being 15 inches in width. Stout passengers had some difficulty in squeezing through the doors, which were only 18 inches wide. The first glazed and inclosed second class carriage that ever ran upon a railway was in the first ex press train that ran between London and Ex eter. The journey was made in five hours, and the performance was regarded as one of the marvels of railway traveling. Today there are in the United Kingdom about 34, 000 carriages, many of which are fitted with the luxuries and beauties of a drawing room, and even the third class are more comfort able than the first of fifty years ago. Not only are most of these carriages com fortably and conveniently arranged, but the safety of those who use them is increased by appliances which were not even dreamt of by our railway forefathers. Of the total rail way carriages 91 per cent, are now fitted with continuous brakes, while 94 per cent, of the double line of the country is worked on the absolute block system. TICKETS AND BAGGAGE. The method of issuing tickets fifty years ago was very different from that now in use. From the earliest times of railway traveling the date was required to be written on the ticket, as well as the amount of fare and the time of the train by which the passenger was to start. These particulars had to be entered on a counterfoil in the book of tickets* The arrangements for luggage were de lightfully simple. "Each passenger's luggage will," said the time bill, "as far as practicable, be placed on the roof of the coach in which he has taken his place; carpet bags and small luggage may be placed underneath the seat opposite to that which the owner occupies." A capital arrangement for securing punctual attendance was the announcement: "Passengers intending to join the trains at any of the stopping places are desired to be in good time, as the train will leave each station as soon as ready, without reference to the time stated in the tables, the main object being to perform the whole journey as expe ditiously as possible. Passengers will be booked only conditionally upon there being room on the arrival of the trains, and they will have the preference of seats in the order in which they are bocked. No persons are booked after the arrival of the train. All persons are requested to get on and alight from the coaches invariably on the left side, as the only certain means of preventing acci dents from trains passing in an opposite di rection." NO SMOKING ALLOWED. What would modern travelers say to the following notice: "No smoking allowed in the station houses or in any of the coaches, even with the con sent of the passengers. A substantial break fast may be had at the station house at Bir mingham by parties going by tho early train, but uo person is allowed to sell liquors or eat ables of any kind upon the line. The com pany earnestly hope that the public will co operate with them in enforcing this regula tion, as it will be the means of removing a cause of delay and will greatly diminish the chance of accident." The engines in use on the Stockton and Darlington line in 1S37 weighed about twelve tous, and had 14% inch cylinders and a piston stroke of 16 inches. The three pairs of wheels were each 4 feet in diameter, and the pressure of steam varied from 36 pounds to 60 pounds. Many of the engines had only four wheels, and it was considered a great step in advance when six wheel engines were placed on the railways, the argument in their favor being that, if by any accident one of the six wheels broke, the engine would still remain erect, while if one of the four collapsed the result would be the downfall of the locomotive. On the Birmingham and Derby junction line the engines weighed ten tons ten hundredweight, and the two driving wheels were 5 feet 6 inches, and the four carrying wheels 3 feet 6 inches each. In contrast to the above, we subjoin an il lustration of the famous ."Marchioness of Stafford" engine, exhibited by the London and Northwestern company at the Inven tions exhibition in 1885, and adopted as the type of the company's express locomotives. With tender, this type of engine weighs fifty four tons eleven hundredweight, and the cargo of coal is five tons. The driving wheels are 6 feet 6 inches in diameter, and the en gine is worked at a pressure of 175 pounds to the square inch. The greatest novelty in these engines is, however, the adoption of the "compound" system, by which the expansive power of the steam is fully utilized.—London Railway News. Blemish on Oar Hospitality. "It seems to me we have quite a serious blemish upon our hospitality to our public meu in subjecting them under all circum stances to the ordeal of the hand shake," said a well known public man. "Every re spect is due to the right hand of fellowship, but when it comes to taking the hands of some fifty to sixty of your fellow beings per minute for hours at a time the act assumes a monotony that is excruciatingly painful to the subject intended to be complimented, however satisfactory to the complimenting people. Possibly there is some compensation in the thought of the good will that such an act engenders. It is to be hoped there is. And, in the painful hours succeeding this well intentioned martyrdom, may all the consolation thr. t can be derived from such a source belong to the recipient of the honor." —Philadelphia Call. Buttonholes In children's garments are apt to tear out, especially in waists and drawers bands. If you will stitch a strong cord im mediately in front of the buttonholes you will have no moie trouble of this kind. WORKING WOMEN AT LUN;H. Their Three Favorite Articles of Food—A Clever Little Game Played. A very great many working women in New York take their luncheons with them to the offices in which they are employed, and eat sandwiches, apples, bits of cake and slices of bread and butter at their desks or type writing machines out of a little tin box or a scrap of paper. But all those who can afford it try to get something hot and substantial at their midday meal, and are w ise in so do ing, because bits of cold bread and fruit are not sufficient nutriment for a woman who is doing ten hours of hard work. In a good many of the big office buildings, and in some of the newspaper buildings, there aro cheap luncheon rooms, and at these places the three favorite articles of food among the female customers are coffee, hot bread and pie. Strange to say, no woman seems to con sider her luncheon satisfactory without something sweet, and men rarely eat sweets at their midday meal. A few women busy in offices down about Park row drop into the Astor house for a little steak and a cup of tea. There are restaurants on Fourteenth street and on Broadway, near Ninth and Tenth streets, that are largely patronized by working women because of their conven ience and their moderate rates. Very few of these women spend more than forty cents for their luncheon. They order very modest re pasts, but they clean up every scrap and leave the dishes looking like Jack Sprat's. They study the menu with great care, and know just what to order to get the most nutriment for the least money. The com panionable girls divide into parties of four for luncheon, having learned that by order ing one portion of everything tho four can make a pretty satisfactory meal, but the four never leave enough of that one portion to provide the thinnest sort of lunch lor tho very church! iest sort of mouse. There is one clever little game played by these parties carrees which provides them all with an abundance on one portion of tea. Instead of having a cup for each they order a pot of the beverage, which comes with plenty of tea leaves and only water enough added to make two cupfuls. This they im mediately pour off and request the waiter for a pitcher of hot water, for which there is no extra charge, and armed with this they can fill the teapot and replenish their cups twice before it begins to get weak and tasteless. There is no extra c harge for sugar or milk, and so this pot of tea, which costs twenty cents, makes a good part of the luncheon of four women. Some of the restaurant keep ers caught on to this and only sen* to the table with the teapot a saucer containing four or five lumps of sugar, but the sympa thies of the waiters are usually with the bal'd working and under paid females, and they manage to provide them with sufficient to sweeten all the tea they can brew in one tea pot—New York World. Life In New Guinea. The houses on this part of the coast, as also in the villages inland, are built upon piles varying from four to eight feet in height. A few steps up a rude ladder lead to a plat form, on which some of the family generally recline. A baby, and often a young pip, in nets suspended from tho eaves, are gently swinging to and fro. Fishing nets lie in a corner, with shells attached for weights. Nautilus shells, with grass streamers or hid eous carved pieces of wood, hang before the bamboo door, which is low and narrow, and leads into the common room where all tho family sleep. The common room is about twelve feet to eighteen feet, with a bare floor ing of rough planks, generally the sides of old canoes. Through the chinks the garbage is thrown upon the plentiful remnants of cocoa husks below, for the pigs to eat or tho sea to carry away. In tho middle of the room is a fireplace, a pile of ashes on some boards, with a spark protector of bamboo stick hung about three feet above. On the central pole is hung a tom-tom, while here and there on the grass walls are suspended gourds for lime, bamboo pipes, tomahawks, adzes, spare grass petticoats and net bags. There is no window, but a movable shutter can generally be opened on the sea side, and plenty of air enters through the walls and the holes in the floor. Then, as to clothing, the natives certainly affect sincere simplicity in tho matter of dress. The only article common to all the men is a thin string, a third of an inch in breadth, passed tightly round the waist and between the legs. A band of grass, which serves as a pocket for tobacco, knives and decorations of cotton leaves, is for the most part worn upon the upper part of the arm. Some have head bands of red braid or small rounded pieces of shells, while a few wear necklaces of shells or teeth, and carved bones through the nose. Their hair, thick, matted and long, is drawn up by a comb of bamboo cane. The women wear petticoats of woven grass, sometimes stained with a red hue. The married and betrothed have short hair; the majority are tattooed with a V-shaped mark and other designs on the breast. Their figures are squat and not so erect as those of Hindoo women, as they generally carry weights on the back and not on the head.—All the Year Round. A Few Tacts About Fleas. There are several varieties of fleas, but they are so much alike that their differences are interesting only to scientific people. The cat flea will do as well as any to show us the process of breeding. During the spring and summer months she simply drops her eggs into the fur of the cat, but in the autumn and w inter she glues each firmly upon a hair. These eggs are so small as to be barely visible to the naked eye, but under the microscope they are very beautiful, looking like the loveliest pearls, and are perfectly translu cent. The flea deposits nearly 200 at a time, running about and dropping them here and there. They soon hatch into small, white, footless worms. In from one to two weeks they go into cocoon. Nothing can be prettier than this cocoon. I wish I could show it to yqu, but will try to describe it. It is like a flask of clear glass, tinged at the edges with nearly tints, and dotted over with gold. The little sleeper within lies in a circle, is rose colored, looks like the delicate petal of a flower. In about six weeks he reaches ma turity. At first he is not larger than a mite, but wheu well fed grows quickly in size and strength. Fleas are quarrelsome, and great fighters. When several are confined in a glass, they will stand on their hind legs, striking at their opponents with the others, and rdll over and over each other, losing legs and an tennae, and at last giving np their lives in the fight. There is a record of a flea which lived ten days after such an encounter, with no antennae, three plates of his side broken In, one eye gone and with only four legs, and these cut off to the first joints.— S. I* Clayes, Swiss Cross. OUR FLOURING MILLS. THE REVOLUTION THAT HAS TAKEN PLACE SINCE 1880. Remarkable Results Attributable to Changes iu tlio Methods of Flour Mak ing— Abandonment of the Old Fashioned Neighborhood Mills—Some Statistics. While by no pieans so unapproachable in its priority as it once was, flour making is still the greatest of our American industries as regards the value of the product. Flour and meat for food, iron and lumber for build ing, cotton and woolen fabrics for clothing— these six are our largest industrial products, having aggregate yearly value in the order named. But although first in the value of its product, the flouring ami grist mill industry is greatly surpassed in the number of men it employs by ten or twelve other lines of manu facture. Our domestic use of flour remains about the same per capita from year to year; and aside from the increasing amount manu factured for export, the total output grows only as our population grows. New methods of milling have, moreover, led to the rapid concentration of the industry and to actual decrease in the number ot men employed in it. These changes, amounting almost to a rev olution, have been most effectual since 1880, and the condition of the industry today can not be shown by complete statistics, but it is certain thut the census of 1890, when com pared with that of its immediate predecessor, will reveal some very remarkable results at tributable to changes in the methods of flour making. Three-fourths ©f the manual labor once necessary to the manufacture of a bar rel of flour is dispensed wi h by the use of new processes. Thus Col. Wright, in his re port for 1S8G of the United States bureau of labor statistics, shows that in a large Min neapolis mill labor is only 3.28 per cent, of the unit cost of making a barrel of flour, while the materials cost 94.12 per cent., and all other elements of expense amount to but 2.00 per cent Merchant milling on a very large scale is the result of the economy ai 1 advantages of the new processes; and the competition of the great mills is causing the al andonment and decay of hundreds of the picturesque, old fashioned neighborhood miius. In 1870, ac cording to the census of that year, there were in the entire country 22,573 grist mills, em ploying 58,448 hands, re pres aiting $151,500, 000 of capital, and making ( product worth $444,900,000. In 1800 the n imber of estab lishments was 24,338, the n> mber of hands 58,407, the capital invested ; 177.300,000, and the value of the product was £505,100,000 (the price of flour had declined 16*per cent, in the decade). The increase shown in the number of establishments—1765 for the ten years— is more apparent than real, the great bulk of flour having l>een made in a decidedly smaller number of mills in 1880 than in 1870. Since 1880 the blighting effect of the great mer chant mills upon the small establishments Las become visible to every one. AN ASTONISHING DECLINE. According to the millers' directory for 1884, compiled by Col. E. Harrison Cawker, of Milwaukee, there were at that time 22,&40 mills in the country—a decline of 1,398 from the census figures of 1880. But this is a slight loss as compared with that of the two years from 1SS4 to 18S0, if we may rely upon Col. Cawker's biennial directory. He finds that the number of milling establishments has de clined to 10,850, a loss in two years of 6,084, or more than 26 per cent. This seems almost incredible, yet it is probably not far from the truth. When ono investigates the facts for his own vicinity, and then stops to consider that the small mills have in like manner been disappearing in all parts of the country, the figures are more readily accepted. Mr. Charles A. Pillsbury, at tho head o( the largest milling firm in the world, says that more than half of the merchant mills of Min nesota, outside of Minneapolis, have been shut down within the past few years. The decline is nowhere so noticeable as in the south. For example, North Carolina was credited with 1,313 mills in 1880. Their size may be inferred from the fact that they re quired, all told, the services of only 1,844 men, not one in three having any bands be side the miller himself, and the average capital employed was only $2,450. Accord ing to Cawker's directory, there were only 848 mills in North Carolina in 1884, and only 632 in 1S86. More than half have been abandoned since 1880. Virginia had 1,385 mills, employing 2,220 men, m 1880. In 1884 the number had decreased to 7S1, and nearly a third of these disappeared in the next two years, leaving only 509. Mississippi had 525 mills in the census year, 386 in 1884 and 138 in 1886. Tennessee's milling directories for the same years show 990, 781 and 536. Alabama's decline is shown by the figures 807, 453 and 295. Corresponding figures for Georgia are 1,132, 631 and 364. Pennsylvania, which has always been first in the number of mills, is credited with 2.396 in 1886. a loss of 746 in two years. New York has 1,536, which is 366 less than in 1884 Massachusetts had in 1886 only 223 grist mills, as against 350 iu the census year. Illinois was shown by the census to have 1,024 mills in 1880. and Col. Cawker finds 806 in 1886, the decline not having begun until 1884, in which year a maximum of 1,123 was reached. Michigan liad 706 in 1SS0, and the number had increased to a maximum of 846 in 1884; but a loss of 200 brought it down to 640 in 1886. Tee number of mills in the country is destined to become very much smaller still, because of the superior advantages of large milling and the constant improvement in transportation facilities.—Albert Shaw in The Chautauquan. The Photographer and the Sitter. A photographer asked a gentleman to sit for his likeness, and the gentleman assented upon condition that he should pose himself as he chose. The photographer agreed, provided that he might pose the sitter for another like ness. The sitter adjusted himself in % position which seemed to him natural and comfort able, and the negative was taken. Then the photographer adjusted the sitter, and pres ently showed the result of the two attempts. "That is ridiculous," said the sitter, putting one aside, "but this is very good." "Yes," said the photographer; "the first is your pose, the last is. mine." The sitter smiled good naturedly as If struck by a thought. "Perhaps," said the photographer, gently, "a man may be assumed to understand bis own business." "It is just what I was thinking," replied the sitter, urbanely; and upon reach ing home he threw into the fire a letter ad vising an editor to leave out a good many things in his paper, and to insert others as per inclosed memorandum.—The Argonaut. The French war balloon is made in four sections, so that a bullet may go through without dropping it. THE REFRESHMENT BAR. A Singular Feature of London Theatri cal Management. There is one feature of London theatrical management which always looks odd and strange to an American, even when he has been a resident for some time in London. This is the refreshment bar, w here people go between the acts for a drink ora short smoke. I do not know of a single prominent theatre in America, except the Æsino, where the bar is under its own roof or where it is directly connected with the theatre management. Here it is always iu the theatre, and is gen erally uijon one of the upper floors, on a level with the boxes and dress cirele seats. The bar itself, very much like ours in style and shape, is always presided over by barmaids. They are as respectable and well mannered as the saleswomen of the best shojis. They have alert business manners, and are not given to saying much, unless a golden youth insists upon a bit of what ho calls "chaliff" as he orders. In the large room where drinks are served there are always small round tables. Here ladies from all parts of the theatre, with their eseorts, come to drink a glass of wine or a cup of cott'ee. To see a bar presided over by women, and to see among its patrons ladies from all parts of the theatre, of un doubted respectability and standing, creates at first upon the American mind a queer im pression. It is similar to the impression that would lie made upon the mind of a stranger who, entering the Hoffman house bar for *ho first time, should find it in the hands of busi nesslike barmaids, with ladies and gentlemen sitting at the little tables as customers. The presence of women in these places apjiears to have the effect of eliminating the element of rowdyism. You hear no loud conversation, oaths or coarse expressions. The talk and manners are the same as those you would find in a refreshment room at a private en tertainment. The amount of eating and drinking done in a first class London theatre every evening would astonish an American manager. Peo ple come straight to the theatre from their dinners and immediately begin ordering ices, cakes, coffee and sweets. The privilege of furnishing refreshments to a theatre is paid for in large sums by restaurant proprietors. The refreshment room is one of the large sources of revenue of a theatre management. Waiting maids during tho evening go about throughout the theatre knocking at the box doors hawking refreshments. Between the acts people eat and drink constantly to fill in the time. Programmes are also charged for in nearly all the theatres. The average price of a programme is a sixpence. If an Amer ican audience in any theatre in the United States should l»e called on to pay twelve cents for their programmes there would be a riot. American managers say that it would be im possible to introduce the feature of asking even one cent for programmes.— T. C. Craw ford in New York World. Too Eloquent to Be Original. Some queer things happen now and then in society, which, though they do not get in the papers, nevertheless raise considerable stir for the time being in the particular circle most nearly affected by them. Particularly is this true in the matter of weddings, two notable incidents having taken place very re cently. At one of the weddings, which was celebrated according to the Presbyterian rites, the young clergyman came from New York to officiate, as he was a near relative of one of the contracting parties. The young divine, rising to the dignity of the occasion, delivered a long address, the glowing elo quence of which caused his hearers to thrill with enthusiasm and prognosticate for him great things for the future. So decided was the impression created on all present by his address, that it became the subject of universal comment, proving a veritable nine days' wonder, in the midst of which the subject departed for his parish in New York in a whirl of glory. Among his audience at the wedding was a lady to whom the address seemed strangely familiar. Do what she would she could not rid herself of the idea that somewhere she had read the whole address, that it was not original with the young divine. Imbued with this idea, she put on her thinking cap to som» purpose, for before very long she had located the bor rowed address, and taking down her favorite volume of George Eliot, traced it word for word in "Adam Bede," several pages of which had been studiously committed to memory, as having an appropriate bearing upon the ceremony at which he had been in vited to officiate.—Washington Cor. Balti more American. Furniture of the Catacombs. The furniture of the Catacombs is instruc tive and interesting, but most of it has been removed to churches and museums, and must be studied outside. Articles of ornament, rings, seals, bracelets, necklaces, mirrors, took picks, ear picks, buckles, brooches, rare coins, innumerable lamps of clay (terra cotta) or of bronze (even of silver and amber) all sorts of tools, and in the case of children a variety of playthings were inclosed with the dead. Many of these articles are carved with the monogram of Christ or with other Christian symbols. (The lamps in Jewish cemeteries generally bear a picture of the golden candlestick. ) A great number of flasks and cups, with or without ornamentation, aro also found, mostly outside of the graves and fastened to the grave lids. These were formerly sup posed to have been receptacles for tears, or, from the red, dried sediment in them, for tho blood of martyrs. But later archaeologist consider them drinking vessels used in the agapæ and oblations. A superstitious habit prevailed in the Fourth century, although condemned by a council of Carthage (397) to to give to the dead the eucharistie wine, or to put a cup with the consecrated wine into the grave. The instruments of torture which the fer tile imagination of credulous people had dis covered, and which were made to prove that almost every Christian buried in the Cata combs was a martyr, are simply implements of handicraft. The instinct of nature prompts the bereaved to deposit in the graves of their kindred and friends those things v hich were constantly used by them. The idea prevailed also, to a large extent, that the future life was a continuation of the occupations and amusements of the present, but free from sin and imperfection. On opening the graves the skeleton fre quently appears even now very well pre served, sometimes in dazzling whiteness, as covered with glistening glory, but falls into dust at the touch.—The Century. Seasonable. On freezing days protect your chest. Close up your coat, pull down your vest, And yank your cap down strong. These frosty morns, when blizzards blow, Han wants but little ear below, Nor wants that little long. •-New York Evening Sun. THE MEDICAL MUSEUM. SOME OF THE GHASTLY RELICS KEPT ON EXHIBITION. Curiosities of the Government Collection at Washington—Freaks of Rifle Balls. Reminiscences of Indian Wars—Sections of Bones—Gen. Sickles' Leg. But the museum abounds in things that are of intrinsic interest. There are object lessons illustrating the wonderful freaks of rifle balls. One of these is a section of a skull with the ball which struck it split in two, one-half going inside and inflicting the wound which caused death, the other half remaining on the outside between the scalp and the skull. The soldier who received this remarkable wound at Spottsylvania lived twenty-three days. Still more wonderful than this case is one where a minie twill struck tho soft bone of the nose and divided. Along with this goes the head of the man who put the muzzle of a pistol in his mouth and fired. The ball passed through tho jugular vein and stuck fast in the bone, acting as a stopper on hemorrhage from the vein. Tho would bo suicide lived seventeen years before yielding up his head to make museum visitors marvel. Indian Babies. The museum possesses quite a collection of papooses, picked up by the army surgeons in the wild west and forwarded. Tho withered and battered remains have l>een "cured" by long exposure to sun and wind on the ele vated stages where the Indians used to bury, but they are not pleasant to look upon. The most notable of these papooses is a little chap, said to have been found in a tree near Laramie. He is dressed in a suit of blue, upon which the Indian mother has sewed a great collect ici of buttons. Around the neck is a string of beads, and on the feet are little embroidered moccasins. Reminiscences of the Indian wars are nu merous. There is the skull of one bravo who only succumbed when he had been sabered nine times. At least that must be the con clusion, for the cranium shows nine distinct penetrating cuts from the sword. Of course it is not to be supposed that the white man amused himself by whacking away need lessly at the red man's head after the latter was hors de combat. The skull belonged to an Araucanian, who was killed by Chilian soldiers. The skull of the favorite squaw of Little Bear, the Indian chief, is a very good companion piece to the above. She was killed in Wyoming. In the preserved cra nium are seven bullet holes. One day al ter the war closed there came to Washington a one armed veteran. He had a bundle wrapped in paper, and he said it was something that ought to be in the museum. When the wrappings were taken off there was brought to view a human arm. The muscles had dried hard and the skin had been tanned by the action of the wind and sun. So complete had been nature's process that there was nothing disagreeable but the looks of the arm. The drying and shrinking of the flesh had left the jagged bone bare at one end, and the same causes had clinched the fingeru at the other. The veteran's story was that in the battle at Gettysburg a cannon ball had taken off his arm. Unconscious, he had been carried to the field hospital, and then to tho general hospital. Months afterward ho had regained his health and had been discharged. Curiosity prompted him to visit tho battle field and live over his terrible experience. He found, after some trouble, tho spot where he stood when the cannon ball discovered him. It was in a com field, and there be tween the furrows was the arm in the well preserved condition apparent. Tho scientific gentlemen of the museum didn't think it worth while to take the soldiers affidavit. They saw at a glance that the arm was an interesting specimen, aside from its history. They took it, mounted it upon two supports in a glass case, and gave it a place of promi nence in the museum. WONDERFUL WORK WITH ARROWS. Some of the wonderful accomplishments of the Indians with their arrows are illustrated in a very realistic manner. These arrows had heads made of the iron hoops of barrels, A shoulder Made of a buffalo, with the thin, frail looking arrow head piercing it is shown. Upon close examination the visitor discovers that the poi at projects through the outer side of the bone. The only explanation is that the arrow must have passed through the body of the buffalo and struck the shoulder blade on the inside. These arrow heads may be taken between the fingers and bent with ease, they are so thin; but shot from the bow by the In< .an, they went through obstacles which would have stopped a bullet. They penetrated bones without fracturing them, and they made cuts as clean as the keenest surgical blades. The Apache arrow head of soft iron has pierced where a leaden project ile wouM have flattened. The visitor sees hung up in the cases here and there sections of bones which possess no significance until .'t is learned that they have been taken from the arms or legs of men still living. In cases where balls had shattered the bone, surgeons sometimes preferred the operation of cutting out a section instead of adopting the shorter and, for them, easier method of amputation. One of these excised bones hung up in the museum came from tho arm of a veteran who was for yeare an attache of the institu tion. He used to wa*k up to the case occa sionally and shake his fist at it. Muscle and sinews had developed in place of the missing bone to such an extent as to make the arm strong enough for more than ordinary use. This man could lift 2U0 pounds with the arm from which the bone had been taken. Pension Commissioner Black had one of his arms excised, and there 's a considerable por tion of it which is only gristle and muscle. The bone is gone, and he becomes painfully aware of the fact when he tries ta shake hands with 400 or 500 people. No. 1335 is a large bone with the splinter ing about midway, where the bullet struck. The tag says: "Maj. Gen. D. E. S., United States volunteers, Gettysburg, July 2; ampu tated in the lower third of the thigh by Sur geon T. Sim, United States volunteers, on the field. Stump healed rapidly, and subject was able to ride in carriage July 16; com pletely healed, so that he mounted his horse, in September, 1863. Contributed by the sub ject." It is the leg of Gen. Sickles, who is still cheerfully stumping about New York and Washington. — "W. B. 8." in Globe Democi at. _ Trained Cats and Bog*. Two items of show news come from across the Atlantia One is that in London a pack of trained wolves are delighting the little folks by doing tricks such as are taught to performing dogs; the other is that in Paris a lot of cats are doing much the same tricks at the Winter circus.—-New York Sun. STEAM NAPHTHA LAUNCHES. Many Big Yaclits Provided with Them. Handy and Cheap. During the last six months tlere has been a noticeable increase iu the demand lor steam naphtha launches. All the big yachts of the New York, Eastern, Seawanhaka-Corinthian, American, Corinthian, Larchmont, and At lantic clubs are now supplied with naphtha launches, which in season they .r'end to use as tenders in the transportation of guests aud for towing purposes wheu the yacht is be calmed. Une manufactory of these launches which started on a very small scale has found it necessary to augment its facilities, and is now building a factory covering about four acres at Port Alorris in the annexed district. In conversation with one of its officers a re porter learned that in all about 100 steam and sail yachts are possessed of naphtha launches. Among these are the Electra, of Commodore Eldridge T. Gerry; Corsair, of J. IMerpont Morgan; Alva, of William K. Vardeibilt; Orienta, of J. A. Bostwick; Susquehanna, of Joseph Stieknev; Meteor, of A. E. Bateman; Tillie, of Commodore AY. H. Starbuck; Dauntless, of Caldwell H. Colt, aud the Reva, of Pierre Lorillard. The launches are from sixteen to forty feet long. They are finished in mahogany, cher ry, oak, ash or other light woods, with slat ted or solid seats. The frames are con structed of seasoned white ouk, hackmatack or oak stem. All the launches are planked with white cedar. The engines used in these launches are particularly valuable, because they occupy only eighteen inches in the stern of the boat, and because they are not noisy, dusty or offensive to the smell. No license is required to run them, nor is an engineer needed. Any person of ordinary intelligence can run the engine with care and safety, whether or not he has any knowledge of ma chinery. It only requires two minutes to get under headway, and the launch when at full speed can be stopped within its own length. Naphtha alone is used for power, aud used in part for fuel. When the engine stops the consumption of fuel also stoj»s. The weight of a two-horse power engine is 200 pounds, or 15 per cent, lighter than the weight of other engines and boiler of the same power. A 16-foot boat draws about 18 inches, a 25-foot boat 21 inches, and 40-foot boal 31 inches of water. A 16 or 18-foot boat, with two-horse power engine, will carry 10 persons at a speed of 7 miles an hour and at i* cost of only 6 cents an hour for power. A 40-foot boat, with eight-horse power, w ill carry from 30 to 40 persons at a speed of 10 miles an hour, and at a cost of 20 cents an hour for fueL The cost of a 10-foot launch, with two-horse power engine, is about $600, and for a 35 to 40-foot, eight-horso power engine, boat, from $2,000 to $3,500.-~New York Mail and Ex press. Nervous Origin of Colflg. Whenever, owing to any derangement of the nervous system, the perfect maintenance of animal heat fails to be carried out, disor der ensues, the mildest form of which is a catarrh, namely, the blocking up of the skin or outer surface of the body, with the con sequent transference of the excretion to the mucous or inner surface. The deleterious matter which ought to have been removed by the skin, irritates the blood by its reten tion there, and ultimately expends itself by the nose and throat For example, if the nervous system be feeble, sweating would probably l»e induced, and a consequent loss of heat, irrespective of the needs of the body; in which case a cold would most probably follow. As a fact, there are many people with feeble nerves who readily perspire in the coldest weather, and are in consequence liable to frequently recurring colds. The nervous origin of colds also furnishes us with a clew to its treatment in the early stages. The whole history of a cold shows it to be essentially and primarily a state of col lapse, demanding early recourse to a stimu lating plan of treatment. There is no more dejected mortal than a patient in the first stage of cold, and both his physical and mental condition point to nervous collapse. Hence we believe t ae great success of camphor and ammonia inhalations in the early stage. It has also been repeatedly found that two or three glasses of wine have cut a cold short, when taken at the first appearance of the symptoms.—Chambers' JournaL A Remedy for Diphtheria. Very considerable interest has been excited in foreign medical circles by M. Brondel's successful treatment of diphtheria by the use of benzoate of sodium. He asserts that of 200 consecutive cases he has not lost a single one, and, though admitting the possibility of a mistaken diagnosis in some instances, yet, even excluding 50 per cent, on this account, there remain 100 cases without a death. His method is to have the patient take, every hour, a tablespoonful of a solution of ben zoate of sodium, fifteen grains to the ounce, and at the same time one-sixth oi a grain of sulphide of calcium in syrup or granule; in addition to this the throat is thoroughly sprayed every half hour with the benzoate, this being done unfailingly at the regular in tervals, day and night, w ith no other local treatment whatever. No attempt is made to dislodge the false membrane. The nourish ment consists of beef juice, tender meat, milk, etc., but bread and all other articles which may cause irritation of the throat are forbid den.—-New York Tribune. Furnishing Compressed Air. A company in Birmingham, England are completing a large central plant for furnish ing compressed air through mains to the owners of small engines. Trials already made are said to have shown that the cost to con struct will be considerably loss than the cost of steam made on the premises. Besides doing away with the dirt and dust from the coal, and the saving of room, the use of compressed air Is said to furnish excellent means of ven tilation. An excellent feature of the charter of this company is a clause compelling them to divide all profits o\^r 10 per cent, w ith the consumers.—Public Opinion. Some new umbrella handlet have in them a match box. ■What is Fame? "Der ain't no use try'n' a square shake in dissher country," said a tough looking young man. "VYhat's de matter, p'leece onto you again?" "Naw. But I und'stan Jimmy de Bruiser's got twice't as big a phortygraph in the rogue's gallery as I have. Anybody knows I stand higher in de profession dan he does."—Wash ington Critic. Nothing announces rank, education and good breeding in women, more than the even ness of their disposition and the desire to please.—Napoleon.