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Helena, Montana, Thursday, May 17, 1888. No. 25 <fll.ciL1cch)il1Ijrral.l. R. E. FISK D. W. FISK. ft. J. FISK Publishers and Proprietors. Largest Circulation of any Paper in Kcntana -O Rates ol Subscription. WEEKLY HERALD: One Year, (in »«haneej.............................00 Wx Months, (in advance)............................... 1 "5 Three Moritlis, (in advance)........................... 1 00 When not paid for in advance the r*»e will be Four Dollars per yeart Postage, in all cases PrepaiQ. DAILY HERALD: City Subscribers,delivered by carrier $1.00a month One Year, by mail, (in advance)................. Î0 00 Hlx Months, by mail, (in advance)............... 5 00 Three Months, by mail, (in advance)........... 2 50 If not paid in advance, S12 per annum. ' Entered at the Postoflice at Helena as second class matter.] a#-All communications should be addressedto FISK BROS., Publishero, Helena, Montana. THE W ASHERW OMAN'S SONG. Wring out the old, wring out the new. Wring out the black, wring out the gray, Wring out the white, whine out the blue— And tints 1 wring my life away. An occupation strange is mine; At least it seems to people droll That while I'm working at the line I'm going, too, from pole to pole. Where'er I go I strive to please. Front morn to night 1 rub and rub ; I'm something like Diogenes- 1 almost live within the tub. To acrobats who vault and spring In cireuses I take a shine ; They make their living in the ring. And by the wringer 1 make mine. My calling's humble I'll agree, }4ut I am no cheap calico As some folks are who sneer at me ; I'm something that will wash, you know. I smile in calm. I strive in storm, With life difficulties 1 cope. My duties cheerfully perform ; My motto : While there's life there's soap. Wring out the old, wring out the new. Wring out the black, wring out the gray, Walng out the white, wring out the blue— Anil thus I wring my life away. PEACE. •'Who knows how often lie ©flondeth?" When Conscience's white light burns dim In doubt of Kight that word desoendeth Alone, from Him. We cannot tell ; we see but blindly Thro' the strange cross-lights given to all ; By rules than all our own more kiudiy We stand, or fall. *© if, in this inspired disorder We seem at times to lose our way. And by man's laws to cross the border, We can but pray. We can but say, wc know not wherefore. Man's evil may be oft God's good ; We think he understands; and therefore 'Tis understood. W'e can but feel the mystic teaching Has told us over and again For God s eommnnds to slight the preaching Commands of men. Hrangc mystery ! 'twas so forever ; Then let the yearning spirit rest. Through the long trouble of endeavor, Upon His breast. Know that he knows ; all else will follow As surely as the light the dark. And as the flight of hawk or swallow Rests on the Ark. love does not «how OLI). When I was twenty she was ten. Within my arms I held her then — .She was a child—It was not wrong, Since then seems not so very long. N'ow she is twenty—to be bolder I ought, since I am so much older— And yet 1 feel somewhat afraid Of thoughts that come in one decade. Candv and dolls I used to bring, And get a kiss for everything ; And vet for naught would I turn back This havoc of the almanac. As childish gifts are out of place, 1 watch the roses on her face ; "So you remember ?" "Yes,'' said she, "That you were then so kind to me." At once I grew discreetly wise, î-ome words 1 spoke lit up her eyes, I put them bravely. Well, what then W thin my arms she drops again ! IN CHURCH* * I feel a solemn sanctity. Sweet rest of soul is mine, My heart abides in pious peace— My bonnet sets divine! Grace, like a river, tills my soul. In ehattened joy I sit, 1 feel religion's deepest power— My saeqtie's a perfect tit. A holy fervor penetrates My soul's remotest nooks. An earnest, chastened, fervid joy How neat that ribbon looks ! The good man tells of Christian peace, Tiie organ's anthem swells, I bathe in streams of pure delight— My dress cost more than Nell's. 0 holy rest ! O Sabbath calm ! O chastened peace serene ! 1 feel thy deep abiding spell— How dowdy is Miss Green ! I feel a pure religious glow, O rapture undefined— I know my bonnet looks so nice To those who sit behind ! IT MAKES A DIEFEKENCE. 1 have observed that if by chance On some elite occasion, A swell dotli on a lady's train Make damaging invasion. The etiquette of time and place Tiie lady's rage will scatter. And with a smile she'll say : "Good sir. It isn't any matter." But should lier lord make that misstep In going to their carriage, A- like as not she'd season the Amenities of marriage With. ' There, you horrid, clumsy lout! Was ever such vexation ? Some itay those hoofs of yours will rip The eartli from its foundation." FRIENDS. It's an overcome sootli for age an' youth An' it brooks wi' nae denial * That the dearest friends are tiie mildest friends. And the young are just on trial. There's a rival bauid wi' young an' auld, And it's him that has bereft me ! Fur the surest friends are the auldest friends, And the maist o' mine hae left me. There are kind hearts still, for friends to fill, And fools to take and break them ; 1 it the nearest friends are the auldest friends. And the grave's the place to seek them. An Old "Virginia Law. A relic of the ancient time was revived in Virginia recently, when counsel fora man about to be tried for murder asked that the Indictment be quashed because the foreman cf the grand jury that returned it was the owner of a grist milL The old law forbade the possessor of a mill from serving on a Jury.-Nashville American. 11 An Interesting Talk with the Cal ifornia Senator. BUILDING THE CENTRAL PACIFIC. Its tYouilerfill Snow Sheds—Hie C anadian I'acific and American Itoads—The Sen ator Airs His Views tin the Relations ol tiie Road with tiie Government—All Three Minute Horses Thoroughbreds. [Special Correspondence.] Washington, May 3.—I heard one of the most remarkable stories of American history last night. It was told me by Seuator Inland Stanford, and it was the story of the building of the Central Pacific railroad. I called upon Senator Stanford at his house on Farragut square, and we chatted together iu his library. He is a tall, striking looking man with a big head, a rosy face, blue eyes and brown Lair. lie is plain in his ways, and is ready with an answer to any question pro pounded to him on almost any subject, lie is a man of ideas, aud he is an especi ally interesting talker in the line of re miniscence. His whole life has been a continuous romance in which hard work and success and failure have gone hand in hand. He was a young lawyer in a small town in Wisconsin, making about $1,500 a year, when the fire which burned up his office and library drove him west ward. He went, intending to make some money and go back to Wisconsin to live, but the problems of the Pacific coast threw their arms about him, and he is grappling with them still. He was the first Republican governor of California, and was elected to that position in the fall of 1861. He was a strong friend of President Lincoln, and it was mainly through him that California was saved to the Union. *** I asked him as to the building of the Central Pacific railroad. He said: "No one supposed the road could be built, and had we known the difficulties Df its construction I doubt whether wo would have attempted it. Even in Cali fornia no one outside of the company would have anything to do with it. We tried to get subscriptions to the stock in San Francisco, but we could only sell ten shares of $1,000 each, and tho man who bought these shares was a foreigner and a Frenchman. A little stock was sub scribed at Sacramento, but subscribers as a rule thought that they were putting their money into a bole and they doubted whether they would ever get it out again. We had only enough money of our own to complete thirty-one miles of road, and the road building of today is nothing in comparison. In going over the Sierra Nevada mountains we built 150 miles of railroad which cost more than the build ing of the whole line between Chicago and the base of the Sierras, and for three winters we worked on the mountains with the snow falling to a depth of thirty six and forty feet. I slept many a night in the snow during those days, and had to brush away the snow for a place to \ lay my blanket. All of our mate rial had to come from the east, 17,000 miles by water, and we had then to haul it up the mountains through the snow. To give you some idea of our work in the Sierra Nevadas, wo used on the average 500 kegs of powder each day, and the snow sheds on these mountains cost us about $'2,000,000. We had from 10,000 to 12,000 men working on these mountains, and we had to work under the snow. We ran tunnels into it to get at the rock to be excavated, and we bad domes under the snow, and in these domes the masonry was laid and the Btones were lowered through the snow drifts." "Two million dollars seems a good deal to pay for snow sheds," said I. "Yes," replied Senator Stanford, "it Joes, but the ordinary man Las no idea of what these snow sheds are. They are a mass of the heaviest timbers, braced and cross braced in every direction. We had to build somo of them strong enough to support snow drifts of from 60 to 100 feet deep, and some had to be built against the mountain sides on a slope, so that the avalanches, with the trees and stones which accompany them, might sweep over tho structure and not hurt the trains. Even now the snow drifts through these sheds and sometimes fills them, and when it does it often takes sixteen locomotives for a single snow plow in the work of clear ing them. We had thirty-seven miles of these sheds, and it might have been better to have tunneled under the Sierra Nevadas below the snow belt, and I think such a tunnel will sometime be built. It would Deed to be about ten miles long and would cost about $5,000,000. "It is hard to conceive today the cost of railroad building in the west in 1S63. We had to pay from $200 to $300 per ton for barley and oats, and hay cost us $120 per ton. * The first two locomotives we used cost us in freight and actual value $70, D0O and the first ten engines we bought cost us $191,000. It cost $2.000 in freight to carry' the first locomotive around Cape Horn to San Francisco, and our cars were made in the east, taken to pieces, brought around Cape Horn or across the Isthmus, landed at San Francisco, carried by boat to Sacramento, and there put together. We had to haul much of our water for steam and for the use of our graders, and when we came to a spring we would carry it for miles in pipes- Alopg 500 miles of the road there was not a free that would make a board, and we had to carry nearly all of our fuel. And then we had a great deal of trouble with our laborers. At the first mining excitement they would lea us, and at one time, of 1,100 men wbo we transported.' 1,000 went off to the mines and left only 100 Nearly all ^ •li« managers were present on thexrround. and we superintended the work ourselves." * ■* "When did you first begin the road?" "We began to consider the matter in 1860. Mr. Judah, C. P. Huntington, Mark Hopkins. Charles and Edward Crocker and myself then became interested in it. There had been talk of it before, and in 1853 a road to the Pacific was surveyed bv act of congress, but nothing was done. We decided that the thing was practica ble, and we had five surveys made across the Sierras to choose the best route. We took the Dutch Flat route, asceuding the mountains from the west at a rise of nearly 7,000 feet in eighty three miles. We had to go almost 3,000 feet down along the sides of precipices to descend the solid walls of granite above Doner lake, and we thought that when we completed our road we would have a monopoly, and that our only com petitors would be the ox teams and the steamers. We organized our company with a capital of $8,000,000 under the law of the state of California, and then got the legislature of Nevada to allow us to build across its desert. This was before congress had anything to do with it, and the first Pacific railroad act was passed in 1862. The first work we did on the road was at Sacramento, on the 8th of Janu ary, 1863, and wo completed it in 1869. We received, all told, just $27,000,000 from the government in bonds, and there is no truth in these statements as to our getting $100,000,000 and more out of the treasury. The $27,000,000 in bonds we had to sell, so that we got only $20,000, 000 for them, and the road, all told, cost about $41,000,000. We were allowed to issue $20,000,000 in bonds ourselves, and how it was possible for us to get $100, 000,000 out of the $40,000,000 we received is a problem for mathematicians. "And just here I want to say that it is impossible to estimate the money the United States has saved by this railroad. It has never paid us as high rates for carrying the mails as it used to pay the stage lines. The government paid Wells, Fargo & Co. $1.750.000 every year for carrying the mails before this road was built. The mail in their case was not to exceed 1,000 pounds. As soon as our rail road was completed we had to construct a special car lor mails, and we carried eighteen tons of mail matter and two messengers. The government controls this car, and we often have to put one or two extra cars on to carry the mails. In the time of the Wells and Fargo express the heavy mail went by Panama, and only the letter mail was carried by them. Now, we carry everything, aud yet the government has never paid up to this date quite $1,000,000 a year to both the Central Pacific and the Union Pacific for this service, whereas, as I have stated, it paid Wells & Fargo $1,750, 900 a year. We have thrown a number of states and territories open to settlement, and we have done an incalculable amount of good to the country. It is not truo that we have not done what we promised. The company has performed all its obliga tions. It has never made a cent at the expense of the government or of the peojAe. We had to rush the building through at double cost because the gov ernment wanted the road, and it did not fulfill its obligations to us in surveying the land according to its contracts. As to the lands of the government, they have doubled in value. They were -worth nothing at the time the railroad was built, and they are now worth a great deal. We had to build cross roads in addition to the Central Pacific, and we have built altogether 6,000 miles of road." * • • "How about other Pacific roads?" "They all compete with us, and the Central Pacific railroad is today mainly a California road. For a time we had prac tically the whole business of the country, and our only competition was the steam ship line by Panama. Now, there are the Southern Pacific, the Atlantic and Pacific, the Northern Pacific and the Canadian Pacific. The Canadian Pacific now takes freight in bond from San Francisco and carries it north, and ships it across the country to the eastern United States cities at less rates than we can offer ac cording to the interstate commerce law. A commission of the government went last year to Japan, and they took the Canadian Pacific and the Canadian ships. It is true the company has grown in busi ness, but competition has grown faster than business. All of these road3 have their agents in San Francisco, and you will find them soliciting business in com petition with us. "How about the Canadian Pacific?" "I don't know whether it will pay or not. They receive a great deal more from their government than we ever did. They got $60,000,000 and a big land grant, and they got it outright. The money we got from the government was <mly a loan. We had to pay a high interest, and were not as well off as most borrowers. When we undertook to build the Central Pacific the government practicaiiy assured us that we would have no competition, and we understood that it would not aid other roads to compete with us. Had we known differently I doubt whether we could have put the road through. It is done, how ever, and the rails will stay and the trains will run whatever be the action of con gress and the government in regard tous. 1 think the Central Pacific road was well built, aud we run through trains at a uni form rate of twenty miles an hour." * * * I asked Senator Stanford as to his horses which were burned the other night, but he did not like to talk of them, and the conversation drifted into horses and horse breeding generally. "I became interested In thoroughbred horses," said he, "through ill health. My doctor had ordered a vaca tion for me, and had told me that I must go away on a tour. I could not leave at the time, and he advised me to drive as much as possible. I bought a little horse that turned out tofbe remarkably fast, and It was in the using of it that I became in terested in the study of the horse and its actions. I had those instantaneous t>ho tographs taken of the horse in motion, and I began to buy fast horses and breed them. It was a very expensive amuse ment at first, but it is now profitable, and I think that it is useful as well. We are raising a much finer class of horses in the United States now than ever before, and I believe that by proper breeding we can double the working powers and the stay ing powers of our work horses. 1 believe the thoroughbred makes the best work horse as well as the best running or trotting horse." "How about fast horses?" "I do not think there are any very fast trotters who have not a trace of thorough bred olood, and I don't believe that any horse without such a trace has ever made a mile iu three minutes." Frank Q. Carpenter. A Hat Story. Even rata are net without their good qualities. Miss Frances Power Cobbe tells us a ttory of a French convict who was re formed by a rat—a man who was long the terror of prison authorities. Time after time be had broken out and made savage assaults on his jaile rs. Stripes and chains had been multiplied year after year,and he was habitually confined in an underground cell, whence he was only taken to work with bis fellow convicts in the prison yard ; but his ferocity long remained untamed. At lait it was observed that he grew rather more calm aud docile, without apparent cause for the change, till one day when he was working with his comrades, a large rat suddenly leaped from the breast of his coat and ran across the yard. Naturally the cry was raised to kill the rat, and the men were prepared to throw slones at it, when the convict, hitherto ferocious, with a sudden outburst of feeliDg, implored them to desist and al low him to re cover his favorite. The prison officials for ODce were guided by happy compassion, and suffered him to call back his rat, which came to his voice and nestled back in bis dress. The convict's gratitude was as string as his rebellious disposition had hitherto proved, and from that day he proved submissive and orderly. After some years he became the trusted assistant of the jailers, and finally was killed in defending them against a mutiny of other convicts. The love of that bumble creature finding a place in his rough heart, had changed his whole character. Who shall limit the miracles wrought by affec tion, when the love of a rat could trans form a man ? WB —BL Oriental Politeness. The Gazette de France publishes some curious notes upon the eitiquette of the East. For instanc", a Tarkish offendi, when speaking to another about himself, always says "your servant," your valet," or "your slave," and to the other he says "your high" or "yonr eminent personality." Instead of saying "I saw yon at the theatre the other night," he would always say: "At the theatre the other night I saw the dust of your shoes"—after all, a rather doubtful sort of compliment. But here is the Turkish form of invitation to dinner: "My Generous Master, My Respected Lord : This evening, if it pleases Allah, when the great king of the army of stars, the sun of worlds, appioaching the king dom of shades, shall put his foot into the stirrup of speed, you are invited to en lighten us with the luminous rays of your face, which rivals the suu. Your arrival, like the zephyr of sprimr, will drive away from us the somber Digbt of solitude and isolation." And here is the formn'a for an invitation to a soiree or raki party : "My Noble and Respected Friend : This evening, when the silvery bark, the moon, now fourteen days old, shall iloat upon the surface of the blue sky, spreading around love and tenderness, we shall be reunited at the village Roumili Hissar, in the place called Hozietti, Mollah, a locality full of delights, and all the night until the awak ing of the dawn we there shall taste the joys of dry water and wet fire (cognac and raki). We will not admit of a delay of the thickness of a hair. May the power of sails and oars hasten your arrival, which will he a source of joy for allyoar friends." Do Kind Deeds Now. Do not keep the alabaster boxes of your love and tenderness sealed up until your friends are dead. Fill their lives with sweetness. Speak approving, cheering words while their ears can hear them, and while their hearts can be thrilled and made happier by them. The kind things you mean to say when they are gone say before they go. The flowers you mean to send for their coffin send to brighten and sweeten their homes before they leave them. If my friends have alabaster boxes laid away fall of fragrant perfumes of sympa thy and affection which they intend to break over my dead body, I would rather they would bring them out in my weary, troubled hours and open them that I may be refreshed and cheered by them while I need them. I would rather have a plain coffin with out a flower, a funeral with a eulogy, than a life without the sweetness of love and sympathy. Let us learn to anoint our friends beforehand for their burial. Post mortem kindness does not cheer the bur dened spirit. Flowers on the coffin cast no fragrance backward over the weary way. The Age ot Fishes. ] From the Swirs Cross. | Crows are commonly said to live for 100 years, and turtles are said to have even longer life ; but if Prof. Baird be right, the greatest animal longevity is possessed by fishes. Prof. Baird says that as a fish has no maturity, there is nothing to prevent it from living îedetinitely and grow continu ally. He cites in proof a pike living in Russia whose age dates back to the fifteenth century. In the Royal Aquarium at St. Petersburg, there are fish that have been there 140 years. Always Heady. [Judge.] The Rev. Mr. Hithard, in a sermon on "The Offense and the punishment :" "And now, the evidence having been taken, and your consciousness of sin hav ing been established, what would you do if arraigned at the bar to face the great Judge of acts and motives ?" "Sleepy lawyer, (just waking to meet the eye of the clergyman and the significance of the query)—"Move for a stay of sentence and a new trial on the minâtes." BISHOP TAYLOR. HE TALKS ABOUT HIS MISSIONARY WORK IN AFRICA. He Is Now in New York Attending the Big Methodist Conference—Picture of the Bishop ami His Famous Missionary Steamer, the Henry Reed. The African mission of Bishop William Taylor, who is now in New York attend ing the big Methodist conference. Las been singularly successful. He was ap pointed a missionary bishop at tho last general conference, and is the only man in the Methodist church bolding that office. Since tho beginning of his work 3,000 natives have embraced Christianity under his ministrations. He has under his supervision some fifty preachers, sixteen of whom are women. Bishop Taylor states that Liberia, with its settled communities of Christian Africans, with its organized government recognized by the nations, and its social regulations, will be used by him as the base and support of his future operations. lie has arranged for opening a dozen industrial schools, the chiefs of the different tribes visited having agreed to plant and attend to the first crops of food required by the mission, to furnish building sites and to erect buildings. Bishop Taylor agrees to provide teachers, preachers and all other things necessary to put the mission in a self supporting way. "To adequately understand the difficul ties which a missionary in Africa has to surmount," he says, "it is merely neces sary to state that the languages and dia lects of the natives are innumerable. The Bible has been translated into sixty-six different tongues, yet this is but a small proportion of the actual number of lan guages spoken. It is estimated that there are nearly 6U0. I can say from experience that it is no play to pick up a language in the study of which all the rules of your own grammar simply help to puzzle you. I was appointed to my work in Africa four years ago, and sailed from New York on Jan. 22, 1885. I took with me fifty-two missionaries. After a short stay in Liver pool I set sail for Africa, and landed at 8t. Paul de Loanda, on the west coast, where a large mission house had been prepareu for me. While staying there many of my workers became ill. One of them died because he would not taku quinine, which is tho most effectual rem edy for African fever. Finally I got the permission of the governor of Angola to establish five mission stations—the first at Loanda, the second at Dondo, the third at Uliangue-a-pepo, the fourt# at Ma i V: BISHOP TAYI.OR AN» HIS 6TEAMER. lauge and the fifth at Lulaaberg. Dondo is a considerable town, situated about 240 miles from Loanda. It is laid out in long streets, and has sidewalks, lamps and many other improvements." * « * It is necessary in prosecuting mission ary work in the interior of Africa to use the waterways of the continent. Bishop Taylor has a small steamer on the Congo river, in which he makes periodical jour neys into the country. It is built in sec tions, and can be taken apart and trans ported from one stream to another to suit his convenience. His work is confined mostly to that part of Africa known as Congo Free State. According to Stanley's estimate, it embraces over 1.000,000 square miles, and has a population of 27, 000,000. The natives are barbarians, and it Is said that some of them have been guilty of cannibalism. When a king or chief dies they kill ten or twelve persons in a most savage manner, and adorn their houses vmh the skulls. They believe in fetiches and witchcraft. When a man dies they believe that some one has bewitched him, and they try to find out wbo it was, that they may put him to death. The country along the upper Congo is ravaged by Arabs in pursuit of slaves. In traveling along the upper Congo one may see villages that once contained 5,000 and 6.000 inhabitants desolate and in mins. The Arabs surrounded the villages and burned them, having either killed tho people or carried them into slavery. From tfce mouth of the Congo for nearly 130 miles the river is navigable by the largest vessels. Then come the falls, or rapids, which extend about 180 miles. The de scent is 900 feet. When Bishop Taylor's steamer, the nenry Reed, ascended the river it was taken to pieces at the foot of the falls, and one piece was given to each native to carry. With it was also given a scrap of paper describing his load. At the end of their journey they came to the bishop, saying: "Master, here is my load; look at the paper; 6ee it is all right. Now give me my pay and I will go home. " To do justice to their honesty it may be stated that not a rivet was lacking. Above the falls a steamer can go 1,200 miles on the main stream, or 3,000 miles on the stream and its branches. "A n .n who goes out to the Congo as a missionary must be not less than 25 years old, of sound health, and careful about adapting himself to the exigencies of the weather," said Bishop Taylor to your, correspondent. "Total absti nence is an absolute condition of health. A man must learn what not to do. A young man came there and *• sisted upon walking eighteen miles a day. In a short time lie was dead Above all a man must not become frightened. There were three men who came out from Eng land, and on the voyage the people on board the vessel frightened them, telling them that they would surely die. The men made their last wills and testaments and expected o die. Shortly after land Ing they were taken with fever. They gave up all hope. The missionaries tried to arouse them, but it proved useless. They sank down into a mood of despair and died." The future of the Congo Free State is very promising. Stanley, the explorer, estimates the ivory production alone to amount to $150,000 annually, but of course ivory cannot be classed as a staple production. The vegetation is luxurious, and as soon as experienced botanists in vestigate the country many valuable herbs will undoubtedly be discovered. The temperature of the Congo district is in the dry season, which answers to our winter, about 72 degs. In the hot season the average is 90 degs., and the limit about 96 degs. There is always a fine breeze blowing, so that the weather is never suffocatingly hot. The country is fenced in by mountain chains and threaded with navigable rivers. There are in all over 7,000 miles of waterways in the Congo district. ANOTHER TRUST. How the Chicago Cattle Syndicate Controls the Market and Make Serfs of the Western Stock men—A Denial of the Senator's Alle gations. There was under consideration in the Senate recently a bill for the establishment of a bureau of animal industry and to facilitate the exportation of live stock and their products. Vest, of Missouri, spoke of what he termed the cattle syndicate, and said that the people were helplessly w ritbiog under it. It was the most terrible tyranny ever exercised. There were five men or firms in the city of Chicago which regu lated the price of cattle every day. They met every night and fixed the price for the next day. The stockman who found from the market quotations that cattle were three cents or three and a half cents a pound, shipped his cattle to Chicago; but when he got there he found that the syn dicate had put beef down to two or two and a half cents. He could not store his cattle, as they would be diminishing every day in weight and quality, and so he wis coerctd to sell. He went to an agent of Armour's and was told that the price was two and a half cent ; he went to another Armour agent and got the same answer. He was met all over the city with the unvarying response, "two and a half cents per pound," and he had to take it. So that that these men owned the cattle raiser's property,and con fiscated it as absolutely as if they possesM-d t îe right to take it from bis farm without paying him one cent. "Talk," said Mr Vest, "about trusts! Talk about pools! The cat 1 le pool cf Chi cago is the most infamous tyranny that ever existed in the United States. They have got their collar on the cattle producers of the entire West, and I know no remedy for it. The statesman who would invent the remedy would deserve a monument more enduring than the Capitol. He would con r er the highest benefaction on the people of the Northwest and of the cattle raisers of the country." Mr. Plumb had also something to say on the same subject. In his opinion the first combination in the country was the com bination of beef and pork packers, having its headquarters in Chicago. There was no trust or combination—the Standard Oil trust, the sugar trust, the copper trust, or any other trust—that had so powerful or so baleful an influence as that combina tion. For years the prices of cattle to the producer had been going down. They had gone down, he thought, fifty per cent. In the same time the price of meat to the consumer had gone up, and every single dollar of the difference had gone into the pockits of that combination at Chicago. PER CONTRA, A representative of Mr. Armour was visited and shown the foregoing. He said in reply : "There is no combination here between the buyers of cattle for any purpose. Each house requires so many cattle for its day's work, and the buyers are instructed to buy that number at the lowest price they can secure them for. The price of cattle is regulated by the supply. When there are plenty of cattle in the yards the price is lower and when the supply is light the price advances. This would not be so if there was a combination to manipulate the prices. There is no combination among packers and there never has been. The statement that packers know just how many cattle may be coming into the yards and their quality is not so." "The difficulty with Mr. Vest and Mr. Plumb is that they assume to represent the cattle raisers' interests without know ing anything about the business." Several live stock commission men seen said the packers could not control prices if they tried. There were too many rival packing centers and rival concerns. The low prices of cattle were due to large sup plies. Tradesmen in Japan. The boys seen in nearly all the places of skilled labor suggest what is the fact, that apprentices begin to learn their trades usu ally much earlier than in our country, so that when majority is attained the mas tery of the crafts is thorough. Another striking feature of the Japanese system is that of heredity. Skill inns in family iines. Not a tew of the famous artisans of the present decade are descendants in the ninth, tenth, and even twentieth genera tions of the founder of the establishment. I once employed a carpenter in Fukui,who was prond of his ancestry of wood-workers through twenty-seven generations; and the temple records show snch boasting to be trne, though.often adoption interrapts the actaal blood line. At a papermaker's establishment in Awotabi, in Echizen, I dined with the proprietor, whose fathers first established the industry a millennium ago, the national history showing also that the Coreans before the ninth century of onr era, visited the place. THE CHINESE AND THE COMETS. Ancient Accounts ol Sui-Sing or H rush-Mars. [Discursive Essays.] During thousands of years in the history of man, the ignorance of the human mind, even among nations of high culture, trom the highest in rank to the most humble, has been such that when physical phen omena have presented themselves to obser vation, the character of which was not properly understood, kings and great men of all nations have fancied that such ap pearances have been sent as an omen to indicate the approach of some extraordi nary event or some impending calamity. They have imagined these phenomena to have been produced by Nature expressly to communicate some important incident connected with their good or ill fortune or with their lives. Hence the state of national opinion in nearly all countries, and from ancient times regarding the ap pearance of comets, in the present day, notwithstanding the advances made in physical astronomy, considerable diversity of views exist as to the origin of these cosmical bodies. Many myriads are supposed, by some astron omers, to circulate in the solar sys tem, though less than a thousand have been accurately observed in Europe in their passage through known constella tions; while the orbits of scarcely four hun dred have been calculated from direct observations made with the required accu racy. Out of this number the mean dis ance of fourteen comets from the sun, ascertained to the present time, is found to he less than that of the planet Saturn. The most ancient and authentic accounts of the appearances of comets which, in the Chinese tongue are called sui-sing, literally signifying brush-stars or broom-stars, are given in the registers and records ot the Chinese comprehended in a period of nearly four thousand years. These recorf 8 contain a regular series of eclipses, of the appearance of comets and other astronomi cal phenomena, extending over a period of 3,858 years, all the eclipses of which were calculated and represented in diagrams before they occurred, and were carefully observed and registered. The Chinese eagle of sixty years dates from the reign of the Emperor Fie-hoi, 2857 B. C. Hwang-ti, in 2608, B. C, built an observatory for the ac curate observation of celestial phenomena aud the correction of the Chinese calendar. The metonic cycle of the Greeks was known to them more than two thousand years anterior to its discovery by Meto in Greece. Want of accuracy in the predic tion of eclipses by the astronomers was, by a law of the empire, punishable with death, at a time when it was necessary for the authorities to obtain the most correct information in relation to the periodical occurrence of the equinoxes, the solstices, eclipses, the appearance of comets and other phenomena, both for civic, political and religious purposes. Hence the high degree of advancement they had attained in astronomy many centuries anteceden to the foundation of the most ancient and celebrated Greek cities or the establish ment of any of the Hellenic states. OKOGKAPHIC STKCTIKES. From W hence the Forces That Have Elevated Mountains. Within the past twelve or fifteen years it has become a widely accepted view among the geologists of Europe and Amer ica that the forces which have elevated mountains are derived from strains set up in the outer envelopes of the earth by the secula cooling and shrinkage of its interior; but it should be borne in mind that geolog ical science has flourished most in those countries where the best known and most thoroughly studied mountains and ridges are greatly plicated. To the Europeau geologist the Alps and the Jura have always been the most commanding anJ in teresting of orographic structures. To the Briton the iHighlands of Scotland and Wales have been equally absorbing fields of research, in which the solution of the problem of mountain building has been attempted. In America eeology had its first and most rapid growth in the Ap palachian region, and, when it sought fresh fields in the I'acific slope, it first found them in the coast ranges and in the Sierra Nevada. All of these regions are more or less plicated ; and it is not to be wondered at that a universal conviction should have grown up that plication and mountain building are only different names for one and the same thing, or that the process which built the mountains folded the strata at the same time. But as soon as the geologists penetrated the vast moun tain belt which lies east of the Sierra and west of the Great Plains, and proceeded to a careful study of the forms there presented, a wholly different state of affairs was revealed. Not a trace of a systematic plication has yet been found there. The terms "anticlinal" and "synclinal" have almost dropped ont of the vocabulary of the Western geologist. The strata are often flexed, but the type of the flexure is the monocliue. The Rocky Mountain region discloses whatever it has to tell us about physical geology with marvelous clearness and em phasis, but there is no teaching more clear or more emphatic than the absence of plicating forces from among the agencies which have hnilt its magnificent ranges and hoisted its great plateaus. They have been lifted by vertical forces acting beneath them. The country at large shows no traces of a widespread, universal, hori zontal compression ; on the contrary, it discloses the absence of such stress. Illesscd be the Peacemaker. [From the Boston Globe. | Fred D--, five years old, had to learn a verse to recite at Sunday school. His verse was, "Blessed aie the peacemakers." He did not exactly understand what it meant, and his mother explained it to him, telling him that whenever be saw two boys quarrelling or fighting, he must he a little peacemaker and try to stop them. The next night as he was being un dressed he said : "Mamma, I-was a little peacemaker to-day." "Were you ?" said his mother, "how ?" "I saw two little boys fighting in the street and I stopped them." "That's a good boy," said his mother, giving him a kiss ; "and how did you part them?" "Why, I jnst ran up and fired stones at them nntil they stopped fighting and ran away."