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mwmm Volume XX2 Helena, Montana, Thursday, June 28, 1888. RE. FISK 0. W. FISK ». J. FISK. Publishers and Proprietors. Largest Circulation of any Paper in Montana Rates ot Subscription. WEEKLY °HERALD : One Year. (In Rilvanre) .............................83 00 * Months, (lu advance) ............................... 1 75 Three Months, (in advance)........................... 1 00 When not paid for In advance the rai« will be Four Dollars per yeaii Postage, In all cases. Prepaid. DAILY HERALD: City Subscribers, delivered by carrier 81.00a month One Year, by mail, (in advance)................. 89 00 Six Months, by mail, (in advance)............... 5 00 Three Months, by mail, (in advance)........... 2 50 If not paid in advance, 812 per annum. [Entered at the Postoffice at Helena as second class matter.] til communications should be addressed to FISK BROS., Publishero, Helena, Montana. The Garden of Gethsemane. At the joining of the trio of paths de scribed as leading to Bethany, the garden of Gethsemane is located. It is surrounded by a stone wall which is divided by shrines facing inside the garden, all looking strangely new in comparison with the gnarled old trees that they surround. After knocking at the low gate, the visitor is questioned by an old monk and then admitted. The garden is carefully kept by tho venerable custodian. The white washed fence of paling and tho trim flower garden afford another strange contrast with the gnarled and ancient olive trees In one comer of the garden is a well of delicious water. A bucket with rope running over a pulley used. Near this well are the humble quarters of tho monk in charge. A marble canopy with an iron gate incloses Canova's bass relief of "The Agony." A neatly kept walk leads one around the circuit of the garden from shrine to shrine. Parts of the walls are covered with pictures representing scenes which took place during our Lord's last night on earth. Wormwood and the Passion vine trail about the walls in pro fusion. It is a lovely 6pot. —Edward L. Wilson in The Century. "Stirring Up" an Oil Well. When the first flush of a well is gone, the torpedo agent is called in to increase the production. In shooting a well from 00 to 100 quarts of nitro glycerine are Used. This is lowered into the hole in shells cleverly contrived to prevent a pre mature explosion, and then the "go devil," a chunk of iron for exploding the cartridge on top of the glycerine, is dropped. In a minute or two an explo sion about as loud as a firecracker will be heard, while the casing in the hole will rise a few inches above the derrick floor and then settle back. The response from the shot will npt come until ten or twenty minutes later, then the well flows freely and at an increased rate. In the course of time the well refuses to flow of its own accord and is classed among the "pump ers." Two-inch tubing is run down to the producing sand, and the same ma chinery that was used in drilling the well is called in to do the pumping. From time to time the tubing and sucker rods are drawn and the well cleaned out or treated to another dose of glycerine. This explains why the derrick at a completed well is never torn down.—Rufus R. Wil son in San Francisco Chronicle. Virtue In Onions and Beef. What is the most strengthening food for a convalescent? Well, you know, the beef tea theory has been exploded. The most life giving and digestible food that can be given to one just recovering from an illness is chopped beef. Just take a pound of the finest round of raw beef, cut off all the fat, slice two onions, and add pepper and salt. Then chop the onions and meat together, turning them over and over until both are reduced almost to a pulp. Then spread on slices of rye bread and eat as sandwiches. People talk about celery being a nervine, bnt let me tell you that there is nothing which quiets the nerves without bad results like onions. The use of them induces sleep, and much strength is obtained from them. That is my ideal food for those convalescing or for any one who is in a weak state of health.—Kansas City Star. The Language of Animals. Mock anger seems to be rather common among birds. There is in them, when caged, some suppressed excitement or fury, especially in the spring. Every one who knows a parrot knows that a per fectly reciprocal fondness is no protection against his bite. The one I know bites his best friend deeply, and roars with laughter. The little birds use a kind of flirtation of defiance with the overwhelm ing power of those they know intimately. A skilled bird tamer, I believe, puts his hand into the cage, and, when the bird moves, withdraws it hitmedly, as if in fear. This invites the bird to a contempt which becomes the foundation for famil iarity, and the device is founded. I sup pose, on that adventurous and provoca tive spirit in the bird which prompts the bullfinches to scold and bully the master whose favors they value. Does a puppy bark and snap in play in something like tho same temper? I might mention a goldfinch I know, which, I think,^ never fails to distinguish its partial mistress from all others by an outburst of swear ing and ruffling.—London Spectator. Ilow to Play Them Out. A famous musician was spending a short holiday in the country. On the Sunday he went to the parish church and asked the village organist if he would kindly allow him to play while the people were going out. Consent was readily given. But such wonderful and beautiful music did the accomplished stranger bring out of the old fashioned organ that everybody kept their seats to ênjoy it. This vexed the ordinary player and he rudely pushed the visitor aside, saying, "That kind of playing will never get the people out; I will show you how to do It." So saying, he took his place and be gan droning away in his usual style. Speedily the congregation rose from their pews and fled. "There," died he, with a . self satisfied smile, "that is the way to play them oat."—Home Journal. ---- m<r • TRAPEZE PERFORMERS. SUPERSTITION AMONG THE LIMB AND LIFE RISKING CLASS. A Bit of Sentiment Indulged in Just Be fore the Performance—Banger Ilreaded Is More Than Half Invited—Japanese Jugglers. The Vaidi sisters are two pretty English girls who do some very good trapeze work. One of them performs a dive, head fore most, from tho very top of the prosce nium arch, a dizzy height, into a net sus pended just above the heads of the spec tators in the parquet. That is one of the most thrillingly effective feats ever shown here in public, but, in point of fact, is very' little if any more dangerous than a number of things that they do together on tho trapeze before that finale. So long as the performer comes down into the net there need be no fear. There is more danger in the breaking of a tightly strained guy wire at a critical moment, by which the trapeze might be violently jerked out of place and the performer thrown off, away outside of uie net, to fall upon the backs of the orchestra chairs and be picked up a mass of broken bones and mangled flesh, perhaps dead. To guard against this as far as possible the greatest care is exercised in the stretch ing of the wire and rope guys, which is all gone over and examined before each performance. This, with the stretching of the net, takes several minutes. A BIT OF SENTIMENT. While these things are being done the two sisters stand waiting in the first en trance, on the "prompt" Bide of the stage, with big cloaks draped about their scant ily clad forms, and their mother close be hind them. When the signal is given that all is ready, the mother draws off their cloaks. Then the two girls embrace and kiss each other's hands. After that they dart out on the stage, and a moment later they are np in the air risking their necks. If that little bit of sentimental business were done in public, it would be understood as a tawdry conceit for effect, like many other things in which gym nasts and acrobats indulge, with a view to impressing the spectators. But it is not. The embracing and kissing are all done "in the wings," where it is only by accident that a person near the footlights in the parquet on the oppo site side of the stage may perchance see it. The general disposition to ascribe to superstition of some sort the motive im pelling people to do somewhat unusual things naturally suggests that as a reason for the Vaidi girls' demonstration. But upon inquiry it is learned that this is prompted by simple affection, nothing more. Each knows that it is well within the range of possibilities that the slipping of her hand, the failure by a hair's breadth of the other's grasp or a break of the ap paratus may cause her sister's plunge to death, or that that fate may be her own, within the next few minutes. With that feeling in mind, the hand clasps, embraces and kisses between the girls are simply a tenderer demonstration of the impulse that prompts comrades, when going into battle, to shake hands silently. It may be for the last time, and they know it. There is little superstition among the limb and life venturing classes of public performers, far less than exists among people in the histrionic profession. Whether it is that the vigorous life of the former develops a more healthful and con sequently sounder philosophy, or that their training has drilled them into a higher confidence in themselves and ap preciation of the possibilities of human control over what weaker natures deem fate and luck, need not be discussed here. The fact is enough for present considera tion. Of course there are exceptions to this, as to every other rule, but even when they do occur they are not violent, and generally have some pretty fair rea son back of the seeming superstition al leged. Mattie Jackson, for instance, will not ride in tho circus ring on Good Fri day. She avows a fear that some acci dent will happen to her if she does, as one did once upon a time when she broke the rule, or perhaps before she made it. But the fact is that she has a vague idea that It Isn't right. And several other well known riders have the same notion. A DANGER DREADED. It indeed appears that the dread of hav ing a superstition is more rife among circus people than any superstition is, for the excellent reason that they know a danger dreaded is more than half invited. A man whose nerves are to the slightest degree unstrung by expectancy of accident Is likely to realize his expectation when attempting some feat that demands all the Btrength, skill, coolness and nerve that he possesses Very often a rider's perform ance is made'timid and measurably in effective simply by a groom's report to him that his horse "does not seem to be feeling all right " There is no superstition about that, but a consciousness that if the horse is not "all right" and up to good re membrance and observance of his training, the breaking of his rider's leg. or perhaps his neck, may be the consequence. It may hardly be fair to classify as euperstitious the practice of carrying po tatoes or horse chestnuts in the Pakets as fetiches against rheumatism. I ' it is no then there is a good deal of that sort ofsupeKtition among show folk, butthey vehemently .fflrm that it la P^mPted t^ knowledge ot the proved medicinal virtnea *£235 p«* 1 »-cf£ J vTfww not only their own share, but ?i 0U ft h the others. 7 Each of their troupes for aU the others- in its of jugglers and acrobats inc^^ ^ membership one g J\ blv accus headed eld ''" tl "v" P J^ho won« tomed to tussling with denis fain obstruct the work * or bring them to tF* involving per before each importât fwt invo^ ^ per sonal peril, to go about the stage ing salt and volubly exploding prayers in his firecrackery lingo, to drive the demons away. In addition to his potent official efforts for the discouragement of the qjalign spirits thronging the surrounding ether, each performer carries about with him some sort of an amulet, and the fans that they so constantly employ have charms against the mischievous imps painted upon them.—New York Sun. How Cowboys Brand the Calves. As soon as ail the brands of cattle are worked, and the animals that are to be driven along have been put in the day herd, attention is turned to the cows and calves, which are already gathered in dif ferent bands, consisting each of all the cows of a certain brand and all the calves that are following them. If there is a corral, each band is in turn driven into it; if there is none, a ring of riders does duty in its place A fire is built, the irons heated, and a dozen men dismount to, as it is called, "wrestle" the calves. The best two ropers go in on their horses to catch the latter; one man keeps tally, a couple put on the brands, and the others seize, throw and hold the little unfortu nates. A first class roper invariably catches the calf by both hind feet, and then, hav ing taken a twist with his lariat* round the horn of the saddle, drags the bawling little creature, extended at full length, up to the fire, where it is held before it can make a struggle. A less skillful roper catches round the neck, and then, if the calf is a large one, the man who seizes it has his hands full, as the bleating, bucking animal develops astonishing strength, cuts the wildest capers, and resists fran tically and with all its power. If there are seventy or eighty calves in a corral, the scene is one of the greatest confusion. The ropers, spurring and checking the fierce little horses, drag the calves up so quickly that a dozen men can hardly hold hold them; the men with the irons, blackened with soot, run to and fro; the calf wrestlers, grimy with blood, dust and sweat, work like beavers; while with the voice of a stentor the tallyman shouts out the uumber and sex of each calf. The dust rises in clouds and the shouts, cheers, curses and laughter of the men unite with the lowing of the cows and the frantic bleating of the roped calves to make a perfect Babel.—Theodore Roose velt in The Century. The "Echo Maker" at Sea. Another device, which may be called the echo maker, that of Mr. De la Torre, has been examined by a board of naval offi cers, of which Commander Bainbridge Hoff, United States navy, was the head, and report was made to the navy depart ment of a somewhat favorable nature. It may consist of a flaring funnel screwed on the muzzle of a rifle. It is operated by firing the rifle in the direction of the supposed obstacle, such as a rock, an ice berg, another ship, or a cliff. If the ob stacle is there, the beam of sound pro jected through the funnel strikes the ob stacle and rebounds; and as the echo is more or less perfect in proportion as the obstacle is more or less parallel to the ship from which the gun is fired, and as it is near or remote, the position of the obsta cle may thus be inferred. The board reported that Do la Torre's method was firing a blank cartridge from a rifle in the presence of objects as small as a spar buoy and as large as a fort, and catching the return sound or echo. He claims that a sharp sound projected at or nearly at an object, and only when so directed, will in every case return some of the sound sent, so that theoretically there will always be an echo, and the difference in the time between the sound sent and the echo will indicate the remoteness of the object. The board found that a re turn sound could be heard from the side of a fort a half mile off, from passing steamers a quarter mile off if broadside to, from bluffs and sails of vessels about the same distance, and from spar buoys 200 yards away.—Arnold Burges Johnson in Popular Science Monthly. The Races of Australia. The inhabitants of the continent of Australia hâve always been a stumbling block in the classification of the races, owing to'their exhibiting in a mixed form some of the characteristics of two distinct races. Their complexion, features and peculiarities of the skeleton are distinctly negro like, yet the frizzly hair so charac teristic of that race is not found in the Australian. The supposition is that they are not a distinct race at all, but a cross between two branches of two primitive stocks. It has been supposed that the frizzly haired Melanesians or Oceanic negroes, which include the Papuans of New Guinea and thé inhabitants of the Western Pacific islands, originally peopled the Australian continent, and that a modification of their physical characteris tics was brought about to lome degree by the Infusion of a low form of Caudasian, such as is now found in the interior of the southern parts of India, among the modifications being the change to straight hair.—Globe Democrat. At the Baseball Match. Jobson—Yes, Kuehne is a fine batter. Snobson—Oh, Kuehne is nothing beside Mike Mullin, the middle fielder of the Kankakees. Why, only [last week he hit a ball so hard that it stuck against a cloud. They called it a four bagger, and gave Mike a home run. Jobâon —Did they recover the ball? Snobson—Why, cert. It came down when it rained.—Pittsbu rg Bu lletin. Plenty on Hand. * Wife—Why is it, John, that yon rarely kiss me now? Before we were married yon bothered me almost to death. Husband—I know it, my dear, and 1 laid in stock enough to last.—The Epoch. *" The virtues of cinchona were not known till 1633 or 1638, when it cured the wife of the Peruvian viceroy. Cinchona. It is stated that at least 1,000,000 tons of commercial fertilizers are now annually need in this country. COFFEE AND COCOA. THE PEOPLE, CUSTOMS AND PRO DUCTS OF GUATEMALA. Wliy Cocoa Tree« Need More Care Than a Coffee Plantation—Bad Indians and Their Ways—The Art of Lying—Pic turesque Dress. The part of Guatemala we are now In is called the "Costa Cuca, " and from San Sebastian to San Felipe, ten miles away and near the monntains, the road passes through a succession of coffee plantations, To one not familiar with it, it would ap pear to be a bright, fresh leaved tree of a rather rich and glossy green, but with its limbs covered with a parasitical green growth resembling small acorns, which illusion is dispelled when the regular rows of trees are seen and.the careful cul tivation of the ground noted. While great care must be taken of the coffee tree, it is not a circumstance to that re quired by the cacao plant, which much resembles it Cacao, or In English cocoa, the source of chocolate, is more abun dantly grown in Ecuador than in any other portion of this hemisphere, and the Guayaquil cocoa of commerce commanus a price in Guatemala city of $18 per "carga," or sixty pounds, so it may be Been that it is a valuable crop The cocoa of Guatemala is & much finer variety and sells at $35 per carga. right here in the country, but the amount raised is not sufficient for home consumption, and bat little of it finds its way into the outside world. The plant has so many natural enemies that many fiuqueros are deterred from at tempting its cultivation The tree is planted from the seeds, which are no sooner put in the ground than a large ant searches for them and ruins many; when the tree appears and is about three feet tall,.deer, attracted by the richness of the leaf, risk their lives for a feed of it; when these dangers are past and the fruit ap pears, squirrels come to eat it in large numbers and any decent sized c&caotal must have two huntsmen to kill squirrels. Thus it may be • seen that chocolate is a universal favorite During this time the ground must be. as well weeded and cleaned as a Chinaman's kiteben garden. And in addition to this each cocoa tree requires a madré or mother, which Is a shade tree planted for its own particular use. With such great care necessary, it is not strange that many prefer coffee planting AXOTIIER VIEW OF IT And it occurs*to me. how few who sit sipping Maillard s or Mennier's chocolate ever give a thought or ever know of the immense labor of its production! On the other hand it has its advantages, for while a coffee tree is fairly on the down grade to worthlessness after bearing eight years, the cocoa tree is said to bear abundantly for seventy five years, and even more. Some cacaot als near the frontier of San Salvador, are so old that tho oldest Indians in the vicinity testify that they were flourishing plantations when they were children, and the trees bear as well today as ever The coffee estates near San Felipe were nearly all planted at the same time, every available space was utilised, consequently they all failed at the same time, and San Felipe, from being a thriving, busy town, became but a place to live in, and I failed to see its attractions even in that respect. When the coffee trees failed many finqueros planted »sugar cane. This requires, from slanting to maturity, only nine months, sut is not so profitable as coffee. The cocoa fruit as it appears on the tree is a pear shaped green mass about nine inches long, and in circumference not so large as an average pineapple. The Inside of this pulpy sheath is divided Into cells, about twenty, each containing one cocoa berry Children and women are employed to prepare it for market, and it is not a sight which would induce one to be anxious to drink the cocoa be has seen cleaned. Each berry is surrounded in its cell by a sweet, pasty brown and greasj substance which the Indians like, so eacl berry goes to an Indian's mouth, where the sweet coating is sucked off and chewed; but this in reality does not af fect the berry, because under the brown paste there is a parchmentlike shell which is impervious to the Indian's saliva, and comes off only in the roasting, leaving the inside meat pure. SOMETHIN G ABOCT BAD INDIAKS. A marked difference is apparent between the true Indian of the Indian town and the one who has had much contact with whites and ladinos. The former is always respectful and polite and be is a natural gentleman. He never approaches you to speak without removing his bat ana bow ing low, and he never retires without ex cusing himself until he may return. The latter is usually disrespectful and of an insolent disposition—eager to take every undue advantage of his master's leniency and has to be taught by the generous use of a club The ordinary feelings of the human heart are unkn own to him. You can govern him, and govern him well, by simply causing him to fear you. The art of lying is unknown In the United States when compared with the stake of perfection it has reached among some of these Indian tribes You may tell an individual In your employ to do a cer tain thin£, but you must accompany him to see that he does it, because if he does not feel like doing it he will come back and lie about it. Hit one of them with your fist or kick him out of your house, and he will complain to the nearest al calde, and will have twenty witnesses to swear that they saw you beat the com E lainanfover the head with a club until e lay insensible in his own blood, and ttfls though they may have been miles away at the time. Many of the Indians are weavers and pottery makers. The cloths they produce are very pretty bright colored fabrics, beautifully embroidered in cotton or silks as the wearer may desire. The shirt of their costume is made like a square bag, with a hole for the head and boles for the arms, and when the skirt is fastened around the waist wjthjheir pretty the lower part of the skirt becomes a pet ____I bright the earthen water jar gracefully oc her head, and you have a picture not soon to be forgotten; and yet they seem to be on aware now picturesque they look.—Guate mala Cor. New York Times. AUSTRALIA'S SETTLERS. Cast on the Shore to Perish—Kidnaping Wives by Authority. The only object aimed at by the British government in settling Australia was to get rid of the convicts. One can scarcely believe even that it was expected that the convicts should do more than drag out a brief and miserable existence under the rigors of a rule designed rather to hasten than to prolong their end. The arrange ment under which Governor Philip was dispatched did not contain a single ele ment of permanence. Not the least startling part in connection with this point is that of the total number of 1,030 persons who landed from the vessels of the expedition, only 135 were women. The other "live stock" consisted of 5 horses, 11 cows, 1 bull and 12 sheep, while the expedition was so badly provisioned that from the very moment of landing starvation began to stare the settlers in the face. To redress the balance of the sexes, the British government, in a dispatch, of which a copy may be seen to this day in the record office, authorized the governor to send a transport to one of the neigh boring Friendly Islands and kidnap 200 native women as wives for the unpro vided males in the colony. This gives a good idea of the views which the British government of that day held as to the future of Australia. But badly off as the settlers were at the first, their condition speedily became worse. One characteris tic misfortune and its sequel may be men tioned. To the distress of the little com munity, it was found one day that the bull and four of the cows had escaped from the inclosure. Search parties were sent out, but in vain. Several years passed by, and then rumors reached the settlement that a herd of cattle had been seen about forty miles in the interior. Again parties were sent ont in search, and to the joy of the people they discov ered the lost cattle, now increased to several hundred. The place where the herd were grazing is now called the Cow pastures. This story is enshrined in the most cherished traditions of the colony; it is not for me to cast doubt on its authenticity. Here, then, was the ugly duckling out of which the swan of the southern seas was to grow. Branded from the first with the stain of convictism, settled by the scum of the criminal classes of England, who would soem to have been equipped rather with the hope that they would fail than that they would succeed; regarded by the home government as an almost uninhabit able and altogether useless country, save as a convenient hole into which to throw human refuse—Australia has risen to a commanding height of prosperity and in fluence, thanks to her natural resources, to the industry of the race she has so generously nurtured, but mainly to the extraordinary genius, energy and fore thought of an unbroken succession of great men.—National Review. Petty Meannesses of Actors. Actors and actresses are very much like other people; they are full of petty spites. I know of a case which happened in a London theatre not many weeks ago. in which one actor—of rank in the pro fession—had to receive something from a young player on the stage. For some reason or other he did not like the young man, and determined to bother him, so in stead of taking the article tendered he fell down as if in a fit, leaving the young fellow without any cue to go on with or any means of exit. Some years ago a very celebrated actress used habitually to annoy a well known actor with whom she played. "Is it the case," asked the actor of her one day, "Miss -, that whenever I have to say my lines in the third act, you cough as violently as you can to drown my voice?" "Yes, Mr. -," was the re ply; "I think, do you know, that your voice is better when it js drowned. " That samo lady once played a terrible trick upon tho actor. Knowing he was ner vous, she gave him, as Portia, a ring, which he, as Bassania, wa3 unable to get on his finger, and so put him out that he nearly broke down altogether. But lately an actor told me himself that so greatly did he dislike playing with a lady who was in the same cast with him that he frequently put chairs, stools and tables in her wa& purposely on the stage, so that she could not make her accus tomed rushes over the boards without a risk of tumbling. Oh, yes, there are plenty of little spiteful incidents on the stage, and the people who perform them are usually the kindliest and most inno cent in appearance.—London Letter. Gayety Among the French. The Irish are the gayest and most un derfed people in the world save the Span iards, who are happy on a crust of bread, an onion and a cup of water. Goldsmith remarked that the gayety of the French man was in an inverse ratio to the weight of his purse. This is true in our time as in his. Nothing is more dull, more for mal, more insipid, more inane than a social evening gathering of French who usually dine of trente-six plats. They have no life in themselves, and have to get bouffe opera singers to stir them np. And even in laughing at these they are dall. On the other hand there is always fun and go among the poor, hard worked French. It is tbia class which furnishes priestesses to the laughter loving goddess, who sweep here the wealth of the world to her altar. Mila Schneider, Jeanne Granier, Leonide Leblanc, Theresa, Judic and Milly Meyer all rose from poverty to opulence.—Lon don Truth s _ ~ Learning Foreign Languages. It is claimed that, generally speaking, an aptitude for learning foreign languages is indicative of a low degree of intel lectual power, and results from the oon tentratiomcf the lower Intellectual fac ulties upon such mechanical effort with out the distracting influence of the higher reasoning powers.—Globe- Democrat. a TIIE SUNDAY SCHOOL FOUNDED IN 1781 BY A PRINTER OF GLOUCESTERSHIRE. How Robert Raikes Was Led to Organ ize the First Sunday School—Why the Scheme Attracted General Attention. Historical Items of Interest. Sunday schools were founded about the close of the year 1781 by Robert Ilaikes, a printer in Gloucestershire. Business lead ing him into the suburbs of the town inhabited by the lowest class of people, he was surprised by seeing multitudes of miserably ragged children, who made the Sal bath day a carnival of noise and riot, in w aich cursing and swearing had a large part. To check this profanation of the Lord's day he engaged four women, teachers of week day schools, to instruct such chil dren as he should send them on the Sunday in reading and the church catechism, for which they were to receive one shilling each. A visible improvement being effected in a short time, both in the manners and morals of the children, Mr. Raikes' scheme attracted general attention. Her majesty Queen Charlotte admitted him to an audi ence, and expressed high approbation of his plan. Numerous schools formed on the same model sprang up in the principal towns, and a society, under high patron age, was formed in London in 1785 for the establishment and support of Sunday Bchools throughout the kingdom. This was the first stage of the Sunday school. GRATUITOUS INSTRUCTION. A great impediments to prosperity was the expense of hiring the teachers. It is not certain who first conceived the idea of gratuitous instruction, but this in time came about, and the result was that by the year 1800 teaching in the Sunday school was almost universally without remunera tion. In 1803 the Sunday School anion was formed, which, by its numerous publica tions, agents and branch societies in the different parts of the kingdom, exercised a wide influence. The Institute of the Church of England, which operated In a like manner, is of a s imilar date. Scotland boasts of Sunday schools as early as 1782 But it was not till 1786, when the Society for Promoting Religi ous Knowledge among the Poor was formed, that' they were publicly recog nized, nor until 1797, when the first Free Sunday School society was organized, that free Sunday schools became general At first these met with considerable op position from portions of the ecclesiasti cal court, but this soon vanished, and Sunday school unions existed in most of the large towns. Sunday schools in Ireland had been in ■ measure anticipated in County Down in 1770, but the system pursued by Mr. Raikes was not adopted till about 1785, since which date its system has been similar to that of England. In Ireland the Sunday School society was established in 1809. The Roman Catholics, in the United Kingdom at least, have numerous Sunday schools. THE FIRST IN AMERICA. The First Day or Sunday School society, formed in Philadelphia in 1791, is the first permanent Sunday school organization in the United States of which there is trust worthy record. It was composed of members of different denominations, including the Society of Friends. Its constitution re quired that reading and writing from the Bible and such other religious and moral books as the society approved should fur nish the course of instruction. The New York Sunday School union was organized in 1816, the Philadelphia Sunday and Adult School union one year later. These three societies recognized the union of different denominations, and led to the organization of the American Sunday School union at Philadelphia in 1824 The object of this union was to concentrate the efforts of Sunday school societies in different sec tions of the United States, and to start schools wherever there were children found in sufficient numbers to atténd them. It naturally came about that as new states were settled and the various denom inations were strengthened, increased attention was given by each to its own Sunday schools,and denominational unions to promote these were formed. As years passed, the question book was added to the original recitation, and at length in a great degree superseded it. Later on came lesson helps, texts, maps, black board exercises, etc. In the earlier schools reward tickets were given, and when these had sufficiently accumulated they were exchanged for books. This stimulated the production of works of a character suitable to young minds, and from this has been developed the Sunday school library. _ His Distaste Made Him Sick._ We have just heard a story which serves to show that whether a distaste for cer tain kinds of food is notional or not, it is well to heed it. A Boston man had evolved an instinctive theory against eel and could never be Induced to try it. Some friends who liked the dish were de termined he should, and having the eel cooked in a disguised manner, invited him to dine and hod him partake. He ate the fish with relish and commended it highly. Then, having enjoyed his disoomfiture, they told him what it was. Before twenty-four hours the family doctor was at his wit's end to relieve that man's agony, and saved his life at a close pinch. —Boston Advertiser. One Way. President—Yea, Mr. Snapper, the faculty have HariHerl that you have broken the rules, nd there is no coarse for ns but to suspend you. Student—H^u; how about suspending the rules I—New Haven News, IRISH GREETINGS AND PHRASES. Peculiar Expression* Heard Among the Natives of the Greer Isle. When an Irishman is moved to grati tude by kindness, his praise and thanks take the form of unbounded blessings, and. when the spirit moves him to curse, his objurgations are deep, picturesque and highly colored. "God save all here!" Is the common form of salutation on entering a cottage, and "God save you kindly!" the answer. Anything that Is admired by a stranger is always promptly blessed, to keep off the evil eye. The friendly criticism, "That's a fine slip of a pig." is always followed by a quick, "Well, indeed, it's not a bad one. God bless it!" Turning to the subjects of blessings and of general asseverations, we shall find the Irish language peculiarly rich and fer tile In variety of idea and adjective, and often In real beauty and poetical form of expression. Few can tell the origin of such phrases as "By the powers of Moll Kelly!"—though tradition speaks cf a lady of that name being a potency in Dublin. There is a fine sonorous swing abcut "By this and by that but it bangs Banagherl" and we know that Banagher was once upon a time a seat of learning. "Tare-an-ages!" is refreshing. If mys terious; "By all the books that ever, were open or shut!" has a vast literary sound about it, and when it is intended to take that oath falsely the word "never" is adroitly substituted for "ever," just as in the old trials a witness prepared to "do his best for the poor boy in the dock" would kiss his own thumb, but not the holy book, with a sounding smack. Very fine and majestic is the rythm of "By the piper that played before Moses!" though there is no authentic account of that emi nent Semitic musician; and there is a deeply devout meaning in the curious ex pression, "Please the pigs," which is a corruption of "Please the pyx," the sacred vessel that holds the hoBt on higl at the mass. "Wurra Dheelish" means "Sweet Virgin." who is sometimes invoked in mo ments of danger aa "Queen of Heaven," and "Saints in glaryt" or "Saints alive!" are expressions of admiration or wonder. As examples of richness of diction, take the charm blessing to be said to an old woman: "Oh, aged old woman of the gray locks, may 800 blessings twelve times over be on thee! Mayest thou bo free from desolation. Oh weman of the aged frariel May many tears fall upon thy gravel" A "wise woman," properly blessed after this fashion, will make you dream dreams of importance, which dreams you must never tell fasting, and always tell them first to a woman of the name of Mary. Again, there is something touchingly poetical in the words of the western charm for love. Three times, secretly, over a drink to be given the beloved one, the girl will say: "This a charm I set for love; a woman's charm of love and desire; a charm of God that none can break— 'You for me and I for you, and for none else; your face to mine and your head turned away from all others.'" So with the old Irish names of animals, they are Indian in their descriptive power. The ant was "the slender one," the trout was called "brae," the "one with the spots," the hedgehog was called "the ugly little fellow," and the wren was known as the "Druid's bird," because if any ore could understand its chirrup, as it darts from bush to bush, he would have a knowledge of coming events, as foretold by the bird. What vividly picturesque words and il lustrations sportsmen with attentive ears can pick up! Concerning a romantic rab bit run the question was asked: "Are there many rabbits about?" "Many is it?" was the reply; "sure there are whole funerals of them!" the procession of rab bits suggesting the curious idea. "Any trout in tliis stream?" "Trouts, is it? Wait till the flood goes down a bit, and yer honor can walk dry shod over their backs to the other side. ''—London Tele graph. _ India's Man Eating Tigers. One set of cages was very attractive to us. They contained ten huge tigers, all caught in pits after proving themselves man eaters. Huge brutes which would spring at us as we passed with such ferocity that they would hurt themselves against the iron bars. Tho tigers of our menageries are puppets compared to these fierce monsters. A few annas to the keeper obtained for me the privilege of doing a little practice. Looking a fierce fellow steadily in the eye. and speaking in a stem but steady voice, 1 tapped him sharply over the head with my rattan cane. He blinked his eyes. I followed up the action with a sharper stroke and made him quiet down I tried another, and actually made him lie down on his side and purr like a great cat. I did not fail once. The native looked at me admiringly and evidently thought I was accustomed to managiiîg man eaters. What an amount of nerve a brave man l as when be knows d mgercan not reach him.—Carter Harrison s Letter Relative Vaines of Food. Professor Atwater grades the relative value of various articles of food, according to their cost in producing a given amount of muscul energy, with the following re sult: A mixture of wheat flour and com meal, being the most valuable for this purpose, is taken as the nnit, and costs, say, 1; oatmeal and beans. 1$; eight cent cheese, 1J; potatoes at seventy-five cents a bushel, 1J; fat salt pork, 2£; fifteen cent cheese, 2$; rice and eight cent beef, 2$; wheat bread, 8; salt codfish, 3£; smoked ham, 8i; eleven cent mutton, 4; salt mack erel and seven cent milk.. 4$; sixteen cent beef, 6; fresh codfish, 5$; fresh mackerel, 6.—Chicago News. For All Seasons. ~ Countryman (to furniture dealer)—I want to get a bed an' a mattress. Dealer—Yes, sir; spring bed and spring mattress, I s'pose, rirl Countryman—No; I want the Und that can be used all the year around.—Epoch.