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& ? T. '"'-'2 c«vv "TT - — ■VCI. Volume xx Helena, Montana, Thursday, July 12, 1888. No. $\ttbtA\ntitnUL R. E. FISK D. W. FISK A. J. FISK. Publishers and Proprietors. Largest Circulation cf any Faporin Montana -O fiâtes ol Subscription. WEEKLY HERALD : One Year, (in mlvance).............................JJ3 00 8ii Months, fin advance)............................... 1 75 Three Months, (in advance)........................... 1 00 When not paid for in advance the rtJe will be Four Dollars per year! Postage, in all cases, Prepain. DAILY HERALD: City Subscribers,deli vered by carrier g! .00a month One Year, by mail, (in advance)................. ?9 00 Six Months, by mail, (in advance!............... 5 00 Three Months, by mail, (in advance)........... 2 50 If not paid in advance, 812 per annum. [Entered at the Paste Sice at Helena as second class matter.J 4b#"All communications should he addressed to FISK BE08., Publishers, Helena. Montana. A STORY OF EDEN. In some forgotten chronicle of old This story 1 have read. , And I have heard It said Rosettl wept when he had heard It told: When Eve from Eden forced had t irned her face To pity them inclined God made within her mind Grow dim the memory of that blissful place. Then during many after days of toil Children of earth were born Who knew not of that morn Before in sw eat they learned to till the soil. They were content—contented with their lot; Born to return to dust. They lived, as live they must, Contented, for of Eden they knew not. Thus God with mercy tempered what seemed hate, So that men knowing not Their former blissful lot They should not utterly be desolate. Put after many years a child was born, A child unlike the rest; And when unto her breast Eve pressed it, then she wept, a child forlorn. "Better," she said, "this child were in its graven For in his longing eyes Glimpses of paradise And long forgotten trees of Eden wave." And everlasting is our mother's pain. For oft at eve or morn Some poet child is horn Who hears those sounds of Eden once again. —Bennett Bellman. A Detroit enthusiast expresses his opinion of the outcome of the League race as follows: Boston has her beauteous battery; New York, too, her men of fame; But in this claim there is no flattery— Detroit' 11 get there just the same. Anson's colts are full of ginger, The Phillies now are playing ball. But you can safely bet your tin, sir, Detroit'U get there after ail. The Indians now pull together. The Senators may trouble make; While Dunny's crew are chasing leather Detroit'U calmly take the cake. Oh, for the hitters that used tojhit, And the sluggers that used to slug, When they took up the bat with confidence, And smashed the ball on the mug. —Wheeling Register. Advantages of Audible Laughter. Man is the only audible laughing ani mal in existence. Girls giggle, boys te-he, women hah-ha, and men haw-haw. These are the spontaneous outbursts of jollity, and in trying to suppress it one cannot be accountable for the consequence. Yon have the faculty of communicating to your blind friend the reciprocal pleasure of life, therefore you have ad vantage over the most intelligent of the brute creation. No dumb animal has the faculty of ex pressing any emotion they may feel save the dog, who , langhs 1 with his tail as his long absent master returns; it seems as If be would never cease to wiggle-waggle his tail and nibble his master's heard from one ear to the other; he laughs with his tail, kisses, as it were, withnis teeth, and paresses with his paws, seeming to be the pxact converse of human nature. Be sure that heaven and all the clierubims are better pleased with inate goodness, rose ate with smiles, than a face as long as f our arm and as solemn as the day of udgment. Give us a bright, smilin g face, indicative of the effervescence of the within. It helpä us to enjoy a passing hour of blissful happiness. A new delight tteals over the heart, and we willingly yield to the fleeting, fanciful dream that all of earth is surest bliss.—New York Press. Inheritance of Moral Weakness. "There aro not too many people for the world to support," says Professor Summer; hor are there too many liable to be born; but there are by far too many of sorts that never ought to be born. He oon seives that all social questions drop into this one of improved population. Mental and physical feebleness, or inferiority, is at the bottom of our troubles; but the professor must also include moral weak ness, inherited like other evils, and aggra vated by personal habit. Is it improbable that some degree of control may be spme day established over the multiplicati&i of diseased personalities? Darwin dares to hint that the same Pare that is exercised in breeding our domestic animals might in the future be applied to humanity. Is it necessary that "Margaret, the mother of criminals," be allowed to populate the state with a breed so debased that in a few generations thoro are paupers, idiots, moral outcasts and beggars by the hundred, and hardly a vavable person out of a score? It will not bo, perhaps, at present to any more than •suggest the question.—Globe Democrat. /he largest fish mirket in the world Is ingsgate, London, where 132,000 tons 1*1 fish are sold a year. . Inwardness of Book Notices. In nine cases out of tin the critical notices are carefully* measured to accord J' ith tho^izo of the advertisement handed w at'the business i office. If a publisher advertises, his tiooks receive notice; twenty ii nes P(<uro a good review, forty a tetter one. If a play is ever so bad, the ^stute critic can find much good in it if lie '-»oka through the greenback lorgnette unushed by the business office of the eighty organ of public opinion by which e " employed. The book reviewer's judg _ j 3 warped in the same way; his ■«or 19 bought at tho cashier's desk.— àua Journalist. HANDLING FREIGHT. HOW IT IS CARED FOR AT THE AND "OUT" DEPOTS. IN' Method of Receiving and Transporting Freight In Large Cities—Handling and Rehandling— The Value of System In Making Up » Train. Many people imagine that freight from one after another of a hundred wagons* is simply dumped on a platform and from there shoved into a car, and that incoming and outgoing freight is handled on the sane platform. In a country town, or even in a city ambitious to metropolitan honors, one platform does suffice, and on that all freight is received and from that all freight is shipped. But in a large city the railroad of any prominence making half a living must have two depots, one an "in" and the other an "out" house. Through the latter all of the receipts go except in heavy and bulk goods, in large lots, when track receiving and unloading is the most convenient and cheapest. In receiving freight all such cars are cut out or off of the train and switched to what ever points may be desired. Tho bills <*f lading always come ahead of the train, long enougb generally to get through the office and out to the yard men before the train arrives, or at least on its arrival. This is done so that no time may be lost. Receiving the bills, the yard force know exactly what each car contains and where it must be placed. Some of these cars are to go to certain parts of the yards, others to private ware bouses, and some are to be left where they are. These are all cut out, taken away, and the balance of the train switched into the freight house, where the broken (less than car load) and valuable or perishable freight is stored to await the call of the owners, the latter being notified by postal of the arrival. In receiving freight in this way there is a gTeat deal of handling and rehandling that cannot be helped; but so far as possi ble it is avoided by storing as loosely as possible, so that one consignment may be moved without touching another. If the housemen only knew whether John Smith would be more prompt than Samuel Brown in answering his notice and taking away his goods, much rehandling could be obviated and the goods could be stored closely without loss of space by putting in Brown's property first. But this is knowledge that cannot be had. There may be a dozen Samuel Browns and two" dozen John Smiths, and every one of the Browhs may come for his goods at the same time, while the Smiths may uever come, and may leave their goods to be finally sold as unclaimed. This, however, is only the case with small merchants and plain every day citizens, who do net receive a pound of freight as often as they celebrate Christmas. The merchant who receives with any regular ity authorizes his drayman, or, in St. Louis, the Transfer company to receive his freight whenever it comes, and the drayman or transfer agent is always on hand to receive it, and it does not have to be stored away. Still there are enough men of the Smith variety, and entering a large receiving ware house after a few trains have_ been unloaded the floor has the appearance of a succession of mounds, made out of boxes, furniture, baby carri ages, implements, etc. The most interesting of the platforms, however, is that where goods aro received for shipment. This is where there is sys tem. There is no dumping together of anything that simply comes to hand first. On one side are strings of empty freight cars, pulled up so evenly that the doors from the one next to the platform open into the one on the next track, and the cars on the outer track can be loaded by pushing the truck ^through the ones next to the platform and over connecting bridges. Tho shipping platform can in this way be widened to as many tracks as there are on which to stand the cars. On the opposite side, the receiving side, where the wagons pull up and unload, are nailed signs to pillars representing divisions. The first is marked "Jonesville," while the board on the second pillar may be marked "Brownsville," and half a dozen other villes, while the one next to it may have double that number, or only one. This is an indication that on this line Jonesville is a heavy shipping point, and that Brownsville, and the other villes with it, are of small importance and have to be numerous to count. At the merchants' ware house the goods are loaded into the wagon by towns, and the driver knows just what towns he has. If ho has a lot for Janesville he backs into that pillar and unloads. He may have a few pieces for Brownsville or some of. its sister villes, In which case he can» unload at Jonesville and roll them over to the Brownsville division. If he has a lot for Smith ville, further on, however, he must swing around with his wagon again and back in there. Hero tho freight accumu lates, in these divisions, until time for loading, by which time quite a respectable amount'is gal bered. Jonesville is situated 100 miles away, Brownsville eighty, Jack sonville fifty and Yellowville forty miles out. TTicre's not enough of Jonesville to fill a car, and just enougb of the others to sup ply the deficiency. Jonesville is tlTen loaded in first, Brownsville next, and so on until Yellowville is reached. The loaders go through the house loading in this way. filling each car. taking interme diate stations to the extent required to ma£e up the required weight, that 'from the station nearest the shipping point first. * Then thevtrain is made up In the same way. generally'so that cars can be dropped off from the end if desired without losmg time to -cut it out. switch around and con nect again with the rear portion and caboose. Arrived at Yellowville the freight for that town is piled on the plat form. the"Soor Is resealed, and the tram pulls out for the next station. There again the car Is relieved of a portion of In is or its loaa. Out a small portion only, and so on until Jonesville is reached. The Jones ville freight was almost enough to occupy n car. aud the latter is still nearly fuHy loaded This being the case it is dropped off at the depot siding, and the train pulls out to the next station. This is the manner of handling local freight.—Globe Deuiocrat. The Slaves of Clilna. The question will naturally arise in many minds how these vast numbers are maintained and controlled in servitude. The answer is that ail people are taught obedience to tbe head of the family whether that person is the real parent or whether be merely stands in loco parentis. Tho teachings of parents, of tbe schools, of tbe books of religion, and of the gov ernment. are ail in favor of such obedi ence and submission. Tliero can be no living in China outside of a family. To be a nobody's child is to be an outcast, and hunted like the wolf on the mountains. In order to live in a house, to travel on the highways or byways, to buy food or clothing, to get employment or shelter, a government pass is absolutely necessary, and that is always based upon a f amil y pass. All law, all the officials and all tbe people of a vast and densely populated country are joined against any fugitive from a family. In addition to all these the terrors of re ligion and superstition are brought to bear to enforce obedience to the family law. It is implicitly believed that those who are disobedient in this world or outside the family association will be wanderers and outcasts through all the worlds to come. It is the terrors of this belief that make the victim of the Chinese family authority go uncomplainingly to the lin gering, but sure death of the guano islands of Peru, to the pestiferous rice and cane fields of Cuba; and it is these terrors of/the future which make tbe un fortunate slave girls endure lives of shame and infamy in foreign countries, where by raising a band they could be freed.—San Francisco Chronicle. Chefs and Their Assistants. One has to look outside tho private houses, no matter how grand they may appear, to find complete kitchens. Their number is confined to .the hotels and swell restaurants. The force of a com plete kitchen embraces a chef, who ought, at the same time, to be a maitre d'hotel, and have charge of the choice and prepara tion of dishes, and of the adornment of the table and dining room without ever having to put a hand to any of tlie cook ing, unless he chooses to prepare some sauce of which be is the designer, dr to garnish a dish, as some happy notion seizes h im. Tho chef in a European palace or castle is an artist and not a workman. The most he does is to prepare sauces,,dress meats, and beautify and make attractive entrees and cold dishes, dividing all rough ( and heavy work among his assistants. In such an establishment there is a second cook, what yon might call a meat cook, who prepares the principal dishes, an entre metier, who has to do with the little made dishes, the preparation of croquets, frying of potatoes or hashing of them with cream; in fact, who prepares all vegetables and does the frying. Then there should be a pastry cook to look after all the sweets. But we must go elsewhere than New York to find any such kitchen establishments in private houses.—New York Sun. Tlie Porter of Havaoa. Seated at a little table not more than two feet square, well within the shade, of the cool entradas of the better private residences and all public buildings, will be seen a strangely grim and quiet person, who is usually the only figure in .the fore ground of a lovely picture comprising songful court, interior galleries, wondrous marbles and colored glasses, tropical birds and flowers. This is the portero. Though the household depends upon this man 'for ail wise protection and safety, he is not of It, and he seems to sit eternally at his little tablé, oblivions to everything save his oc casional Immediate duties, rolling out cigarettes as though his very life depended upon this tas^alone. His livelihood prac tically does, for, though a faithful sort of anirral, he is poorly paid' The many thousand porteras of Havana have become an important?factdr in cigarette manufact ure. For each 6,000, which in a wheel like package are caUed ana tarea, they re ceive un escudo, a sum equal t^ nineteen shillings .in American money.—Edgar L. Wakeman in New York Mull and Express. Several Groundless Superstitions.' There are thousands who believe it is healthy to rise early in the morning; whereas it is a hygienic crime for a man to get up before he wants to. The desire to sleep late In the morning is one of na ture's most emphatic intimations that more time is needed for repairs. For a man to go to work in the morning in a sleepy, semi-comatose condition is simply gradual suicide. There is another pop ular delusion tftat a man should stop eat ing while he is yet hungry. He might as well stop breathing before his lungs are filled Hunger is the barometer that tells the state of the stomach. A man'is never hungry unless he ought to eat. There is another delusion that night air is ^un healthy—as if any one could get anything but night air at night. There is 'really no air so unhealthy as day air bottled up and kept until night There has been no way discovered for preserving air like huckleberries by bottling.—Yankee Blade" 4 Ironclad Ship® Condemned. Tie new metal turrets wi th w hich Fra. e has been experiments!]!^* have proved nubble to stand the new projectiles from modem guns. This, says The Lan doii Times, condemns ironclad* ships with out giving them a chance of showing what they could do.—New Yor k Sun. 'Physician's Wife— Are your affairs in bod shape, John? Physician—Yes, but I hope to pull through. My creditors hâve extended my paper 'to the middle of the watermelon season. luck on wall sheet. 6IGNS WHICH BROKERS BELIEVE IN DICATIVE OF BAD FORTUNE. Hall Street a Hotbed of Superstition. Ilow Hunchbacks Affect tbe Market. The Wrong Foot Foremost—The Num ber 13—Lucky Suits ot Clothes. • While eating lunch the other day with a prominent broker, 1 chanced to ask him about tbe stock market. Before the ques tion was out of my mouth his hand went under tbe table like a flash and three omi nous, raps greeted my inquiry "Spirits?' said l. distrustfully eyeing him. "Lack." he answered, sipping his coffee. "I rapped for luck, as every sensible man should when tbt market us referred to in a restaurant." Outside the circle of Spiritualists hun dreds of prominent persons are supersti tious We consider ourselves at the me ridian of civilization, but, as Emerson says, we are only at the cock crowing and the morning star Hundreds of people consult swindlers who call themselves as trologers A large proportion of the pop ulation here believe in signs indicative of good luck or ill luck, or else they believe that certain persona are favored with good look, while others are naturally unlucky. The Rothschilds will have nothing to do with a man whom they consider unlucky. Commodore Vanderbilt, one of the ablest railroad financiers this country ever pro duced, believed in luck. BAD LOCK ON FRIDA T Hundreds of intelligent persons have a superstitious reluctance to engage in any important enterprise on Friday This in cludes as cool aud matter of fact a man as Jay Gould. Under no circumstances will he use an elevator The late Jesse Hoyt, the millionaire grain merchant, would never engage in any important business undertaking on Friday, and many of the speculators on the big exchanges are simi larly superstitious 'They consider every Friday a Black Friday The prejudice against Friday probably dates back to the Middle Ages, or to even a remoter period, as the day on which Christ was executed. It is only one of innumerable old super stitions which still survive. Many investors and speculators in W'all street are superstitious about dropping things If they find themselves constantly dropping articles which they happen to be carrying they take it as a sign that they must sell their l«>nds and stocks Many have a superstitious fear of holding stocks over a holiday ''TSomefirms will not display the ominous 13 if it happens to l>e the number of their places of business "I confess," said the manager of a large banking and brokerage house, "that i have a superstition about the 13th day of the month. It is not generally a lucky day One unlucky instance 1 remember, too, about Friday A big lake steamer that plied between Buffalo and Chicago a number of years ago was launched on Friday, sailed on Friday and sank on Fri day " Some stock brokers think it is very good luck to see a hunchback. If they can touch the deformity it will bring big gains Such a touch is also supposed to cure headaches. To see a negro the first thing in the morning is a favorable sign. In the play "Henrietta" a youth who speculates in stocks when asked by his broker whether be wishes to buy or sell answers gravely, "1 will consider it." Then he turns Ills back and tosses a cent to determine his coursa This is really founded partly on fact. A person in the habit of speculating in stocks found he was losing steadily At length he hit upon the idea of tossing a half dollar which he always carried fdr luck, and if it proved to be "head" he bought the first stock that came out on the tape; if it was "tail" he sold. For a time at least he was far mo>e successful by this method than he had ever been through tho exer cise of common sense. THE WRONG FOOT FOREMOST. Somq persons on rising in the morning have a superstitious fear of patting the left foot out of bed first. Others believe in always puttfcg on the left shoe first. If they meet a negro or a cross eyed woman they 'spit for good luck. Every body wants to pick up a horseshoe. On the Cotton Exchange there is one prominent member who consults the "spirits" for points on the market. On a dark day. when the gas is lighted, some of the brokers consider it a sign that the market will advance. Others say it is good luck to meet a Sister of Charity. "I shouldn't care," Baid a popular popular oil operator, "to be long of 13,000 barrels of ou here and short- that t much in Oil City. I would rdake it 14,000 at all hazards. Of course it is all nonsense, but I should feel better to change the figures at Once. Then d have an unlhcky suit of c lo thes. It may sound laughable, but it Is so. I have a fine gray suit at home which I have only worn four or five times in the last three years, and it has already cost me ten times what I gave for it. I bor rowed a diamond ring from a friend and thought it might give me kick. It was just the reverse. As SHre as 1 wear that diamond ring the market breaks. An . other thing, I jggrer trade on Friday if I have seen thife day a cross eyed woman or a red headed man." One of the best known traders in the oil ring of the Consolidated Exchange will never cross a street diagonally, but al ways at right angles. Between Wall street and Exchange place on narrow New street* on which both Stock Exchanges abut, the broilers walk *ln the middle of the street about as much as they do on the sidewalks; but the oil operator re ferred to always keeps carefully to the sidewalks, and i f be has occasion to crosa at tbe intersection of another street al tàkes in each corner on the way rather than cut across cat a-cornered He has a German coin that he copld not bei induced to sejl It gives good luck. Hundreds of brokers on the two Stock Exchanges consider that they have their lucky suits of clothes. On the Consolidated Exchange, espe cially in the shouting, gesticulating, push ing and rollicking oil group, it is consid ered a y.cry bad omen to open an lynbrella and raise it over the head. Putting up an umbrella in a board room would seem under all circumstances to be unnecessary. It is worse" It brings bad luck. There is a skeptical wag in the crowd, however, who on dull days, when the brokers are skylarking, will raise an umbrella and run into the trading ring and hold it o rer as mapy traders as he can. They scamper like a fiock of frightened sheep.—New York flop Gloh«*. Democrat. A PASSAGE IN THE STEERAGE. Some of th© Discomforts Encountered During an Ocean Voyage. It may serve as warning to all con cerned to publish the following extracts from a recent private letter, giving an ac count of the first part of a voyage to the River Plate on board one of the finest steamers afloat, and belonging to one of tho best known companies. The writer is a -young man who has to face the world as best be may, and by necessity took a steerage passage. He says. "In the bay of Biscay we have had very bad weather—high wind, rain and heavy seas. Last night was dreadful. The horrors of'a steerage passage can only be realized by experience. The food is bad and is eaten the best way w e can manage. There is no tabla We must eat—sitting on a wooden bench or standing—from greasy tin plates with greasy tin spoons and forks or greasy knives, and we drink out of greasy tin mugs. At 7 a. m. we have a compound which bears a faint're semblance to coffee, without milk, and good bread, which is the only good thing we have. There is also a substance they term "butter," but the sight and smell of it are enough. At 8 a. m. we have break fast, which consists of a kind of soupy stew with potatoes, and a concoction which has not the l&ast resemblance to tea, being^in fact, merely dirty water. I do not drink it. At noon we have dinner, which consists of beef cut in slices about an inch thick, and which will not yield to mastication, pqtatoes and bread and* water. At 5 p. m. we have more soupy stew and biscuit, winch will yield only to tbe ham mer. These are all the meals; and the bill of fare has only varied twice in four days—once on Sunday, when we liad salt fish, which was horrible, and today, when we ha'd salt pork, which was worse. "The sleeping arrangements are on & par with tlie rest. Our cabin has twenty eight berths, which are all full. Tbe bunks are about two feet wide, and the bods aro composed of a straw mattress and pillow, and two blankets The wash ing arrangements aro simple—tin basins, with about two inches of water. Baths there are none. The state of dirt we shall be in when we reach Montevideo I cannot conjecture. At night we have only one light—a dingy oil lamp. Bat the worst is to come. At Bordeaux, Cor unna and Virgo, we took on a cargo of the wret bedeut ragtag and bobtail of the French, Spanish and Portuguese nations —men, women and children I believe we now have about eight or nine hundred of tbese on board, and there aie more to come at Lisbon, which we should reach to-morrow. "The scenes that have taken place on deck and below since these poor wretches came on board bafHe description Men, women and children aro scattered about, eating, drinking, chattering, singing and vomiting Fortunate it is that our'cabin is full, so that tbese people are berthed in other cabins; but the noise at nitrht and the stench are horrible Some of them are literally in rags, many without shoes or stockings. but*all with one accord are very dirty Moreover, the ship itself is dirty. There seems to j 3 no attempt to keep it clean The door of our cabin is slippery with grease and dirt We have three unkempt Portuguese stewards to attend on 11 s They are fairly civil The enly Knglish steerage passengers are the twenty-eight in our cabin. They are all decent fellows. Some are engine drivers from the Midland railway, some clerks, etc. They share little luxuries freely with one another. As the above mentioned rag tag and bobtail are in the habit of steal ing out of the cabins, and even ripping bags open, we have organized a watch, of half an hour a spell each, sö that the cabin is never left untenanted all day. "— St. James' Gazette. Ratio Between Men ami Women. Prof. W. IL Brooks, of Baltimore, has discovered that a favorable environment tends to produce an excess of fe ibaies among animals and plants, and an unfa vorable environment an excess of maies If this be true, a race or species which is on the point of extinction should have an excess of males. The population of Australia consists of a small and decreasing number of aborig ines, and a prosperous and increasing pop ulation of foreign settlers and their de scendants, amounting in all to nearly 3,000,000 persons. As the native popula tion is rapidly disappearing, we-should expect to find the males more nunayoos among them as compared with the fe males than among the inhabitants ofp for eign origin, provided other conditions are equal. For each 100 females there were in Victoria of native bom Australians 1002-10 males, and of foreigners, exclusive of Chinese, 120 1-10 males. The ratio of males to females in the population of for eign origin is therefore very much greater than it would ,be if it depended upon the birth rate alor^e; and as this modifying In fluence does not affect the aborigines, an excess of males among them, no greater, or even a little less, than that found afnong the inhabitants of foreign origin, would indicate that the excess of mala births is muclr greater among them than amon^ the people of foreign origin. Com putation shows that the excess of males among the aborigines is, notwithstanding these neutralizing influences-, very mbch greater than it is amöng the foreign pop ulation. For all Australia there are 143.72 abo riginal males to each luO females; there are only 11S.64 males of foreign desoent to each 100 females, notwithstanding the fact that 129 males settled in these colo nies to each 100 females.—Science. The Weaker Sex Ko Looser. Society women nowadays thoroughly realize the importance of good heaifh in tlie matrimonial market, and New Vosk women are today much stronger and healthier, as a rule, than the men are A fewjninutes on Broadway, between Feu»: teenth street and Thirty-second, on the west side of the street, of a Saturday afternoon, will demonstrate the ti attf df this assertion. The women, as a ndq, are fresh of face, erect of carriage, their heads are well poised and their arms well rounded. Their figures are trim and they walk along with a strong and regular stride. The men, on the other hand, are too often sallow and loose jointeCk flat chested and hollow eyed, and certufcpty but Ûttle else can be expected when the late hours usually kept by them ate con sidered and it is remembered how mahy dozens of cigarettes they smoke the day and how many deadly coc are imbibed.—New York Mail press. and of on in A. is BEARD AND MUSTACHE. a TODAY'S FACIAL ORNAMENTS ONCE MUCH RIDICULED. The beard and mustache as an appendage to th£ face is of comparative recent date in the United States. Thirty years ago a beard was an exception, and thirty-five years have scarcely elapsed since the wearer of a beard was eitlier an object of ridicule or suspicion. When a boy the writer listened to a sermon in which tho smooth faced preacher descanted on tho sin of the beard, and'conclusively proved that Adam was not endowed with this facial appendage^ until after his fill, and that it constituted the actual thicket be hind which he sought to hide himself from the sight of his maker. It is quite evident it was at least as difficult for the ancients to keep down the growth of the beard as it is for the modem youth to raise one. Before the invention of the razor, wbicb dates back less than two centuries, the hair was kept from ac cumulating on the face by rubbing the skin quickly with pumice stone, which gave it that peculiar polish and hardness off outline noticeable in old paintings. Barbers are first mentioned in English history about the year 1029, during the reign of Charles 1 , when a number of Puritans were ordered to be punished by having their "beards shaven from their faces with sharp knives, and tbe hair to be cropped close to their heads therewith, in addition to having their ears cut off and tongues bored with a red hot iron, and to bo thereafter stood in the pillory." A SUBJECT OP RIDICULE. About 1833 beards and mustaches began to make their appearance in this country on the streets of the cities, and were everywhere the subject of ridicule, so much so that few were vain enough to cultivate them In 1838 the fad for wear ing hair on the face was given a great thrust forward by a picture of Count D'Orsay, published in Frazer's Magazine, illustrating how copiously a chin could bs cushioned, and which, it was conceded, reached the climax of hair arrangement in that quarter. Still for a number of years later long beards were considered disgraceful; as masks behind which criminals and out laws sought to hide their identity. As late as 1848 the writer remembers to have seen a Jew with lon'g hair and beard "bated" on Beaver street, in this city, by a crowd of boys, who chased him with sticks and stones through the streets and alleys of what was then one of the most attractive portions of New York, and for no other reason than the great mass of hair which concealed his features. And on this occasion the sedate business men of that part of the city gathered at their doors and cheered the boys with their ex pressions of appi'oval. One or two judges about that time be gan to make their appearance on th® bench with whiskers. This the public» took as an offense, and the papers seri ously discussed it as a matter of prime importance. "Whiskers," says The Democratic Review, "are bad enough at the bar, and even then they are pestilent accompaniment for counsel. There is no gentlemanly managing a jury with thorn. Men are not open to reason or pathos that might issue from any. part of a face thus cultivated. They continually, and for good reason, suspect those who talk to them in a mask.. But to carry whiskers up to the tribunal is unbecoming the judge as it is unfortunate for the wool sack. NVliat would men have ns think? Do they mean to enforce decisions by tho ferocity of their countenances? To make us fear instead of honor them? Or would they, wherever thfey may be. Lave us understand that their strength, like his of old, lies in their hair?" None of the fathers of the republic ever wore a beard. The appendage of hair is not to be found on the face of any of the signers of tbe Declaration of Independence, and it, was unknown to all the officers of the revolutionary army. Those men of great minds, iron will and strong purpose stood forth in the broad light of day with faces so clean that their every thought might be read. THE CROPPED SIDE WHISKER. The war of 1812 brought no generals to the front with beards, but all the com manders of'the navy appear to have culti vated the "mutton leg," as It was once called—the side whisker reaching an inch or so below the ear, but always kept fcropped. This is the whiskers we find on the pictures of Perry, Bdinbridge, Deca tur, Lawrence and others, and is the plant which was afterwards built out and, in connection with the mustache, became the "Burnside." All the principal officers of tlie Mexican war were also beardless, although the mustache and beard began about that time cregp into the army. Of the presidents of the United* States John Q. Adams and Zachary Taylor had mere bunch of hair, extending the length of the ear. Martin Van-Buren had ^more of the "mutton leg," which curled forward, and being of a sandy colofT gave that peculiar expression to his face which caused him to be nick named "The Red Fox of Kinderhook"' or Foxy" Van Buren. All the other presi dents had faces shaven of every particle of hair, and up to 1861 no man had oc cupied a position of prominence in the national government who w'ore a beard on his chin or a mustache. John C. Fre mont, the first candidate of the. Republi can party for tbe presidency, also culti vated bis entire cheek aud chin space for hair, and Abraham Lincoln, his successor on the ticket four years later, and the first Republican president, also wore a full beard. The cabinet which Lincoln assembled teas composed largely of bearded men. The despised al>olition sentiment bad ob tained tLo ascendency, and men by the thousands who ten years before would rather have been caught burning a house than raising a beard, threw away razors and turned their faces out tdrnature than raising a threw away their for coverings. The officers in the field of both armies let the beard grow or cut it in shapes to suit their particular fancy or appearance, until a smooth faced man be came almost as rare as a hairy one had been a few months previous. Presidents Grant, Hayes and Garfield all appeared in full beards, and we all re member the luxurious Burnsides of Chester A. Arthur, the pre-eminently gentlemanly occupant of the White House. Cleveland is the first president that ever was elected back® by a mustache only.—New York Press I A CHURCH WITH A HISTORY. Hnilt on Wall Street, New York—Moved to .Jersey City—To Re Torn Down. [Spécial Correspondence.] New York, June 7.—There is a church building in Jersey City recently disposed Df under the hasimer of the auctioneer, tlie history of which began far back into the history of New York. The congrega tion which built this church was the First Presbyterian, of New York. The original members met in 1717 in the New York City hall, which was then in Wall street on the spot where afterwards stood the Federal hall, in which George Washing ton was inaugurated first president of the United States, and now the location of the United States sub-treasury building. Three years later they built a church on Wall street, about a block nearer Broad way. Afterward they enlarged this build ing, and still later fftiilt a new one. This new edifice was removed brick by brick and re-erected in Jersey City in 1844, and is the building recently sold at auction. During a period ef nearly two centuries the old church has been crowded from one location to another, and now in its old age business is again upon it, and at last its career as a church edifice is ended. Standing in the interior on the day after the auction, before the plain, old fashioned pulpit and the pews, built and painted after the fashion of perhaps half a cen tury ago, even a stranger could not but feel impressed with the associations which gather about the old building. On the left is a tablet in memory of Davi'd Hen derson, who was instrumental in taking the church building from New York to Jersey City. On the right is another tablet, bringing back memories of that period of excitement, of sacrifice, which those who passed through it must ever regard as a dozen years of life concentrated into four —the period from 1861 to 1865. The tablet is in memory of Hugh Hartshorne Jane way, colonel of the First New Jersey cavalry, who, "after four years of heroic service and repeated wounds fell in battle near Jetters ville, Va., in the 24th year of his age." There is certainly something startling in these words "in the 24tli year of his age," when seen or spoken in the midst of so much that is old. Young Janeway, beloved, ad •'„k O r os a; y/ ■ 1 y m •ti À r mi V*. m A. ■ 'it Mg SkdESiS» OLD WALL STREET CHURCH, mired, respected as a man and a soldier, was shot down on tlie day or very near the day that Leo surrendered. The Rev. Charles K. Imbrie, the pastor of the church, remembers three scenes in which he officiated. There he received young Janeway into the church; there he united him in marriage to the woman of his choite, and there, after ine soldiers body had been borne through the aisle in presence of a vast assembly, he per formed the last offices for the dead. Standing within the structure where this service took placo one can almost feel again the regret which must have per vaded the gathering, that one who had fought gallantly to the la§t, whose cause had been won, who had so much to live for, should have been taken at tlie mo ment of triumph and in the flower of his manhood. The tablet, with tlie sale of the church, passes into the possession of Col. Janewaÿ's family. On the 29th of April last Dr. Imbrie preached a farewell to his congregation. His words were doubtless mellowed by the recollection of the scenes upon which the walls had looked down. For thirty eight years he had viewed and partici pated in a succession of those scenes. Some whom he made brides in the begin ning of his administration doubtless have sent their daughters to him to be wedded. Many have gone to other places, and many have passed out of the busy throng. The congregation have not forgotten their pas', or who has served them well in his old age. The sale of the property brought $19,000. All of this is to be in vested, and the income given to Dr. Im brie during his life. F. A. M. Blink:;—Where do you keep yourself nowaday s? Jinks—Well, since I got married I have been saving my money and denying my self all amusements and luxuries. Blinks—Seems to me I saw you over at the ball game the other day. Jinks—Oh, well, bh&eball is a necessity. —Lowell Citizen. English and American Journa.s, Perhaps the most striking contrast be tween English aud American journals is In the relative amount of space alloted to verbatim reports of speeches, discourses and other addresses. Besides the room given to parliamentary proceedings, there are many columns in each issue of the average English daily devoted to'record ing the utterances'of men, wise # 1 or other wise. Tbe first qualification required of a re porter. in England is the ability to ( <fike verbatim notes; and, looking over some of tlie English papers, an American is in clined to think it is the only qualification. The space given to description in reports of political and other meetings ovçr there is very small, no matter how man/ col umns of wind are phônographed. Ih this country we do not care to reproduce all the words that fall from the lips of a speaker on the stump; much less does the reader nert morning care to' read them« I was somewhat astonished while visiting England last summer to observe how ■erly your Intelligent Briton wades gh a three or four column spee'ch at®a nolitical delivered the night before at»a political meeting, letting his breakfast coffee cool hile.— J. C. Moffett in The Writer.