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Helena, Montana, Thursday, October /i, 1888. No. 46 * * R. E. FISK. FISK D. W. FISK *. J Publishers and Proprietors. Largest Circulation cf any Paper in Montana Rates ot Subscription. WEEKI/ThERALD: One Year, (in n«l \ him*«*) .............................£3 00 81x Months, (In advance)............................... 1 75 Three Months, (in advance).......................... 1 00 When not paid for in advance the ra»e will be Four Dollars per yeaii Postage, in all cases Prepaid. DAILY HERALD: City Siii>scrtber8,delivered by carrier 81.00a month One Year, by mail, (in advance)................. ?9 00 Hix Months, by mail, (in advance)............... 5 00 Three Months, by mail, (in advance)........... 2 50 Jf not paid in advance, £12 per annum. [Entered at tlie Postoffice at Helena as second class matter.] tFAll communications should be addressed to FISK BROS., Publisher», Helena, Montana. fill LDEEK. Hark ' a bell-note voice I hear Sprightly, musical and clear, Slender bit of white and brown Darting up and flutt'ring down— Blithely hear, "Killdeer! Killdeer!*' When chilly winds have flown. Where the light winds shivering pass Through the tufted yellow grass, On the lonely reach t; range Solitary, sear and strange, Killdeer's air rings blithely there And cheers the lonely range. What though cactus' yellow bloom Animates the summer noon, And the curlew's queilous cry, Startling breaks 'mid earth and sky, Less the boo j of Kil.deer's tune The days pass sadly by. Fair embodiment to me Of a wild existency. Many days ere comes the snow And the bitter wind to blow, Let your free, sweet melody Its henison bestow. L. A. OSBORNE. MARBLEHEAD NECK. The waves beat idly, with a ceaseless roar, And to and fro the sen weed bends to me, Kissing the great red rocks along the shore, But thou, beloved, are not here to see. The sun goes down in glory in the west, Bathing in crimson every flower and tree, The white sails redden on ths nnaaa hmanf. But thou, beloved, are not here to see. The twilight gathers and the moon rides high; I watch its silver track and think ef thee; God keep thy path as bright from earth to sky, When I, beloved, am not here to see. —Sarah K. Bolton in Home Journal. TODAY'S DUTIES Fo mue a to do, so little done! With sleepless eyes 1 saw the sun, Itisjbeamless disk in darkness lay, The dreadful ghost of yesterday! So little done, so much to do I The morning shone on harvests new; In eager light I wrought my way, And breathed the spirit of today I — J. J. Fiatt. An Instantaneous Mental Process. The Imaginative writer, like the inven tor, performs his mental work by a less conscious effort than others, and by an instantaneous mental process. The ideas are evolved, or the principle of tho ma chine is conceived, lie knows not how. We do not mean that such ideas or inven tions are arrived at easily, without previ ous study or thought, but that tho vital idea comes to the writer or inventor in stantaneously, and without conscious ef fort. Thackeray tells in his letters how he was in despair for a namo for a novel he was writing. He had consulted friend* to whom ho read his manuscript, but they were unable to aid him; but one night he was suddenly aroused from sleep, and jumping out of bed he ran like one mad three times around his room, crying, "Vanity Fair! Vanity Fair!!"—Susan Changing in Tho Writer. Difference In Tino Wood». Carpenters find a vast differenco in the pine woods they handle—a differenc« which is generally accounted for by th« fact that the woods como from different forests. For instance, tho virgin pin« from Michigan is tough and wiü break, splintering for three or four inches, wliil« the second growth wood from Massachu Fetts is more brittle and less fibrous. This fact recently gained a suit for a New Haven contractor whose employer refused to pay him, claiming that while part ol tho work was well done some of it had been slighted. It was shown that tho car penters had been given two varieties ol pine, one smooth and hard—"workable" —and tho other brittle and splintering.— Chicago News. laisses of the Civil War. The extent of these losses will bo bet ter understood if compared with somo of tho extraordinary cases cited in the his tories of other wars Take, for instance, tho charge of the Light brigade at Balak lava— tho charge of tin* Six Hundred. Ix>rd Cardigan took 673 officers and men into t hat action; they lost 113 killed and 134 wounded; total, 247, or 36.7 per cent. Hjo heaviest loss in the late Franco Prussian war occurred at Mars-la-Tour, in the Sixteenth German infantry (Third Westphalian), which lost 49 percent. But the One Hundred and Forty first Penn sylvania lost 76 |icr cent, at Gettysburg, "liilo regimental losses of GO percent. *ere frequent occurrences in both Union ûud Confederate armies. In the war for tho Union there were scores of regiments, unknown or forgotten in history, whose percentage of killed and wounded in cer 'iun actions would far exceed that of the inuch praised Light Brigade; and nobody Wundered either.—Col. W. F. Fox in Tho Century Prom Cedar Wood Pulp. r i 10 n t> w applications of a waste a U6eful Purpose is the manu f °, of P a per out of cedar wood pulp, w r,w er üy ^ e carpets, wrapping of cun'llf 8 ' j tc ' paper makers pro tor?™*™ chipa of Poricil manufao torialwoiV^ 0 W» mado of this ma ivranrr 1 •' Claimcd ' preserve articles AiSL fr ° m th ° m °ths.—Scientific EDUCATION OF GIRLS. THE NECESSITY OF LEARNING SOME REMUNERATIVE EMPLOYMENT. Daughters Should Bo Prepared to Fight Life's Battles—Uncertainties of Fortune. Fashionable Education of Today— Pa rents' Lack of Moral Courage. Why do not parents educate their daughters to bo independent from a ma terial point of view? Most girls, as now adays raised, look forward with somo yearning, as assuring them a position of independence and comfort, to the time when they shall be married. That is nat ural. Granted that the girl is finally and in duo season married. Does happiness always follow? Is there no husband who by the use of liquor forces himself into an untimely grave? Is there no husband who gambles away or recklessly dissi pates his substance? Is there no one who is too indolent to do his duty to his family? Is there no one to whom misfor tunes in health or business come? What shall tho wife do who in her youth be lieves that roses were to bo strewn over life's pathway to the end? What if she should have two or three little ones to support? Tho answer is plain. She must go out and earn !■ r living. And in proportion as her early life was one of luxury she will find this task the more difficult. It is sometimes a blessing to bo born poor, because one becomes unconsciously inured in youth to the hardships that may como to every one in the course of a lifetime. Again, poverty in youth, or comparative poverty, not only disciplines one for the adversities of life, but actively prepares them to fight life's battle. The child of pour parents is forced to support itself, lliis requires the learning of some useful and remunerative employment. Better times may justify a surcease from work. But tho profession has been learned and it may yet be a means of support. Lifo has as many changes as a kaleidoscope. They como where we least expect them. Tho rich man today may bo poor to-mor row, and tho next day ho and his family may suffer for the necessaries of life. The possession of wealth is one of the most uncertain things in lifo. What are the daughters of tho rich man to do when poverty overtakes them? IN A NET SHELL. Here is tho matter in a nut shell. Are they to bo married? jjarriago is not so easy an affair as one may think. One important requisite is the man who is anxious for connubial burdens and de lights. A good many men do not want to marry poor girls. Those who are wise enough to marry a poor girl take that giri who from long experience, has learned how to save and economize. They do not wish the poor-rich girl who has the tastes of tho rich and who will gratify them if they can get a husband indulgent enough. It must ho very humiliating to a proud girl whoso father has lost his fortune to becomo tho shuttlecock of fortune. If she had some calling, such as any one of the many occupations that are now open to women, she could occupy a position of in dependence without in the least sacrific ing her dignity or self respect. She has talents wouth buying and for such there is generally a convenient market. Parents should early impress upon tho minds of their children the vicissitudes of life, and especially tho uncertainties of fortune. They should teach their chil dren that happiness, which is as perish ablo as tho flower of the field, which to day is and to-morrow is not, may in a short time bo succeeded by black despair. They should teach them that honest labor is always to bo respected, and that the girl or boy who is the master of a useful calling is of somo importance in tho social fabric. They should teach the girls espe cially that a special education may save them at a critical time. Tho boys, by somo instinct which tho girls do not have, choose that which they can do best, and early learn to choose. CHOICE OF A CALLINO. But there should bo somo discrimina tion used in the choice of a special calling. Music is not to bo included in tho list of useful pursuits. Accomplishments are very pretty for those who possess them. But in the struggle for bread and butter they aro not useful. Painting and music are not necessities. At the best, 'accom plishments are of small avail in the efforts for a living, and music, unless one can becomo a finished teacher, is too preca rious a way to earn money to be depended upon with any degree of certainty for the support of a family. Very much in the fashionable education of today is of no YcJ,U(} when jt is tested in the crucible of bitter experience. The reason why so few parents properly educato their daughters is because tho majority are afraid of popular opinion. They lack tho moral courage. And be cause tho canon ^f fashionable society de clare that certain foolish forms must bo observed, they aro observe L If the can ons of fashionable society should hold that to know how to cook is tho proper qualification for a society belle, wo should find our pretty girls among tho pots and pans and kitchen smells In spite of the grease and tho dirt and the pertinacity of tho latter. But fashionablo society holds otherwise, and so tho pretty girls neglect an art which will somo day bo of service to them. No young woman can keep house properly who does not know how to direct her servants. It will never do for her to allow her servants to direct. Yet society ignores tho proper training for housekeeping, one of the primo factors in mundane welfare. But society is often at fault. It is at fault hero. If tho rich had moro courago they might uncon sciously shape tho education of young wo men in a sensible way.—Detroit Free Press. _ Copy for the Editor. Most editors disliko pencil copy. It is hard to read and bothers desk editor and compositors alike. News paper — paper like that on which newspapers aro printed —should never bo used for anything but newspaper copy. If it is used, tho sheets should uever bo larger than commercial note size. Editors may not complain of pencil copy, but they prefer pen and ink copy every time. Of course, if a writer has a regular and assured position, he may con sult only his own convenience and disre gard tho wishes of those who handlo his copy; but if ho is sending his matter to an uncertain market the neater and hand somer ho makes it, the moro likely it is to sell.— "W. IL 1L" in The Writer. of no ally FhUNUNCIATION IN ENGLAND. of Proper Names Disguised Beyond Becog. nition.—A Partial List. Persons who are entirely educated through tho eye without reference to tho ear and on whom sound has no effect are content to pronounce names as they have been accustomed to hear them pronounced, without taking the trouble to observe or even to notice how they are spelled. So what we call bad pronunciation of names by those moving in good society—that is to say, the educated classes—is their good pronunciation, and in almost every in stance the change is for the worse to the educated American critic; for instance, "Chumley" for Cholmondeley, "Marsh banks" for Majoribanks, "Bech'mp" for Beauchamps, and so on. Nothing but the fact that the peoplo in Eng land speak different dialects in dif ferent counties, that they cannot understand one another, must ac count for the fact that Blythe is pronounced "Bly." Mainwaring is called "Mannering," so "Guy Mannering" is really Guy Mainwaring; "McLeod" is McCloud. In Molyneux the x is sounded; in Vaux the final x is also sounded, but in Devereux the final x is not sounded; in Des Vaux the final x is dropped. In Meux the x takes tho sound of "Mews. Ker is pronounced "Kar," and is would be very bad style to call it "Cur." Cock bum is called "Cobum." Cowper, tho poet of tho "Sofa" and "John Gilpin," is called "Cooper" always. In Waldegrave the "de" should bo dropped. It should be called "Walgrave," a slight accent on the first syllable. In London always say "Barkley" for Berkeley. Only tho Lon don cabmen call it what it is. They say "Berkeley square," but my noble lord says "Barkley square." The Derby is the Darby. In Dillwgn the "w" takes the sound of "u;" it is pro nounced Dillun. Leveden is called Live den. Pepys should be pronounced Pepis, the accent on the first syllable. Evelyn is called Eveelyn, with tue accent on tho first syllable. In Monson the o takes the sound of u, and it is pronounced Munson. The same in Ponsonby, which is always Punsunby. Blount is always Blunt, Brougham is Broom, Buchan should bo pronounced Buccan. Wemys is always Weems, D'Eresby is always Dersby, St. John is "Sin Jin," as a surname or a Christian name, but as a locality or a building it is pronounced as spelled—St. John. Montgomery is Mungomery. In Elgin the g is hard and should bo pro nounced as the g in give. The g in Gif ford is soft, as Jifford. They talk of "Jifford's History of England," and the g in Nigel is also soft, as the Forâmes of Nigel. In Conyngham the o takes the sound of u and should bo pronounced Cunning ham. In Johnstone the t shouldjipt be sounded, Strachan should bo pronounced Stranu, Hoathcote is called Hethcut, Hert ford is called Harford. Seymour is pro nounced Semur, Albergravenny is called Abergenny, Bourne is Bum, Colquhoun is simply Koolioon, tho accent on the last syllable. Coutts is called Roots, Du chesne is Dukara, Eyro is called Air, Goner is Gor, Geoffrey is ealled Jefry, Harne is Hume, and Knollys is Knowles, Lehigh is Lee, Menzies is Myngies, Mac nemera is pronounced Macnemra, Sandys is pronounced Sands, St. Clair is Sinkler, Vaughan is Vom; but St. Maur is called St. Maur, Villiers is called Villers, Ville bois is still pronounced like a French name, "Vealbox," Tyrwhit is Tierret. In all this one is reminded of tho English lord who gave his card to an expressman. "Air. Cohoon," said the expressman. When ho looked at tho card it read Col quhoun. "That is one of them adventurer fel lers," said tho expressman. Bethuno is pronounced Beeton, Dalziel is pronounced*Decal, Charteris is called Charters, Geogliegan is called Gaygen, Ruthven is called Rivven, Fildes is called Filedes, Bicester is called Bister, Cirencis ter Cisester, Bel voir is Bever, Pontreract is simply Pomfret, Rokeby is called Ilookby. In Burdett, Kennaird and Parnell tho last syllabblo is emphasized. In Trede gar, Bredalbane, Clanricardc, only the middle syllable is emphasized. For Tra falgar square the old Londoner says Tro falgar square. This difference of nomen clature reaches also to the very different names of things, as no one in London asks for an "apothecary shop;" he asks for the ''chemist's" if he wants a dose of medi cine. Apothecaries existed in Shak spere's time, as we learn from "Romeo and Juliet," but they aro "gone out" since. As soon as an American can divest himself of saying "baggage" and learn to say "luggage" the sooner will ho be un derstood.—-A Letter. Mrs. M. E. W. Sherwood's Gold Washing in California. What an earth scarring, devastating pro cess that whole system of gold washing has been to a portion of California! It has torn down hills and mountains, filled up lovely valleys and ravines with rock and mud and left only baro rock and piles of bowlders where were before shaded and fertile little plains. Tnis has taken place over hundreds of miles of territory. But nature repairs such ravages very quickly, especially in California, where vegetation, wild or cultivated, grows after a rapid transit fashion. There it soon binds up these earth scars with wild vines and bushes. I have seen saplings growing through the roofs and barring tho doors of tho cabin In a camp which had not been deserted more than ten years. So far as outward "indications" went, no set or perfect rule will work in finding gold. As to place or manner of deposit, tho diggings in one locality would be a contradiction to those in another. The heaviest gold was generally found deepest. But sometimes the heaviest gold was found on the top in tho very grass roots. Old miners finally dropped on an adago that developed itself like many other things out of the lifo and luck of the dig gings. That adago was: "Gold is gener ally where you find it." This worked. There is no getting outside of it. The Mexicans say: "It takes a mine to work amine." I would recommend these two texts to all who are disposed to embark in mining ventures.—Prentice Mulford in New York Star. One of the most unhappy men in the world is ho who, instead of measuring his strength against his work, is always measuring it against tho strength of other men.—Christian Union. To see an expression of severe sim plicity and childlike innocence in a man's face, watch him when ho gets two dollars change out of a one dollar bill.—Boston Globe. is cm' AND COUNTRY. ONE-FOURTH OF AMERICA'S LIVE IN TOWNS. PEOPLE The Complaint In Other Countries Sim ilar to That In Ours—Farmer. 1 Sons Flocking to the Cities—Where Will It End?—Another Side. It has been latelv estimated that more of the American popula tion now live in towns of over 8,000 in than one-fourth of the American popula habitants, whereas fifty years ago only one-fifteenth lived in this way. The change is usually attributed partly to railroads, which make it possible to sup ply these largo collections of people with the necessaries of life, and partly also to the demand felt for city conveniences, luxuries, excitements and companionship. At any rate, the results are confined to no single nation or continent. M. Kebbel, In his Agricultural Laborer, says of Eng land: "Tho rising generation of peas antry take no interest in agricultural work. * * * The best boys from the schools all set their faces toward the town, and scorn the plow. " In France, M. Baudrillart finds that while tho popula tion of the farming districts diminishes, that of tho towns increases. This, he thinks, due largely to popular education, which has created new wants and broken up the old intellectual stagnation. He complains that in France a new and lower grade of laborers is being imported from Belginm and Italy to take the place of tho French peasant, who seeks the towns. All this is curiously like the complaint we hear among ourselves. In New Eng land, where farming is difficult and unro munerative, we see.many farms passing into the hands of the Irish and the Swedes, while the cities are built up by tho sons of those who were once farmers. As you cross the prairies, where farming is still profitable, you may sometimes see wheat fields or corn fields stretching to the horizon, and tilled by the joint labor of some colored family which came within thirty years out of slavery. Not that those fertile regions do not still sustain a thriving race of farmers of tho Anglo Saxon race; but even there they are dividing the soil. It seems, with races more backward. With all the skill brought to bear upon scientific agricult ure, it may be doubted whether it is an intellectual pursuit $aquiring as high a brain power as the more difficult branches of mechanical work—the various applica tions of electricity, for instance—and if it were, it l*as an element of feolitude about it that dissatisfies. STKANQ^SITÜATIOÎT. xmutr "God made the country, and man made tho town," says Cowper; but man seems for somo reason to prefer his own handi work. To one who approaches the mat ter simply as a lover of naturo the situa tion seems a strange one, but ho is com pelled to recognize it. Talking in Colo rado tho other day with a Scotchman who owns a sheep ranch of 6.000 acres. I nat urally congratulated him on an employ ment so attractive, and spoke of tho de lightful associations with the pursuit in the Scottish ballads, tho writings of tho Ettrick Shepherd, and so on. He inter rupted mo with tho bluff assurance that ho hated sheep, that ho had herded them first in South Africa, and then in Colo rado, but wished that ho might never see one of those animals again, or even hear its name mentioned. Thus, it seems, do poetry and fact diverge when people como to talk about rural occupations. Where is this sort of thing to end? If in England, with all the immense artifi cial prestige that has so long attached it self to the ownership of tho soil, there is a growing indiffereneo to farming, how long will even our broad acres of virgin soil prove attractive? Yet there certainly is, somewhere in our hearts, a love not merely for wild nature, but fer the pro cess of subduing it to order and produc tiveness. I talked the other day with a young Harvard graduate, who went half a dozen years ago from fashionable clubs and the leadership of the "german" to a very isolated ranch in Washington terri tory, and he told mo that such was his de light in the sense of ownership and growth that often, after a hard day's work, he would stroll out in the evening simply to look on his growing crops and orchards. "I felt about them," ho said, "very much as I suppose a mother feels about her children." Though the sense of isolation had finally driven him away— partly, however, for the sake of his young family—he still felt the tie and tho lon/r* ing. ANOTHER VIEW OF IT. Side by side with this vast thronging toward town lifo in the winter has come a proportionate longing for the country in the summer. All persons beyond middle age can remember the beginning of this amazing division of social life between summer and winter, which now gives to so many persons of moderate means a dupli cate residence for tho two seasons. In our larger cities, where whole streets of brown stone palaces remain all summer as silent as the catacombs, it was formerly the custom for those who resided in such houses to keep them open all summer, tho family taking perhaps a fortnight's out ing to "the springs" or "the beach," and then returning home. The lengthening vacations of public and private schools illustrate the same change of habit; there was formerly almost as long a vacation in winter as in summer; in some colleges much longer, that the students might teach school. But now the summer vacations last in some cases three solid months; and the migration includes not merely the occupants of the brown stone fronts, but vast multitudes of hard working families, who dwell all summer in a tent on the beach, or in those hives of summer population by inland lakes or beneath mountains. If this tendency goes on developing for the next f fty years as for the last fifty, it may not solve the problem of scientific agriculture, but it will certainly furnish some anti'dote to the alleged evils of cities.— T. W. Higginson in Harper's Bazar. Severity of Scarlet Fever. From an analysis of over 6,000 cases oi scarlet fever, it appears that liability to the disease is very slight during early in fancy, reaches the maximum in the fourth or fifth year, and diminishes every year afterward. The severity is greatest in the first two years, lessening year by year throughout childhood and adoles cence. Females are more liable to attach after infancy than males, but attacks among males are more fatal.—Boston Budget.__ a ANOTHER ROYAL MARRIAGE. The Princess Sophie of Germany to Wed the Crown Prince of Greece. All the noble gossips and diplomats of Europe have turned for awhile from po litical complications to admire and specu late on the Greek marriage, which raises that little kingdera several notches in the royal scale. Boulanger is ignored, the Franco-German and German-Russian com plications are temporarily forgotten, and Queen Natalie, of Servia, gets a rest; for the crown prince of Greece is to marry the sister of the German emperor, and there is a boom for tho royal Hellenes. 4» 9 tr PRINCESS SOPHIA. P,iIKCE CONSTANTINE OF GREECE. To understand the importance of this marriage it is necessary to note two things: Many of the royal and princely rulers of Europe aro really of a different stock from tho people they rule; and through tho union of British, German, Danish and Russian blood, the offspring of this marriago will concentrate the blood of the rulers of the great powers, and, to Bomo extent, the good will of their people, in the future sovereign of Greece. It will be remembered that the first monarchy set up in Greece, after the Turks were driven out, was a failure; and that the great Christian powers combined to make Gcorgo of Denmark king as George I of Greece. He is of the old and noble house of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonder burg-Glucksburg, was bora Dec. 24, 1845, and married Olga, daughter of the Grand Duko Constantme of Russia, who was born Sept. 8, 1857. Constantino, their first child, was bora Aug. 2, 1868, and is, of course, to be king of Greece if be survives his father. His bride, Sophie, is the daughter of the late Emperor Frederick of Germany, and was bom Juno 14, 1870. So she was but a few days past 18, as her husband was barely 21, when they were married. Prince Constantine's other title is Duke of Sparta, just as that of tho crown prince or England is Piince of Wales. Should Constantine and Sophie be so fortunate as to have a son, the boy will be great grand son of Queen Victoria and Emperor Will iam and the former czar of Russia, and closely related to the royal families of Denmark and other monarchies, as well as first or second cousin to half the minor German rulers. But ho will not still be a Greek—that is, ho will have no Hellenic blood in his veins. The little kingdom over which he will rale now has barely 2,500,000 inhabitants, of whom nearly one-half are Albanians and quite half pure Greeks or Hellenes but in all the adjoining countries are Greeks to the number of 6,000,000, and just now there is a spontaneous and en thusiastic movement among them for a Pan-Hellenic union. An unusually large proportion of them are very wealthy mer chants In Constantinople, Trieste, Smyrna, Alexandria, and within a few years these have contributed nearly $1,000,000 to found schools, colleges, gymnasia and lectureships in Greece, so there aro now in that kingdom thirty-five important institutions of learning; and it is esti mated that in twenty years the Greeks will be among tho best educated people in Europe. The next generation may see restored tho condition of 400 B. C., when sporadic Hellas looked to continental Hellas as home, and the Greeks of all the world united at the Olympic games. «7. Newton Gotthold. In the death of J. Newton Gotthold tho stage loses one of its eminent men, and one who has played in nearly every American town as well as in England. Ho was bom in Richmond, Va., in 1837. His namo was Isaac Newton Gotthold, but when he first appeared on the stago a pro gramme printer made a mistake and ? rinted it J. New o n instead o f Newton. Gott hold accepted tho name, how ever, and never altered it. Though bom in tho south, M r. Gotthold served during tho civil war in a New York regiment. He made his debut in Wash ington in 1864 as Hamlet, though as an amateur. After that he went to London and announced himself as the "Young American Tragedian," making his profes sional debut in "The Gunmaker of Mos cow." His American professional debut was mado in the Winter Garden theatre, in New York, as Othello. Mr. Gotthold supported Rhea, Gus Will iams and other stars. Ho also figured as a playwright, having written "The Good Fight." llo adapted "Micaliz" from the French of Theodore de Barriere. » J. NEWTON GOTTHOLD. Some Alloys of Goltl. A new alloy of gold and platinum, upon which Mr. \V. C. Roberts Austen has been engaged for some time, takes fire on being thrown into water, and the gold is released as a black powder, differing from ordinary gold In its property of readily forming auric hydride. This abnormal form of gold, which becomes normal me tallic gold on heating, is said to have been long utilized by the Japanese. They ob tain it from its alloy with copper, with which they form ornamental metallic de signs upon knife handles, etc., and then release the dark colored gold by a pick ling process. In this way, they have pro duced an appearance of transparency in a metallic representation of water, at a place where in the design a duck was re presented plunging half its body below the surface of a stream.—Arkansaw Trav aIqh Warranted Waterproof. An oiled silk lining is a new fad for bathing dresses.—Inter Ocean. THE BEGGARS OF PARIS. A LIVELY DESCRIPTION OF THEIR HAUNTS AND HABITS. Taking a Census of the Mendicants ol Paris—Peculiar Characteristics ot the Beggars' Special Quarter—In Bygone Times—Heavy Penalties. To take a census of beggars—an opera tion which, more probably for the fiftieth than for tho first time, has just been per formed by the Paris prefecture of police —must in many respects bo regarded as a task about as tkankless, if not as useless, as that of weaving a rope of sand. To ascertain tho aggregate of professional mendicancy in a great metropolis like Paris is by no means a trustworthy crite rion of tho amount of poverty existing. As in I-iondon, tho vast majority of the beggars in Lutetia are the professional ones—that is to say, rank impostors—and their numbers will probably show a ten dency to increase rather than to diminish with tho improvement in trade and the augmentation of affluence among tho classes who are begged from but do not beg. Our Paris correspondent tells us, in deed, that tho "gueux." or habitual beg gars, are at present in an exceptionally thriving condition, and are making money moro easily in consequence of the more largely developed liberality of tho alms giving public. It is even stated that these professional paupers have two di rectories of their own, in which tho names and addresses of Good Samaritans with plenty of money aro duly entered, to gether with a description of the strata gems which experience has shown to be most efficacious in extracting cash from tho unwary. The first directory is called tho "Guido of the Grand Jeu," or "Big Game," and costs no less than six francs. There is a smaller "Guide of the Petit Jen," which only costs half the money, a id gives the addresses of more middle class philanthropists. These red boks for rogues contain full Instructions to the ' gueux" as to what shall be their de meanor in tho presence of peoplo who aro likely to unloose their purse strings when a pitiful talo is told. Whatever may be the statistical worth of the census of vagrancy just compiled, there can be little doubt that tho returns obtained by the patient enumerators of the prefecture of police have considerable social value, inasmuch as they denote changes in national manners and prove that, although the Parisian beggars are numerically still a formidable folk, they have almost ceased to bo picturesque, The "Cour des Miracles," which Victor Hugo has immortalized in "Notro Dame do Paris," still nominally exists in peaceable passage near the Rue Montor gueil; but it is a vastly different place from tho filthy area, surrounded by t urn ble down tenements, which throughout the Middle Ages was at once tho St. Giles and the Alsatia of the French capital. The beggars' special quarter enjoyed tho privilege of sanctuary, and was ruled over by an elective king, who was as sisted by a council including sundry "dukes of Egypt" and nobles of the em pire of Galilee—all beggars. One of the peculiar characteristics of the place was its utter silence and aban donment in the day time; not even tho lame, the halt or the blind lingered in its precincts. They were all abroad cadging. The paralytics, beds and all, had been re moved and laid down at the street cor ners, there to excite the pity of tho passers by. The dogs, of course, were engaged on business leading tho blind men about the streets; the very babies had been taken out begging. But at night this mute and deserted Cour des Miracles became a Gehenna, a carnival of noise, drunkenness and profligacy; and it was seldom that the carousals of the "franesmitous," or beggars, and the "refodes-," or tramps, terminated without bloodshed. is The beggars of bygone times in Franco may not have had their directories, which, even had they possessed them, would have been questionably beneficial, inas much as tho bulk of tho vagabond com munity were unable to read or write. Nevertheless, it is worthy of remark that, so long ago as 1561, when a kind of pauper census was taken, by order of Henry II, the impostors therein unmasked answered almost exactly to the character of the professional mendicants who in modern times have infested, and who continue to infest society, not only in Paris but in London. Shivering beggars and epileptic beggars—so far as epilepsy can bo simu lated by chewing soap—varlets who pre tended to bo dropsical or who exhibited sores, bogus cripples and spurious hunch backs—in fact, nearly all the unworthy recipients of alms whose malpractices are exposed in the periodical reports of our Mendicity society—may bo found in tho roll of rapscallion drawn up in Paris more than three hundred years ago. It may be said that ever since the de struction of the Cour des Miracles there has been ono protracted and almost in cessant militant effort of successive gov ernments in France to redress, if not to punish, professional mendicity. Over and over again the blind, the cripples and the sufferers from incurable ailments, have been forbidden, under heavy penal ties, to beg in the public thoroughfares; and the police have often made raids upon the beggars en masse, anil, without sub jecting them to any form of trial, have consigned them to criminal prisons or de pots.—London Telegraph. Can't Get Back Acair>. By tho way, have you ever noticed that it costs a great deal more to go back to Europe than it cost originally to come from there? I.ook at the number of peo ple who on very small wages have saved up enough to leave Germany and Ireland and other places and come to America, and can't on very large wages save enough to go back It is funny when you come to think about ,t that a man who came to California years ago at a cost of about $75. tells you today he can't afford to take e trip to ibe old country becauso it would cost him too much money. America seems to change people a good deal.—Son Fran cisco Chronicle. Too .Much Braiuwork. Country Editor (to wife)—This writ in' editorials for the paper is killin' me, Maria. It's too much brain work for one man, an' not quite enough for two. Wife—Well, why don't you hire a cheap boy to help you, John?—Harper's Bazar. is to of no a How Chinese History Is Written. Chinese history is compiled by a per manent commission of accomplished literary men, who are always at work upon it. In 1737 an imperial edict stated that history ought not to be written for the emperor's use only, and remain shut up in golden caskets and marble cham bers; it ought to bo made accessible to all officials, that they may know the mind of the emperors and tho laws of the land. From tho Chinese standpoint, history is divided into two parts—ono an exact nar rative of events, the other a record of what the emperor has said and done. This division originates two sets of pub lications; one in which the officers speak, the other in which tho emperor is the spokesman. In the first, the industry of the bureau of history is run in the collec tion of facts, but there is always a dan ger that the recorder may be under & strong court influence. Historical can dor can scarcely find a place in reference to nations or persons who have been in conflict with the court. With this, ex ception, tho array of facts thus recorded is most valuable. The edicts published in the second series express the mind of tho emperor. He is always a man who has tho advantage of good training, and if his style is toler able and he happens to be fond of writing his edicts himself, they will all be trans mitted to future times in full. The scribes, who stand writing when he speaks, translate his spoken words into official phrases, and his opinions and-de cisions will then pass into official history, written partly by himself and partly by the scribes of the cabinet. Besides these there are various series of historical works—the first having been prepared In the Eleventh century—to popularize the subject and place the chief facts of the Chinese annals within the reach of com mon readers, who have not the oppor tunity to study them in full. The last of these has just been published. It deals with the reign of Kienlung, from 1786 to to 1795, and is in sixty volumes. Every important public matter is recorded under the day on which it occurred. Tho em peror has, as usual, tho lion's share of the talking, and there is room for him to say North a good deal China Herald in 120 chapters. The Cat and the Dog;. The mastery of herself which a cat shows when, having been caught in a po sition from which there is no escape, she calmly sits down to face out the threats of a dog, is a marvelous thing/ Every body has seen a kitten on a street door step attacked by a dog ten times her size, as apparently self possessed as if she were in her mistress' lap. If she turns tail and runs down the street she is lost; the dog will have a sure advantage of her. Even as it is, if he could get up courage enough to seize her on the spot he would be able to make short work of her. It is a caso of life and death; but the whole air and attitude of tho cat is one of pure and con fident bravado. "You dare not touch me, and you know it," is what her position tells the dog. But she is intensely on her guard, in spite of her air of perfect content. Her legs, concealed under her fur, aro ready for a spring; her claws are unsheathed; lier eyes never move for an instant from tho dog; as he bounds wildly from side to side, barking with comical fury, those glittering eyes of hers follow him with tho keenest scrutiny. If he plucks up his courage to grab her, she is ready; sho will sell her lito dearly. Sho is watching her chance, and she does not miss it. The dog tries Fabian tactics, and withdraws a few feet, settling down upon hi forfpaws, growling ferociously as he does so. Just then the sound of a dog's bark in the next street attracts his eyes and ears for a moment; and when ho looks back tho kit ten is gone! lie looks down the street and starts wildly in that direction, and reaches a high board fenco just as a cat's tail—a monstrous tail for such a little cat—is vanishing over the top of it. He is beaten; the eat showed not only* more courago than ho had, but a great deal more generalship. — Boston Transcript Listener." l'oison of Expired Air. Recently two distinguished French physicians, Brown-Sequard and D'Arson val, havo been experimenting, and have obtained results which aro thought to prove that expired air contains another poison# additional to those of carbonic acid and ammonia, to which mainly the danger ous nature of expired air must be re ferred. Tho exact naturo of this poison has not yet been ascertained, but the ex periments cannot be due either to carbonic acid or to ammonia. By passing expired air, whether of human beings or of animals, through water, a solution was obtained which, in jected into tho veins of animals, invari ably gave rise to tho samo symptoms—a slower breath, a rapid lowering of the temperature, a considerable paralytic weakness, especially of the hinder limbs, and, after three or four days, a morbid, activity of the heart. Larger injections induced excessive con traction of the pupils, increased paralysis, and a diarrhoea, something liko that of cholera. Tho eminent surgeons who con ducted these experiments aro disposed to regard pulmonary consumption as largely due to this poison. If future experiments should establish this view, it must greatly emphasize the suprei.*j importance of thorough ventilation in our homes and churches and all places for public gather ings.—Youth's Companion. The American "Tough." The tough Is a product peculiar to American city life. In other countries, of course, you will find the rough and the cad and tho brutal coster, bu*. it is only in an American city that you will find tho tough. In other lands tho man who comes nearest to tho tough is but a sub ject, and a very poor ono at that, and ho is constantly moro or less in dread of a superior governing power. In America tho tough is a citizen, or at least claims to be ono, and ho feels not only the equal of everybody else, but tho superior of everybody else, and ho has a profound scorn and contempt for all processes of law. Tho tough is a terror, and there is no reason why ho should escape whipping. Arrest or imprisonment ho fears not, but a good doso of tho cat-o'-nine-tail 3 might bring him to reflect on the error of his ways.—Boston Homo Journal. The boy who undertook to ride a horse radish is now tearfully practicing on a saddlo of mutton.—Truth.