Helena, Montana, Thursday, October i8, 1888.
R. E. FISK D. W. FISK A. J. FISK.
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»»-All communications should be addressed to
FISK BROS., Publishera,
WIIO M V 1 )E THEM ?
Mother, who made the s.ars which light
The beautiful sky ?
Who made the moon so clear and bright,
That rises up so high ?
'Twas God, my child, the glorious One—
He formed toeui by His power;
He made alike the brilliant sun,
And every leaf and flower.
He made your little feet to walk,
Your sparkling eye« to see.
Your busy, prattling tongue to talk,
Your limbs so light and tree.
He paints eaeh fragrant flower that glows
W ith loveliness and bloom !
He ghes the violet and the rose
Their beauty and perfume.
Our various wants His hands supply,
And guard us every hour;
We're kept beneath His wathful eye,
And guided by His power.
Then let your little heart, my love,
Its grateful homage pay.
To this kirul Friend, who from above,
So gently guides our way.
Idfo on the Planet .Mars.
"Ï3 .It, however, evident that tho in
habitants of Mars constrhcted this
strange geographical network of canals?*
sa vs Flammarion, and then ho goes on:
"This idea seems to ns more plausible
than to attribute it 1 to irrational naturel,
for there tho effects are .generally irregu
lar, above all in the geological realm.
Oceanic depressions, continental reliefs,
basins, valleys, mountains, the course of
rivers, the configuration of tho shores,
all assume to our sight irregular forms
and rertilisear shapes seem banished
from nature's operations. This terres
trial aspect loads us to believe that it is
tho same with all the other worlds, and
tho same with all the other worlds, and
wo refuso to think that nature, even inor
ganic, should act differently there than it
does on our earth. Nevertheless it is not
proved that the geological forces every
where act tho samo way. The condensa
tions of the globe by cooling down
through centuries, the action of the vol
canic phenomena, etc., have considerably
changed tho exterior of the earth.
"Some astronomers are inclined to take
these canals for streams, large and im
mense, like tho Nile, tho Danube, the
Mississippi, tho St. Lawrence. But riv
ers begin with rivulets, on tho summits
of tho water sheds» their origin is derived
from tho rain showers descending the val
leys and gradually assuming lighter
shades, following their way till the mar
itime mouths. Un Mars, these dark lines,
without exception, go from one ocean
to another, presenting tho samo width
throughout. But whatever the view
point from which to look at the fantastic
geological system, tho explanation re
mains to bo found. The observations that
have boon made during the past spring
cnablo'us to penetrate a little further
into the intimate knowledge of this
neighboring world. Incontestable varia
tions havo been observed, and these can
only bo attributed to inundations."—Phil
«Tuen Sunstroke Is Prevalent.
Wo generally find that when sunstroke
ÎS prevalent the atmospheric conditions
nro of a certain and definite character.
These are found not only in an elevated
temperature, but a great degree of hu
n^dity or moisture of tho air. As long as
wo have dry air tho degree of heat that
wo can enduro without much discomfort
is very considerable compared to that
when the air is full of moisture. The ex
planation of this is simply duo to fho fact
that evaporation and loss of heat from
tho skin and lungs is markedly interfered
with, the already moist air being unable
to'take up and relievo us^f tho usual
amount of moisture. This, coupied with
tho increased heat, is placing us in a po
sition whero our internal production is
very apt to bo decidedly increased. The
only way wo have of compensating under
these conditions is by lessening exertion,
light or modified diet and light clothing.
ese, coupled with tho ever present in
fluence from tho heat center, under nor
mal conditions, will usually Drotecb us.—
I.ife on tlio Farm.
1 I tell vou what it is, Dick." said Tom,
tol iis y «»unger brother, as they brushed
their hair in coiîcert, and discussed the
affairs of the world at large, "what we
need is a farm!"
Dick, being a younger brother, always
listened with awe, and assented with dis
"Is it. ' lie inquired.
"dust think of it for a minute! You
have a piece of land; you buy a few
pumpkin seeds, and plant 'em. Next fall,
'vheii you want a jack-o'-lantern, all
ï'ou ve got to do is to gather a pumpkin."
"That's so," agreed Dick.
"If you want to make a pea shooter,
Walkout into your garden and dig your
"That's a fact!"
" 1 lien, if you want to make a cow out
of a cucumber—Harry Leo says ho used
, "hen he lived ou a farm—go out and
knock off a cucumber."
' have a farm!" cried Dick.
" e 11 havo a farm!" echoed Tom—and
ucn they do, no doubt they will con
Unue''healthy and wealthy and wise."—
* out k s Companion.
d ^. 3 tli0 now girl striko your
j&kcd a citizen at dinner lately. "Sho
yoV* answered Ids-wife,
tkirwv ■ i has dono almost every*
«lang else. —estfield (Masl) Times. *
TITE NUPTIAL KNOT.
marriage customs and ceremo
nies OF MANY LANDS.
Weddings Among the Primitive Jews.
Among the Ancient Babylonians — In
Old Norway—The Laws of Scotland,
Ireland, England and Wales.
In the earliest records that havo come
down to us, very little is said about the
ceremony by which a couple were ordi
narily united. Among tho primitive Jews
there was a betrothal and espousal, but
no further formal ceremony except the
mere removal of tho bride from her
father's house to that of the bridegroom
or his father. At a later time the cere
monies began to be more elaborate. On
the wedding day the bride would be as
elegantly attired as her circumstances
would permit, and veiled like Rebecca. A
maid was always married on the fourth
clay of the week, and a widow bn the fifth.
During the ceremony the father, if he
were tho celebrator, would take tho hand
of hik daughter and give her to the bride
groom, laying: "Behold, take her after
the'law of Moses and lead her away." If
the father did not act as celebrator the
rabbi or head of tho synagoguo would
take the extremity of the scarf or gar
ment which was around the bridegroom's
neck and cover the head of the bride with
it, after which ho consecrated a cup of
wino and gave it to tho two contracting
THE MODERN CUSTOM.
In modern times a canopy of silk is
usually put up under which the brido
and bridegroom stand on either side of
tho parents or guardians, and in front is
tho chief rabbi, standing between the two
ministers of tho synagogue. Then tho
bridegroom presents tho ring (which was
only a modern custom in lieu of dower).
I ho ring is examined by tho chief rabbi,
who asks the happy man if tho ring is his
own, and being answered in the affirma
tive the bridegroom places the ring upon
the forefihger of the bride, saying: "Bo
hold, thou art sanctified to me, according
to the law of Moses and Israel." .Then
follow blessings and prayers by the
rabbi, after which one of tho synagoguo
officials deposits on tho ground at the
foot of tho bridegroom a small boafd,
upon which an ordinary wine glass is
placed. The bridegroom then stamps
upon it and dashes it to pieces, when all
assembled,cry out: "Mazzletouril Mazzle
touri!" (Good luck! Good luck!) Then
follow tho usual handshakings and con
gratulations, and the ceremony is over.
Among tho ancient Babylonians tho
ceremonies were originally the same.
There were festivals lasting three days,
and in their course occurs the following
curious custom: Tho bridegroom was
placed within a circle of dancers, and tho
guests and bystanders theif'proceeded to
stick small coins upon his forehead. As
tho money fell it was caught in an open
habdkerehief held under his chin. After
habdkerehief held under his chin. After
this a party of young -men would rush
into the crowd and cany off thg most
wealthy guests and lock them up in a
dark room until they paid proper ransom,
which would go to swell the dowry.
The custom that gûests at a wedding
should make presents to the bride and
bridegroom is very old; ^in fact, it has
been observed in all parts of the world by
many people and at all periods of tho
world's history. The old Greek, tho
Roman and the Jew all did it, and it is a
common custom among even savage tribes
to this day, but tho presents made vaiy
with-the people making them, and with
the rank which is given to woman in the
national customs. In old Norway tho
bride's wedding outfit included a shield, a
6 word and an ax, it bfcing supposed that
she would need these to- protect herself
against her husband's blows.
THE LAWS OF SCOTLAND.
Tlie easiest wedding to make in any
civilized country in the world at tho
present time is what i 3 known as a com
mon law marriage under the laws of Scot
land. Such weddings have been held
valid for at least 700 years, but labor tin
der tho disadvantage of being considered
disreputable. "Tho leading principle,"
said Lord Deas, in a judgment delivered
by him a few years ago, "is that consent
makes marriage. No ceremony, civil or
religious; no notice beforo or publication
after, no consummation, no cohabitation,
no writing, no witnesses, even, are essen
tial." A peculiar feature of this kind of
marriage is that the "law of tho place"
governs the marriage; hence all persons,
though not of Scottish domicile, may, by
a very little foolishness, find themselves
securely married by the operation of»tho
In Ireland an important part of tho
ceremony is a collection for the priest,
which sometimes ainounts to £20 or £30.
Tho Irish peasantry are ingenious in do
ing 'this so as to secure the largest re
sults, and here is one of the methods: A
wedding feast is provided and eaten. Im
mediately upon tho removal of the cloth
the priest marries the young couple, and
the bride cake is brought in and placed
before the priest, who, putting on his
Btole, blesses it and cuts it up into small
slices, which are handed around on a
large dish among the guests. Each one
takes a sHce of the cake, and lays down
in tho place of it a donation for the priest,
consisting of pounds, crowns or shillings,
according to tho ability of the donor. If
tho amount given by any guest be not
considered sufficient,'those present are by
no means slow in making it uncomforta
ble for tho guest until ho shall pay a
In many places in England and Ireland
it is considered prudent on the part of the
bride to tako caro at tho altar to put her
right foot beforo that of the bridegroom,
for then sho will bo sure to get tho better
of him during tho whole of tho married
life. This is especially prudent in Wales,
for. under tho Welsh law, a husband
administer three blows with a
might--— , .
stick on any part of tho person (except
tho head) of his wife in case she misbe
haved. and another directed that the stick
should not bo longer than the husband's
arm nor thicker tln£n his ûiiddlo finger.
Marcus Lano in Chicago Globe.
Contagiousness of Diseases.
Scarlet fever is a specific poison wUch
emanates from tho person of tho patient,
and can bo caused by no other means.
Diphtheria is contagious, but may arffi
from fermentiog filth, etc. lyphmd
fever and Asiatic cholera aro not directly
communicable from person to person, but
aro spread by tbo dejecta of their victims,,
which contaminate tho water supply
Fr ank Leslie's.
THE CURSE OF OVERWORK.
How Americana Abuse Themselves in the
Wear and Tear of Life.
We have heard a great deal about the
nervous wear and tear of American life,
and. every one is familiar with the warn
ing that we are living too fast and must
pay a serious penalty. Yet we continue
to "go the pace," and the visiting foreign
er continues to hold up his hands in
amazement at the breathless rapidity of
American life. Scientists lay the blame
largely to our dry, bracing atmosphere,
illustrating their theses by the more
powerful effects of alcohol here than in
England. Sociologists talk of our material
conditions, of the development of a new
country, and the necessity of confronting
E ressing material problems which stimu
ite the race for fortune—a race offering
snoh free competition and so many im
mense prizes not, restricted by class or
caste, that participation is almost un
avoidable. Although every American is
"as good as" any other, yet every Ameri
can is stimulated by a burning desire to
show himsel f a little better—to win special
success in his chosen field. The result is
a hand to hand competition, fiercer, prob
ably, than in any other country in the
world. Americans have not yet learned
how to rest, and tho effect is noted a 3 men
drop out exhausted from the professions
or from business while yet in the prime of
life. Often this attracts no attention.
But we have recently had some concrete
illustrations of the evils of tho terrible
tension of American life in certain phases
which ought not to pass unnoticed.
These aro examples of self abuse in a
field of work where excess is peculiarly
characteristic of Americans. This coun
try, with its great natural opportunities,
and its sudden changes and developments,
offers peculjar invitations to speculation,
and tho colossal fortunes made within,the
last twenty years aro ever beforo the eyes
of men as a stimulus. There is specula
tion everywhere; but Americans have
been called, not without reason, a nation
of speculators. New York and Chicago
are the centers, and in intensity the hot,
feverish life of 1 their exchanges is not
equaled in tho bburse 3 of Paris, Berlin
or Vienna, or the Stock Exchange of Lon
don. Now and then fortunes collapse,
and tho public wonder; but of tho men
who fall exhausted in tho race tho public
as a rule hear little.
Yet it is worth while to consider the
moral of threb/ecent cases. In Chicago
a wealthy speculator began to show signs
of excessive mental strain. All his
thoughts, dreams and speech were of fho
market. His actions became strange; he
made wild offers in the Exchange; he
threw away his money in disastrous ven
tures; and finally tho.truth was discovered
—"insane from overwork." Here in New
York, not long since, we were told that
overwork." Here in New
York, not long since, we were told that
even Jay Gould was obliged to seek - rest
upon his yacht in order to avert the con
sequences of mental over exertion and
sleeplessness. Within the fortnight two
members of the Stock Exchange havo
fallen out cf tho ranks. Of one of them,
now in an irsane asylum, his brother
said "Ho has overworked himself. The
physiciaffs call it a form of brain paralysis,
accompanied by emotional insanity and
occasional paroxysms. Ho knew that ho
was overtaxing himsèlf, yet ho persisted
fn coming to business. It was a case of
an unintentional course towards insanity
or suicide. " Of tho other broker, his
physician says: "It was a caso of over
work and consequent nervous prostra
tion." Yet this man was already a mil
It is surely not necessary to insist upon
tho moral of such a4>reaking,down of men
in the prime of life.' Such practical warn
ings should have some effect, yet it will
be a long time beforo tho lesson is learned.
And it will bo a long* time, too, before
Americans learn to understand tho evil In
fluence of tho present system of specula
tion. It is gambling, and nothing else,
in Which lives are often staked and lost.
now Hindu Women Visit.
Of course there is no mixed society
among the Hindus; but women of the
same caste, though of different families,
sometimes meet and visit together, and
these are occasions of great interest.
They examine each other's jewels and fine
clothing, gossip, relate stories, sing-to
gether, - and perhaps do a little match
making among their children. The shoes
are always left at the door. If a visit of
ceremony is paid to a superior, a nazar, or
present, is sent halt an hour or so in ad
vance; if by a superior, a nazar is pre
sented to the visitor soon after the salu
tations are made. It may be merely one
rupee or a plate of nuts and raisins; but
among wealthy families it is usually a
gold mohur, worth about $ 6 . This is
not taken, howöver, but is merely touched
with the forefinger with a gesfure of ac
ceptance, when it is quietly withdrawn by
the servant presenting it; or if taken and
retained, à present of jewels or rich cloths
is sent in return.
Tho salutations are not as elaborate as
is usual in the Orient. A graceful inclin
ation of the head with a touch of the
Angers of the right hand- to the forehead
constitutes the salam, which is also
spoken, and means "peace," Kindly in
quiries after each other's temjfer are
made, which are understood to refer to
the health. Garlands of flowers or neck
laces of beads aro sometimes thrown over
the necks of visitors, and attar of roses is
sprinkled upon them.—Mrs. E. J. Hum
phrey in Demorest's.
Trouble witli the Complexion.
This is the timo of year when recipes
for sunburn meet ono at every turn.
Hero is the best prescription that can he
made: Burn yourself a Uttle more and the
red will turn to brown, the most whole
some and becoming color in summer time.
The same rule applies to freckles equally
well. Fredde yourself thoroughly that it
may be evident at a glanco that you are
taking a course in nature's university. If
the face smarts after a day out of doors
hot water will take out tho sting. Cos
metics are especially injurious, "because
the smart means irritation, and lotions
and balms, oftener than not, aro poisonous
to an irritated skin. Complexion troubles
are doctored by frequent bathing of the
person wherg any application to tho face
will only make them in tho end worse.
Perfect cleanliness as a rule means, a good
skin. If» it does not, then tho general
health is at fault, and the only remedy
lies in giving a better tone to tho system.
A clean face is a charm which many girls
Crowing isn't waiting for the sunshine.
It is real reaching after it.
HAGS AND RAG PICKERS.
RUBBERS, OLD TINS,
WHAT NOT GO.
Visit to a Warehouse Heaped with Pick
ings of All Kinds—Sorters and Their
Deftness—A Pile of Old Kul bers and
Twas In my golden age of childhood
that there lived, if. indeed, she does not
yet, a bent and withered woman, wrinkled
as China crepe and merry as a lark's song.
Methinks 'tis as far back as tho third time
the pussy willows purred for me when
first 1 heard her shrill, cheery call, "Itaks,
raksri From then till 1 was "quite a bik
gerl. mtssey, " old Mary was a welcome
arrival upon the domestic scene. I was
reminded of old Mary the other day by
seeing a woman walking briskly under a
heavy sack of rags It was sunny. I was
strolling insensibly and followed her She
entered a warehouse heaped with pickings
of all kinds after hesitating a moment 1
did the same. Things seemed novel, so
when the proprietor looked at me in rather
a surprised manner, 1 explained I'd like to
add to my slim stock of information re
garding rags and rag pickers Whereat
the clerk Inquired interestedly. "Are vou
the woman who writes?" and a rag pediler
who had just dropped in leaned up against
the wall and gazed at me fixedly, and with
much the same expression as he would
wear in viewing a freak in the dime
"Oh. it's a great business." he remarked
—1 mean the proprietor—ns he glanced
over some letters beforo conducting roe
over t!>e establishment, "if it weren't for
rags there would be no paper, you would
have no Bible, no romance, no—love let
ters," he added in quite a courtly manner.
Of all the queer places, that warehouse!
1 clambered over the foot hills of rags,
separated by valleys rich with old iron,
zinc sheets, lead piping, brass wire, and
my eye rested upon Arctic mountains in
the background, perhaps 1 should say
mountains of arctics. It seemed I toi/ched
rudely upon professional pride when I
asked If that immense bulk and the many
hales for shipping were brought in hv rag
pickers I was informed that rag pickers
are those that go about the streets and
alleys or beg rags, which they usually sell
to small merchants Then there are rag
peddlers who own wagons and go about
among bouses buying what they wish;
merchants buying from both these classes,
and himself, buying mostly from them.
1 asked the proprietor what under the
canopy he does with ail this truck, and
was told be had contract» with large fac
tories all over the country Old metals
are returned to foundries; paper and rags
to paper miHs, and also ropes, which are
used, for manilla paper; vinegar and oil
barrels to be refilled; bits of leather and
old boots to soap factories, where tho
old boots to soap factories, where tho
e is extracted for soap for my elegant
dies' white hands; old bones to sugar
refineries, where, calcined, they purify
sugar and syrup, or bones may bo shipped
bottles Ore returned
new cloth rags from
for fertilizing Old
to brewers, etc.,
tailors back to cloth factories, and rubber,
"gums" as the Anglomaniacs term thein,
to the factory in Massachusetts.
That pile of rubbers and arctics reach
ing to the ceiling did look odd There
were tiny baby arctics _and large scows
stranded side by side, those exasperating
run down at the-beel rubbers which peo
ple had lost Li the street and plenty which
had sprung a leak and been abandoned.
You'vo walked from many directions,
through many paths, upon feet shod in
righteousness and those taking hold on
hell, haven't you ? They present a good
illustration of* reincarnation doctrines,
they will be rid of the useless parts and
the Impurity and their best parts sent to
the factory, whence they will shortly is
sue again, shining and new
I always used to deprecate throwing
arctics, etc.. Lato the alleys, but now 1
shall do all in my power to assist tirêso
rag picke: - » to a plentiful spring crop.
They receive four cents a pound for them;
besides, quite a number of boys and girls
t employment in cutting off the rubber,
s queer, baling them. Hundreds of
them are flung Into s huge box lined with
burlap Then a man on each side pumps
on a windlass—this may not be clear
enough, but that's what it looks like. When
the box was opened, 1 saw the rubbers
bad been pressed out of all semblance.
The proprietor took me to another ware
house where the rags were being sorted.
A long room was bordered with deep
boxes, in shape and size like tables, with
bottoms of sieves for the dirt to sift
through. On either 6 ide stood women
rapidly sorting them, and unerringly
flinging the rags into various barrels
round about They wore calico gowns
reaching to their feet, and kerchiefs on
their heads, to protect themselves from
the dust. They didn't seem to be paying
any attention to whether rags were linen,
woolen, mixed, what not. f asked one of
them how she tells. "By the feeling.
We scarcely ever stop to tear it. We get
so that we can tell anything by touching
it, even with our eyes shut.
"Easy learnt? Well, for those as has
the knack Some girls pick it up in a
couple of weeks, some never can learn it.
Oh. It Isn't disagreeable work when you're
used to it. Most rags is pretty clean.
Some, " she pointed to a bin. It gave new
meaning to men's righteousness being
like "filthy rags."—"A. EL P." in Pioneer
Sash Weights from Tin Cans.
There is no secret about the process.
The only thing is to have a proper sized
furnace and to get up a sufficient heat.
The business has developed of late, but
manufacturers say the margin of profit is
small It costs mere to melt tho scraps
than common iron. Chips ready for the
furnace cost $7 a ton. The sash weights
produced are of a superior quality Tho
business is, like the case of old rubber, an
illustration of the use of waste material.
The tin can companies and other manu
facturer» of tin goods formerly dumped
hundreds of tons into space, but now
these scraps are utilized, and the irrespon
sible small boy works the ash fields to his
profit in companionship with tho blithe
some goat—Commercial Bulletin
'jmss ivorai (watching tho promenaaersj
'Who is that curious little man— alm ost
Mrs. Metropole (shocked)—Why, . my
dear, that's Hubert Highlife." He's the
very upper erfist. • '
Miss Rural—Ho is? Then they put, in a
great deal too much shortening.—Time. '
Whirl an<l High Pressure.
The children of this world having
within the last fifty years found Eome
new toys—to wit: eteam, electricity,
telegraphs, telephones, tickers and other
rapid transit apparatus for mind and
body—are playing too hard with them.
There is a species of mental intoxication
evolved out of all this "rushing things,"
which is even more subtle and deadly
than that coming of alcohoL In this
whirl and high pressure of business there
are those who, in mind as well 4 as body,
are on,the ran from morning till night,
and every act of theirs, every epistle they
write, every letter they shape with the
pen is in the doing pushed and hurried in
mind by the thought of the next, of 'many
other pressing things which must be done
in a given time.
There is no repose, no rest for the mind
from morning till night, no time or incli
nation to dismiss thought or care if for
ever so few minutes, and at last there is
no capacity for so doing. This habit of
mind grows into a fixed ono. It leads
away from precision. It leads away from
exactness. It leads away from order or
method. It does lead erven brilliant intel
lects into a sort ofihelter skelter way of
doing everything. It léads to forgetful
ness, for tho memory cannot make a
clean record when so much is forced on it.
This habit of mind goes with its owner
everywhere. It goes home with him. It
goes to bed with him. It keeps away
sleep. It gives only an unhealthy, fever
ish sleep at best to tho body. Il leads,
and Has led, to tho insane asylum.
But if you owned tho whole state of
New York—land, lots, houses, rivers and
all, and next tho whole United States—
land, rocks, rivers, mountafhs and all,
and last both continents, and, finally, you
held-a bill of sale for the whole earth in
pour trousers pocket, and tho-effort and
strain and excitement in gaining it caused
softening gf the brain, what an aggravat
ing thing it would be for you to be im:
prisoned in an insane asylum you owned
yourself and guarded by your own hired
keepers!—Prentice Mulford in New York
Cannibals of tho Niger.
Mr. n. H. Johnston, the British consul
at Cameroon, recently made a trip up the
Chess river, which empties into the
Gulf of Guinea, about 180 miles east of
tho main branch o: the Niger. Mr. John
ston is well known by his geographical
work on tho Congo and his book on Mount
Kilima-Njato, Ho had not ascended the
river ntbre than fifty miles before the
people lie met'began to ho very wild and
excitable. In a c oinmuriration just pub
lished in the P 'oceediags of tho Royai
Geographical Society, Nr. Johnston says
tho people aro f.ll inveterate cannibals.
They aro con tin nally fighting with each
other in order to supply their larders with
fresh food. In tno hut wh>h«he entered
a smoked human ham was hanging from
the smoke blackened rafters, and above a
hundred skulls were ranged around thp
upper part of the clay walls. One. old
chief who wished to convince Johnston
of IÙ 9 very friendly feeling took a neck
laco from his neck and presented it to tho
white man. The ornament was made of
human knuckle bones." -
At ono point on the river where tho
human knuckle bones." -
At ono point on the river where tho
traveler was received with great apparent
friendship, ho learned that the natives
were debating the question whether to
treat the visitors as honored guests or to
eat them, or at any rate to eat the Kroo
boys who had paddled Mr. Johnston up
the river. He decided that it would not
bo safe to extend His explorations fur
ther, and he started down the river while
the natives were still debating what to
do with him. As he turned his canoe
down stream, however, the noisy villa
ger» gave chase, and there were a few
minutes of terrible anxiety when the
canoe ran aground, and hundreds of the
yelling savages attempted to wado acrcss
the shallow water and seize tho fugitives.
Even little children, Johnston says,
armed themselves with knives, and,
standing ankle deep in the water,
shrieked at the top of their voioes that
they would like to eat the white man.
The explorer, however, managed fo keep
out of the clutches of the savages, aûd to
get away without firing.—New York Sun.
New Circle of Kinsfolk.
What is this naturalization, however,
but a sort of parable of human life? Aro
wo not always trying to adjust ourselves
to new relations, to get naturalized into a
new family? Does one ever do it entirely?
And how much of the lonesomepess of
life comes from the failure to do it I It
is a tremendous experiment, we all' ad
mit, to separate a person from his race,
from his country, from his climate, and
the habits of his part of the country, by
marriage. It is only an experiment dif
fering in degree to introduce him by mar
riage into a new circle ot kinsfolk. Is he
ever anything but a sort of tolerated,
criticised or admired alien? Does the
time ever come when the distinction
ceases between his family and hers?
They say love is stronger than death.
It may also bo stronger than family—
while it lasts; but was there ever a
woman yet whose most ineradicable feel
ing was not the sentiment of family and
blood, a sort of base line m life upon
which trouble and disaster always throw
her back? Does she ever lose the instinct
of it? Wo used to say in jest that a
patriotic man was always willing to sacri
fice his wife's relations in war, but his
wifo took a different view of it; and when
it becomes a question of office is it not the
wife's relations who get them-? To lie
sure, Ruth said, thy people shall be my
people, and where thou goest I will go,
and all that; and this beautiful sentiment
has touched all time, and man has got tho
historic notion that he is tho head of
things. But is it true that a woman is
ever really natnralized? Is it in her na
ture to be? Love will carry her a great
way, and to far countries, and to many
endurances, and.her capacity of self sacri
fice is greater than man's; but would she
ever bo entirely happy tom from her
kindred, transplanted from tho associa
tions and interlacing3 of her family life?
—Charles Dudley Warner in Harper's
Tho Discourteous Person«
Courteous men and women undoubtedly
keep society in a healthy condition. They
bear sunshine with them, and smiles
greet them. And how revolutionary in
its effects upon society is tho discourteous
one!—Rev. William Iieacock.
"When laid away for any length of time,
linen should be washed, rough dried without
blaring, and laid in loose folds without much
weight on it
THE LONDON TDIES.
WELL KNOWN CORRESPONDENT'S
ACCOUNT OF THE JOURNAL.
Tho Famous Newspaj»er - s Beginning One
Hundred Years Ago—Political Shifting
of TI10 Times—How Its Pages Are
Filled—Editor John Delano.
M.* Blowitz, tho well known Paris cor
respondent of Tho London Times, has
been writing an account of his journal in
the luxuriously printed review called Art
and Letters. "The Times does not mean
'the time,' nor even 'tho times,' but tho
ages, tho centuries—that is to say, every
, thing which, in the existence of peoples,
solicits human understanding." In
France it is often quoted as "lo jour
nal de la cite," but M. Blowitz has been
unable to trace the origin or cause of this
designation. Its office, near Blackfriars
bridge, is scarcely, ho thinks, part of the
city, while "its leanings, its style, its pol
itics, and its aim havo no relation with
tho city, strictly speaking." Everybody
knows, or ought to know, that Tho Times
first appeared on the 1 st of January, 1788,
and that The Morning Post is its onfly
senior among English dailios, Tho Post
having started ten years earlier.
The history of its birth and early strug
gles under John Walter I lias been often
told; how that worthy man, being an un
derwriter, lost his hereditary fortune of
£80,000 by tho capture of a ileet of Eng
lish merchant vessels by a French squad
ron, and, failing to get satisfaction out of
the government, at onco started a news
paper called Tho Universal Register,
primarily in order to develop a wonderful
priuliug patent, which has never to this
day been of any use; how, three years
later, ho changed tho name of his paper
to The Times; how he endured six months'
imprisonment, with tho pillory and a fine,
for publishing scandalous reports about
the royal dukes, and was on tho point of
abandoning journalism in consequence,
but, fortunately, did not do so. In 1803
John Walter II, at the age of 27, was in
trusted by his father with tho entire
management of tho paper, and its great
ness, influence and prosperity date, we
aro told, from that moment.
The shiftiness of Tho Times—though it
must be granted that it has been steady
enough lately in the out-and-out toryism
—is explained by M. Blowitz, but not very
lucidly. "From the commencement of its
existence to our day tho lino of conduct
of Tho Times has not been varied, though
it has often changed sides and combated
today tliose it supported yesterday, which
is just the case at this moment. But it
has never hesitated to subordinate ques
tions of party or men to questions of
principle, and to what it believed to be
the supremo interest of the nation as re
garded England, or tho supremo interest
of society as regarded foreigners."
Leaving tho politics and coming to the
actual composition of the paper, we learn
that in the reign of John Walter III—
who reigns, but does not rule—the real
editorial work of Tho Times begins about
11 p. m. At that hour tho outer sheet,
containing tho title, advertisements and
some lengthy articles, is ready printed,
and the editor lias given his general
orders. He is now conferring with his
leader writers, who will shortly retire to
their rooms. From 11:30 o'clock tho
printers' boys will come and fetch tho
copy every ten minutes—fancy the strain
of writing a leader under tho perpetual
interruption thus indicated—and it is at
onco set up by a special staff of composi
tors assigned to each article. The editor
meanwhile, with his assistant and sub
editors, proceeds to the arrangement and
revision of tho other matters forming tho
As every reader of The Times knows,
there are certain pages unalterably al
lotted to the same subjects. This must
savo a lot of trouble, and the samo re
mark applies to the fixed headings in tho
columns of foreign news. For how many
weary months were we daily confronted
with that same heading, "Egypt, England
and tho Soudan," and others of similar
general import. Pago five has become of
exceptional importance since May 4, 1874,
as from that date The Times has received
continental letters only by wire, from 9
p. m. till 3 a. m., going from tho Bourse
to the newspaper offices. Berlin and
Vienna have daily special wires, and all
other European capitals have them, but
without fixed tin^p. Philadelphia and
Calcutta havo the wire on certain days.
Thus every one knows that a long Indian
telegram will appear in Monday's edition
of The Times, and that whether there is
any important news to send or not.
Tho Times is every day printed with
new type. It employs sixteen shorthand
writers in the two houses of parliament,
and the telephone is employed for trans
mitting the "copy" to the compositor, or,
rather, no "copy" is sent, but the mes
sage is set up directly as it is received by
tho compositor's ear. For thirty-two
years Mr. John Delano reached his office
at 10:30 p. m., and le$t at 4 a. m., just
when the first printed copy issued from
the press. About 3 a. m. the maker up
stated the amount of matter, aitd Mr. De
lane, without looking at this mass of 100
columns, indicated from memory what
had to be added to or cut out, paragraph
by paragraph, and almost line for lino.
At 4 o'clock he went home, took a light
supper, went to bed and arose about
noon. lie lunched about 1 p. m., dis
patched his correspondence, received
calls, went eut about 4 o'clock for a ride
on horseback, went to his club, dressed
for dinner, dined nine times out of ten
at the club in town, took a glance at what
there was to see; and wherever he might
be, took leave at a quarter past 10 and
went to his office. "I go into these de
tails," adds M. Blowitz, "to sliowat what
cost a man can aspire to the honor of
editing the Times."—Literary World.
For Recording an Earthquake.
The model of an earthquake is a unique
piece of apparatus that has been con
structed by a Tokio seismologist. Pa
tiently and laboriously following out the
accurate records of a modern seismo
graph. Professor Sekiya has succeeded in
shaping a long coil of copper wire so as
to represent, with the utmost precision,
the intricate path described by a shaken
spot of the earth's surface. The model
magnifies fifty times the ground's ab
solute motion during seventy-two sec
onds, and resembles a ball of twine un
wound and thrown down in a confused
heap Numbered tags show the progress
of the shock for each second or time.—
New Orleans Picayune.
A Medicine Dog Feun.
In company with a friend I visited an
encampment of Indians at the Pipestone
quarries, Minnesota, and witnessed ono
of the national feasts of the Sioux. The
Indians belonged to tho Yankton tribe,
a~.d numbered about sixteen lodges, cr
eighty people, including in their number
bucks, squaws, papooses, boys, girls, old
and feeble warriors, not counting the
large number of dogs. To many tho In
dian cur would appear a worthless piece
of property, but at the feast in question
the most gaunt and hungry looking dog
of all played an important part. A
trench about three feet in length and one
foot in depth had been dug and into this
the lean olcbdog was placed and covered
over with sticks, on which dirt was piled,
leaving the head only protrude. Two
days was he confined in this artificial
oven. At tlio expiration of the two days
tho master of ceremonies, or medicine
man, pronounced all mystical rites prop
erly observed and that it was time to
carry out the completing act. This was
done by removing tho dirt and piling on
more sticks, covering the animal com
pletely. Fire is now applied to this heap
of brushwood and the once respectable
cur made a roast dog.
Upon our arrival the roasting had just
been finished and the whole camp were
crowding around tho smoldering ember3
to get a portion of the much prized
"Medicine dog," which, when eaten, is
supposed to prolong life and to instill into
the ordinary savage tho qualifications for
a warrior. While we were not altogether
welcome guests, courtesy seemed to forbid
tho savage from ignoring us, which many
would have preferred to tho dainty piece
of roast dog, offered first to me and then
The medicine dog feast seems to be of
both medical and religious character, an
ansienfc custom to which tho Indian clings
with tenacity.—C. J. Crandell in Detroit
The Govern nient Engraving Bureau.
The girls were from every part of the
country, but chiefly from tho district sur
rounding Washington. Most of them aro
poor; some of them have had the advan
tages of wealth and social position, but
have been overtaken by misfortune and
compelled to earn their own living. Many
of them aro studious and work hard to
educate themselves. I am told that
several of them are excellent musicians,
while others are proficient in elocution.
There are also several artists, and one
who is a fine botanist.
"But are they never tempted to take
some of tho millions of money that they
handle?" I hear some one speak.
"Wo look upon it only as so much
paper, " said ono of the girls to whom I
had put tho same question in a different
form. "It becomes of value to us only
when wo receive it in payment for our
work. We never think of it here as
Even if they did look upon it as money,
and were tempted to fill their pockets
with it, they eoukl not get out of tho
building with it.- So perfect is the system
of checks and balances in the bureau of
engraving and printing that a piece of
blank paper, such as is used to print
securities on, could not be taken without
being missed inside of ten minutes, and if
it were not found no one - in the division
where it was lost would be allowed to
pass out of the building until it was dis
covered and made safo again. Of course,
whero such vigilaqce is exercised there is
no temptation to steal.—Washington Cor.
Improving on the Watch.
'•The brain work on a watch," said a
jeweler yesterday, "is about all in tho
making of tho machines and instruments
used in tho manufacture of the watch.
Each factory has its inventors, who aro
constantly at work on the machinery,
which is improved every year. The ma
chines are very costly, but they arc easily
used, and after a little practice the em
ploye can feed them, and thousandsrof
screws or wheels are turned out in an hour.
"There are at least twelve watch fac
tories in this country, four of which—the
Elgin, tho Waltham, the United com
pany at Waltham and tho Waterbury
factories—turn out 2,000 watches in. a
day. Many of them are sold in this coun
try, but many find a market abroad. The
American watches excel the English time
pieces. In England watchmaking is just
what it was 100 years ago. There is no
money back of the manufacture. There
aro no factories there as in this country,
where ono machine will cost as much as
tho whole shop in England. »Watch
making, or, more* properly, watch repair
ing, is a good trade, and it would bo bet
ter if some of our educated young men
had acquired it. The increasing demand
for watches makes more workmen neces
sary to keep them in repair. Watch
makers serve seven years without pay in
learning the trade. But after they havo
mastered the qusiness they can command
excellent wages."—New York Graphic.
Boys in Publie Schools
It is to be regretted that New York
boys have such poor opportunities for
physical development. A few days ago
twenty of them irom one public school
applied for examination to be admitted to
tno Naval academy at Annapolis. Ail were
found—so it is stated—'well enough up
in their studies, but not one large enough
and strong enough to pass the physical
examination. It is not likely that tho
fault of their physical deficiency was duo
entirely to tho schools, as some of our
howling newspapers tell us. Tho fault is,
many of tho parents of these boys havo
themselves deteriorated by working in
doors at mechanical or sedentary occupa
tion, and by living in narrower apart
ments with Jess fresh air than they would
havo had iu tho country. Having less phys
ical strength themselves, their offspring
also havo less. We must not blame our
schools for this. But we may blame them
because they do not provide the best
physical as well as tho best intellectual
training.—Herald of Health.
A Very Remarkable Cew.
Jenkyns—That cow of yours, neighbor,
has a lovely voice, but it lacks cultiva
tion. The beast keeps mo awake all night.
Wilkyns—Sorry, old man, but that cow
is a remarkable one. She reminds me,
every time I hear her, of ono of Shake
Wilkyns—I'm not. That
second Othello; she's such
Moo-er. —Pittsburg Bulletin.
cow 13 a
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