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R. E. FISK D. W. FISK A. J. FISK. Publishers and Proprietors. Largest Circulation of any Paper in Montana Rates ot Subscription. WEEKLY HERALD: One Year, (in nrtvnnce) ............................. *3 00 H1x Months, (In advance)............................... 1 75 Three Months, (in advance)........................... 1 00 When not paid for in advance the rat« will be Four Dollars per year^ Postage, in all cases, Prepaid. DAILY HERALD: flty Subscribers,delivered by carrier 91.00a month One Year, by mail, (in advance)................. 19 00 Slj Months, by mail, (in advance)............... 5 00 Three Months, by mail, (in advance)........... 2 50 If not paid in advance, 912 per annum. '.Entered at the Postoliice at Helena as second class matter.] S*"A11 communications should be addressed to FISK BROS., Publishers, Helena, Montana. EXPERIENCE. The world was made when a man was bom. He must taste for himself the forbidden springs; He can never take warning from old fashioned things. lie must fight as a boy, he must drink as a youth. He must kiss, he must love, he must swear to the truth Of the friend of his soul; he must laugh to scorn The hint of deceit in a woman's eyes That are clear as the wells of Paradise. And so he goes on till the world grows old, Till his tongue has grown cautious, his heart haa grown cold; Till the smile leaves his mouth and the ring leave* his laugh, And be shirks the bright headache you ask him to quaff He grows formal with men and with women po lite. And distrustful of both when they're out of his sight. Then he eats for his palate and drinks for his head. And loves for his pleasure, and 'tis time he were dead, —John Boyle O'Reilly in Nebraska State Journal. Swiss House anil Stable. Samaden is a splendid place to study tbe typo of the Engadine house, with its gTeen eaves, iron balconies and profusion of interior woodwork. Most houses are built of stone, with wp']s as thick as those of a fortress, and narrow windows that resemble the portholes of old Fort Lafay ette, in New York harbor. The home, stable and barn form tho same building, and all the folks and animals live under the same roof in winter time. A large door opens on a spacious vestibule, big enough for a wagon loaded with hay to pass into the barn at the back. The main room is generally paneled with wood which acquires a rich, dark color with age, and in this room are the two most valu able pieces of furniture, an enormous stone or tiled stove and a colossal ward robe. Behind the stove a narrow stair way leads to the sleeping room above. In winter tho stable is, of course, for cows and horses, but in summer time it forms a spare room where visitors are received and bedded Tho kitchen is small, but has a large, open fireplace, over which hang links of sausages and sides of bacon. The modern houses in Samaden are built on quite a different plan, and have no such fortesslike appearance as those of more ancient architecture. I should say, though, that even they lack fresh air and ventilation.—Cor. New York Times. A Curious Funeral Ceremony. One curious ceremony still survives, and has puzzled the learned. When a Parsee dies, a dog (originally a fox eyed dog was demanded, but now a yellow dog with white ears is orthodox) is brought in and made to look upon tho body. What the significance of this is the modem Parsis cannot explain, or rather they offer contradictory explanations. Perhaps it is connected with the Parsee tradition of the dogs of Yirna, the lord of death, who has two hounds which go through the earth scenting out those who are marked for the grave, and afterward escort their souls to tho place of judg ment, guarding them on the way from the evil spirits. Possibly the bringing in of the dog to look at the corpse had its origil in the idea of securing the attention of the dogs of Yima to the just departed Bpirit and so insuring the due protection of the latter on its last perilous journey. —■New York Tribune Book Review. Art of Marking Hooks. There are many ways of marking books; and you should have the art of &U of them. If you wish to refer only to a passage draw a bit of pencil line along the edge, and then set down the number of the page on a fly leaf. So when yon are through with a volume you look at the fly leaf and refer to the pages where there are points of importance, and you can use them as you please. But, alas, if one do finish a book, and there has been not one passage of note, and not one idea quickened, and not even provocation given, what a book Is thatl We should have a special shelf, I think, for imbeciles as wo have asylums for idiots.— "E. P. P." In Globe-Democrat. Wliat Statistics Say. Insurance statistics lead to the remark of a contemporary that Americans of the middle and upper classes are healthier and longer lived than Englishmen. As the old man grows more and more blundering, if he will grow more careful it will go far to counterbalance that In firmity. Each individual in a partnership is re sponsible lor the whole amount of debts of a firm, except in cases of special part nership. One principal part of a teacher's busi ness is to keep his pupil from being too easily satisfied. Difficulty is tho very school of culture and progress.—O. Dewey. Rest For the Head. A tiny air cushion only three Inches square when collapsed, but big enough when inflated to make a good head rest, or a good support for tho back, is now sold in tho London shops. An embroidered cover, with drawing strings, is suggested as a suitable accompaniment for these when they are given to an invalid. The cover will serve as a bag to hold the hand kerchief and a little Dottle of cologne when tho cushion la not in actual use.— Boston Transcript. IMAGINARY DISEASE. ILLS INTENSIFIED AND MORBID FAN CIES HARD TO CURE. Sufferings of the Confirmed Hypochon driac—Cancer and Heart Disease in the Mind—A Case in a New York Hospital. Cured in Fifteen Minutes. Tho writer called on a number of prom inent physicians and asked them if, among their patients, they had many who imag ined they had diseases which they did not have. Some very interesting information was obtained. The doctors said it was found to be a very common trouble, and that] the chief diseases these people im agine they have are cancer, heart disease and Bright's disease. In the language of the profession, the complaint is known as hypochondriasis. It was found that the disease is often epidemic. At the time of Gen. Grant's sickness and death from cancer of the throat, and during the illness of the late Kaiser Friedrich, hundreds of people with nothing serious at all the matter with them called upon Dr. Shrady, who attend ed Gen. Grant, and told him they had can cer of tho throat coming on and wished to be treated for it. One celebrated physician, who made a special study of the disease, said that it was worthy of note that in all these cases the patient reasons correctly—that is, he draws just inferences from the error. Thus the Prince of Bourbon, when he supposed himself to be a plant, reasoned justly when he Insisted upon being watered with the rest of the plants every day. In like manner, the hypochondriac who supposes himself to be dead reasons with the same correctness when he stretches his body and limos on the bed or a board and assumes the stillness and silence of a dead man. The following is from the records of one of the New York hospital's house surgeons: "It was on July 6 that a man of small stature, who was found afterwards to be a shoemaker by trade, who was apparent ly about 40 years ol ago, escaped from his home and was running at large in the streets of the city, lacerating his flesh and beating his head against the sides of houses. A number of citizens managed to capture him, and they brought him to the hospital, followed by a big crowd. With his arms tied behind him, and in the greatest agony, his face bruised and swollen, his lips tom to pieces and streaming with blood, he was ushered into the hospital by those who had him in charge. I met them at the door and in quired into the case. The man was eager to tell his own story, but with difficulty collected words to convey it. His lan guage was copious, but his agitation so great that he could hardly utter a sen tence, being interrupted by constant efforts to tear his lips to pieces. Those with him knew nothing except that they had prevented him from beating out his own brains. At length he conveyed the information ^vhere his distress was, and upon which his mind was deluded. In his upper lip ho said there was a worm gnawing his flesh and penetrating into his body, and unless he could tear it out the worm would soon bo beyond his reach and inevitably destroy him. This was the cause of his misery. He was assured of the possibility of relief, and with a smiling countenance I patted him on the shoulder and bade him no longer be un easy, for I would cut out the worm. His eyes sparkled, and in an instant he re plied, 'Will you? Do it then. Do it, quick, for God's sake.' "He was urged not to despair, for I was now ready to remove the insect prey ing upon his flesh. Accordingly, we went to the cells of the maniacs. When being seated he fixed himself for the operation. I paraded six lancets on the table before him. By making a display of this and other preparations and sending for assist ance he became composed, waiting with •patience the result. In the meantime I had sent in search of the worm. The person sent, being unsuccessful, stayed too long and I harried out tho door and picked from the ground one of the large worms or caterpillars which infested the poplar trees at that time and had fallen from the trees by the door. One end of the Insect had been trodden upon, and it was nearly dead. This I got, and on re turning found my patient's uneasiness increased. Bat upon seeing me take the instruments he fixed himself in the chair and requested my assistants, the apoth ecary and the orderly man, to hold his hands lest he should start while under pain of the cutting instrument. "With a lancet the operation was begun. I pricked his lip with it, which made him flinch a little. He accordingly leaned back his head firmly against the person who stood behind him, and shut his eyes tightly, and thus fixed he bore the re peated pricks of the instrument with steadiness and fortitude. After pinching his lip with one hand and wounding it with the other, I cat off a portion of the upper lip which he had tom with his nails and which was pendulous. I now assured him that the operation was nearly completed, for the head of the worm conld be seen. The bystanders cried out: "There it is! there it is I He raised eyes to see, but was cautioned to be still for one min ute longer, at which he again shut his eyes. I then gave him a severe pinch, drew the edge of the lancet across the lacerated lip, and exclaiming, 'I've got him,' opened my hand and exposed the great worm. "The man rose from his seat and gazed at the worm with astonishment beyond utterance. At length he spoke and re quested me to preserve it, for, he observed with tranquillity, his friends had said he was crazy, but this would be an evidence to the contrary. "The result of this deceptive operation was a perfect cure, and this remarkable change was effected in less than fifteen minutes after the patient entered the hospital." Tho best doctors say that the causes of the disease lie in conditions usually ob scure, which lower tho tone of the gen eral health or depress the vitality of the brain, either by physical wear or mental worry. Disappointment, had habits, want of proper mental occupation, often cause the trouble. The treatment con sists in measures to improve the general health, especially a full diet, carefully selected; hydro-therapeutics, massage, gymnastics, horseback riding, walking, rowing, abundant and agreeable exercise In the open air, and the management of the patient's surroundings so as to lighten auu icueva irom worry, perhaps by travel of sea voyage. Argument is commonly worse than use less, but there suould bo a Redded im pression given that tho generally morbid state is duo to ill health. Tho risk of suicide is so small that restriction of lib erty directed to its prevention does more harm than good.—YVilliam Henry Hawley in Boston Globe. Some Things to Remember. I have been told, even in cultivated, in tellectual circles, that a young woman had better be in the kitchen or laundry than in the laboratory or class room of a college. "Women should be trained," such persons say, "to be wives and mothers." The finger of scorn has been lightly pointed at the mentally cultivated mothers and daughters who are unable to cook and scrub, who cannot make a mince pie or a plum pudding. Such persons for get with surprising facility ail the cases of women who neglect the kitchen to in dulge in the love sick sentimentality to to which they have been trained; who think too much of possible matrimonial chances to endanger them by scrubbing, or by giving ground for the suspicion that they cultivate any other faculty than the power to apostrophize the moonlight and to long for a lover. They do not care to remember that it is no whit better to wither under the influence of ignorance or sentiment, to cultivate a fondness for "gush," thau to dry up the sensibilities like a book worm, or grow rigid and prig gish as a pedant. It is as bad to stunt human nature as to over stimulate it—to stop its progress in one way as in another. The danger is in going to extremes. The mass of men choose the golden mean, and we may trust women to avoid extravagance in the pursuit of learning. We may and ought to give her every help in the direction of life that her brothers possess. It is no longer doubtful, it is plain, that what ever other rights woman should have, those of tho intellectual kingdom ought to be hers fully and freely. She should be the judge herself of how far she should go in exploring the mysteries of nature and of science.—Arthur Gilman 'in The Century. Fermented Jnlce of the Grape. Wine is the fermented juice of the grape, and is distinguished from other fermented and alcoholic liquors by con taining bi-tartrate of potash, a constitu ent of the grape. Blackberries, currants, and other berries, by fermentation, will yield a wine, but tho name of the berries from which obtained is always appended to the vinous product. When the term wine alone is used the fermented juice of the grape is signified, and anything else is a misnomer. The numerous varieties of wine are occasioned by difference of soil, climate, season, and by the kind, quality and condition of the grapes as to ripeness, the mode of fermentation, and by the manner and temperature at which tne wine is preserved, and by its age. The strong wines, such as sherry, port and Madeira, are made from grapes that are thoroughly ripened, and which, on account of containing a large amount of sugar, yield, when fermented, a greater amount of alcohol, which will range be tween 18 and 25 per cent. Claret contains about 12 per cent, and champagne about 10. Sweet wines, like tokay, are made from grapes so ripe that they are almost shriveled up to raisins, and therefore con tain much sugar, and the fermentation is arrested before all the sugar is converted into alcohol, which will hardly reach 10 S r cent. Champagne is bottled before e fermentation has ceased, and hence some of the carbonic acid resulting from the fermentation is retained in the wine, to be given off only when the bottle is opened. It is, perhaps, not too mach to say that most wines exported from Euro pean wine countries are adulterated.— Professor W. P. Tonry in Baltimore Sun. rnmng witn an Englubwoman. I became interested in the conversation of the young Boston man and the haugh ty Englishwoman who sat beside him. The Boston man had grown plaintive. "What always strikes me," he said, thoughtfully, as he turned his handsome and boyish face toward the stalwart girl beside him, "is the coldness and apathy of English ladies." "Really," said the girl, looking into the Bostonian's big eyes with a stony stare, in which there was just a trace of admi ration. 1 forgot to say that the youngster is a tremendous masher on both sides of the water, and—what is more important— a thoroughly good fellow at that. "Yes," he said, "it takes years and years for an American to find ont whether an Englishwoman likes him or not. You, for instance, though I have known for a year, met yon twenty or times, stopped at your house, and that, you still talk to me about the weather, and look at me with the air of a countess examining the points of a tax terrier for whom she has no sort of admi ration." "It's such a ghastly thing," said the •1, with just a trace of a caressing look her eyes, "to show ones feelings." Then she blushed. "Well, if Englishwomen," said the youngster, beaming back at her happily, '•were a little more ghastly, they would be a thousand times more lovable. " Then he blushed, too. They glanced up, caught me in the act of eavesdropping, and I joined in.—Blakely Hall in The Ar gonaut. __ What Self Binders Have Done. The self binder was first successfully attached to the reaper in 1876; from 1867 to 1876 inclusive our average crop of wheat, varying more with the season than with the planted area, had been 238,000, 000 bushels. In 1877, when the self binder first began to be used, the crop mounted to nearly 364,000,000 bushels. Again, in 1878, it mounted up, and from that date to 1887 inclusive, in which period tho use of the self binder had be come general, the average crop, varying more with the season than with the planted area, was 440,000,000 bushels. Could tho crops of the last ten years have been saved without the self binder? When we consider that the total number of self binding reapers now made and sold is more than 100,000 a year, requir ing over 30,000 tons of twine to bind a single wheat crop, do we not find in the tying of that knot on the self binding har vester a main factor in the export of grain with the returning import of gold on which we resumed specie payment? By that single improvement the cost of wheat was reduced not less than 6 per cent., and in some places 10 per cent.— Forum. n you thirty ad afl r, AMID SEAS OF ICE. 8CENES AMONG THE GLACIERS OF THE UPPER ENGADINE. Climbing Snow Clad Alpine Heights—Dust Avalanches—Formation of a Glacier—A Moraine—How "Glacier Corn" Is Formed. "Glacier Tables"— Moulins. As far as my vision extended there was nothing in sight but ice and snow, and the snow was exceedingly white, I assure 70U. The driven snow you have in towns and plains is a decided brown compared with the dazzling snow we saw up there at the tops of Swiss mountains. Forever and forever this virgin gown lies on all the peaks, as it also covers the lower val leys in winter. It has the soft look of a dove's breast, it rests on rocks a thing of beauty, and often it is very dangerous. It falls in soft, pure flakes, clings to all the projections, covers rocks with charm ing traceries, and spreads itself like a sheet of white satin over the upper vales. But the touch of a passing eagle's wing, the light weight of a chamois, or the careful step of an expert climber will de tach it from its crest and send it down. Then it goes sliding, rumbling along, breaking and reforming as it falls, ever increasing in volume and velocity, and, pursuing its way, becomes a devastating, terrible avalanche that bends and breaks trees, gathers up earth and stones, and rolls into the Engadine with an awful sound, spreading destruction and dismay in its path. They call these sort of things Staublawinen, or dust avalanches, becanse they consist at the start of cold, dry, powdery snow only, and they are often far more powerful than a raging hurri cane. But tho avalanches usually seen lying in high Alpine valleys, covered with dust, earth and stones and great trunks of trees, are known as grundlawinen or compact avalanches. It was a grand sight on which we g&zed. Glaciers filled every valley and ravine, and the ice stood up in tall ramparts wherever the space was too narrow to hold its rigid waves. Glacier ice is snow that has for a considerable time been sub jected to enormous pressure. If you squeeze a snowball in your hand until it is very hard it becomes icy. So in the Alps, the continual fall 'of snow is the oressure and the sun's heat tho warmth which produces those seas of ice that are called glaciers. Thero are over 600 of them iu Switzerland, and some are coeval with the glacial period of this continent, while others are now iu process of forma tion. Winter is their season of rest, but with the spring they resume their onward motion, due to the combined action of heat and gravitation. For in spite of their apparent immobility all Alpine glaciers do move constantly, although with different degrees of speed, and, like liquid streams, they carry with them debris of all sorts, but principally the stones that fall on their surface from the mountains' sides. The glacier starting in its purity from some white unsullied peak, loses before many years its spotless character. The wintry frosts gathering into iron bonds the streams that trickle down the moun tain sides expand the water in freezing and shatter rocks with a force that the most solid cliffs cannot possibly resist. Thus broken fragments drop on to the once unspotted bosom of the ice sea and swell its burden with advancing years. The debris thus brought down form what are called moraines. Each glacier has a moraine on either side of it; its end is a terminal moraine, and wheD two glaciers unite their lateral moraines join and form a medial moraine. One of the largest medial moraines hereabout I saw as we came down from this excursion. It is in the center of the Morteratsch Glacier and is about fifty feet or more broad and per haps twenty feet high in its center. We were struck by the infinite white ness of everything, and I have since learned that it is owing to the presence of glacier com. There is on glacier clad mountains a neve, or finely crystallized snow, which is never fully melted, and this is the pressure that forms the placier ice. Now, glacier ice is quite different to that which results from freezing water, and is found to consist of crystals varying in size from that of a hen's egg to a pin's head; these particles are known as granules or glacier com, and in minute holes air is imprisoned. Where the air bubbles are absent the glacier has a blue ish tint, and is no longer that pure white which puzzles so many persons. With the oldest guide carefully leading the way we walked over the ice sea of Dia volezza. Before we had gone far on its level surface I saw bowlders supported at some height on ice pedestals and I stopped to examine them. "Glacier tables," said the guide at the tail end of our proces sion, but his remark conveyed no useful information. I soon saw that they re sulted from the presence of a block of stone. It had fallen on the sea, and had, so to speak, protected the ice directly be neath it from the heat of the sun. In consequence, while the glacier all round has been dissolving and sinking, the ice under these bowlders has but slightly melted, and gradually a pillow is forming under each rock. "But the bowlder is not balanced evenly on the top," observed the Boston lady. It was explained to her that because the sun is able to reach these ice pedestals more freely on the south side than on the north the thing naturally inclines toward the south. As we walked along we noticed a line of sand covered mounds about four or five feet high and culminat ing in a sharp ridge. We scraped off a little of the sand and earth and found that a mound was composed of ice which looked quite black when it was uncovered. The reason for the existence of these cones was obvious. The ice protected by the sand had remained unmelted, and the wind had thinned the drifted heap into a pointed shape. Suddenly we heard a cracking sound which was accompanied by a noise like that of a distant explosion, and the guide said this announced the formation of another crevasse. Presently the sound of falling water, which grew louder and louder as we approached, was heard, and soon we reached a point where r stream dropped down a shaft in the ice and was lost to sight. The guide called this deep hole a moulin, and he gently re marked that a false step in its direction would take a fellow down beyond all human aid. Agassiz and Tyndall both tried to ascertain the thickness of glaciers by taking soundings down these moulins. The former found no bottom at 800 feet on one sea and on another ho estimated the thickness at 1,500 feet.—Cor. New York Times. ____"J—r ---- -- MY GRAVE. If, when I die. 1 must be buried, let No cemet'ry engulf me: no lone grot Where the great palpitating world comes uot, Save when, with heart bowed down, and eyelids wet. It pays its last and melancholy debt To some out journeying pilgrim. May my lot Be rather to lie in some much used spot. Where human life with all its noise and fret Throbs on about me. Let the roll of wheels. With all earth's sounds of pleasure, commerce, love, And rush of hurrying feet, surge o'er my head. Even in my grave I shall be one who feels Close kinship with the pulsing world above And too deep quiet would distress me, dead. —Ella Wheeler Wilcox in Pittsburg Bulletin The Alhambra's "Court of Lions." The Court of Lions far exceeded my ex pectations. It is marble paved, a parallelo gram in shape, and has the far famed fountain, with its alabaster basins sup ported by twelve quaintly carved lions, standing in the center. On certain fete days, or upon the occasion of royal visits, the water leaps over the basins and spurts from the mouths of the statues, as it did in the golden days of Moorish pride and power. On all four sides of the court are handsome arcades of open stucco work, and elegant Moorish arches supported by slender white marble pillars, sometimes single, sometimes in clusters. At each end, a portico or pavilion pro jects into the court, the light, fragile architecture of which seems almost to be long to fairyland. The filigree stucco work is so delicate, the edges so sharply defined, so hard and white, that it seems to be of the purest snowy marble. When you stand before one of these beautiful peristyles, and look up to its open lace like walls, pierced with the fascinating Moorish arches, upheld by many slender pillars, all so full of elegance, grace and beauty, it is hard to realize that it has stood thero for five or six hundred years. It is so light and airy that we almost fear whlie gazing at it that it may fade away like a beautiful vision.— G. P. Gates in Boston Transcript. Fancy Leathers of Commerce. The morocco leather of commerce is either goat or sheep skin. Goat skins are treated differently from the skins which make tho thicker leather, being tanned with sumac, and all thicknesses of the leather being used. The skins of wool bearing animals, like the sheep, are commonly soft and spongy, and therefore unsuitable for shoes designed for rough wear, so tho sheep skins are generally used for facings and linings For our sheep skins we are indebted to Australia and South America, and they come to us by the way of England, where the wool is taken from them and the skin shipped to us as raw material. The various fancy leathers, such as alligator, seal and the like, are very often sheep and goat leather stamped ahd pressed to imitate the genuine article, and kangaroo leather, so far from gracing the back of the kangaroo, generally has no higher origin than tho Spanish donkey.—Globe-Dem ocrat. The Commodore's Chief Concern. Commodore Vanderbilt was driving one day in Harlem lane, and as usual took the road, turning out for nobody. A very fast team came behind him, and the driver called on him to give room. Van derbilt urged his horses forward and went straight on, believing he could not be passed. The other wagon dashed by, taking him on the wheel and throwing him out on his head. He was picked up insensible. It was feared at first that his neck might be broken. But ue recovered In a few minutes and inquired of the anxious bystanders: "Did any of you boys notice whether that- 'ere hoss was trottin' or runnin'?" His chief concern was to know if the horse that had gone by him had kept hi3 gait.—Paul R. Cleve land in Cosmopolitan. Tooth Palling by electricity. Boston people nowadays have their su perfluous teeth drawn by means of elec tricity. Inasmuch as all new ideas in the arts and sciences are spread from this en lightened metropolis originally, and from hence extended over the country, there is little doubt that sooner or later this new method will supersede laughing'gas and ether in other big cities of the Union. The process in question is very simple, scarce any apparatus being required be yond an ordinary two cell battery, with vibrator attachment. This attachment is a thin strip of metal, fastened at the ends, which is made to vibrate a thousand or more times per second by the electric cur rent. At each vibration the circuit is cut off and renewed again, the effect being to give a perfectly steady flow of the mys terious fluid. In order to make sure that the flow is quite satisfactory the operator tunes the machine—assisted by a little reed tuning pipe—until the strip of metal sings "A." So far, so good. Now to the battery are attached three wires. Two of them have handles at the ends, and the third Is hitched to a for ceps. The patient in the chair is given a handle to hold in each hand, and the cur rent is turned on gradually until it be comes painfnL Then he is told to grasp the handles as strongly as possible, the electricity—having been switched off for a moment—is turned on again suddenly, and the dental surgeon applies his forceps simultaneously to the tooth. The instant the molar is touched, it, as well as the parts surrounding, becomes electrified and absolutely insensible to pain. When it is withdrawn from the socket, the subject of the operation feels not the slightest disagreeable sensation. A jerk and the tooth is out, the patient drops the handles and the affair is over.—Boston Cor. Globe Democrat. A SQubuIuio c or »» uuii The Buenos Ayres Herald says the reeds and rushes of the Parana aro destined to become of great value for paper pulp and as a fiber for textile fabrics. By a recent invention wool and silk are made from reeds, and the Herald remarks: "We have examined heavy goods for overcoats, blankets and gentlemen's wear, feltings and black silk dress goods, all made out of tho fiber of these rushes, which for tex ture, for finish, for strength and for hold ing colors wo could not distinguish from similar goods made from wool r nd silk."— Chicago Herald. Of the 200 gold beaters in New YôA Hot one is a woman, while of the 900 gold baiters not one is a man. JAPANESE FARMING. CULTURE OF RICE, BARLEY, WHEAT. FLOWERS AND WEEDS. How Irrigation Is Carried On—Thorough Cultivation—Some Peculiar Gardening Features—Ornamental Boundary Lines. Weeding the Fields—Sparing the Flowers. My first drive was Into a rice region The fields were cut up into all sizes and arranged upon ever varying levels Some were but a few feet square, while a quarter of an acre was a large field The best land yields fifty bushels an acre more or less, and the poorest about thirty It is rare to find two adjacent fields on the same level. Sloping land is. of course, more convenient for irrigation, but on this flat area through which we were traveling the little rice fields were laboriously divided up at differing heights, so that the water might be made to flow easily from one to the other The water is raised to the higher patches mostly by treadmill pumps We were on the ground in season to witness the earlier stages of rice cultivation. In some fields the bare stubs of the last crop were dismally peering out of the mud. In others laborers were tearing up the stubs with heavy pronged forks, standing nearly to the hips in water and slime. Bullocks drawing long toothed harrows were engaged in tho same operation. Wooden plows were also at work, mere stirring np im Ç lements of wood with one handle. 'hey had a rounded nose, fortified with an iron chisel, point beveled downward. Then there was a rude plow with broad toon share for turning a shallow furrow, and heavy oblong hoes for working the soil over and over. Grading scoops com pleted the grand utensils, but for shaping the causeways or narrow dykes between the fields, the coolies used the usual hand weapons. In some of the fields the rice was already showing thickly, about six inches in height, giving a beautiful variety to the dismal land scape of mud and scum. In other areas the seedling plants were being set out in rows, six inches apart each way. The crop is sown in May and reaped in October or November, being grubbed or puddled three times during the season. This means that the whole population wade Into the slime, pull out the weeds, and stir up the mud about the roots of the plants. TIIE GRAIN FIELDS. The first thing that struck us in the barley and wheat region was tho peculiar furrows. They were very shallow at first, varying somewhat in depth and consider ably in width and architecture, so to speak. They were in the rough at the outset, so far as anything in Japan is en titled to that character, .though they would bo smooth and elegant f' xrows anywhere else. Then they began to be sloped up slanting, smoothed off as evenly as the sides of a house. Others were squared with mathematical precision. On the ridges the barley is sown in thick set rows, apparently by hand: On the nar rower ridges but a single row appeared; on the broader ones were two rows, and more rarely three. Outside these grain rows the ridges were utilized for other crops, mostly rows of buckwheat, but we saw also sweet potatoes, turnips, beans, and the like. In one place we observed a man watering this extra crop, which ap peared odd, as the ground seemed moist enough. To accomplish this primitive irrigation he carried two buckets slung over his shoulders on a pole, and used a wooden hand dipper with a slit in the side at the bottom, which let out a thin disk of water. Throughout the fields of this vase region were numerous wells, with the old fashioned well sweep. Not only Ike ridges but the furrows themselves are sometimes utilized for crops. The only thing we saw growing there, however, was what our courier informed us was bird seed. Aside from the barley was wheat also, used mostly for the manufacture of ver micelli—for we did not discover any use of bread by the Japs, except in rare cases where the custom had been borrowed from Europeans. There were immense fields also of what our guide called oil plant, which we took to be rape seed. This crop was being harvested, as also was the barley in warm localities, it being the latter part of May. There were also large patches of beans and peas, and of the thin grass like reed whose pith furnishes Japanese lamps with wicking. We were, however, more occupied with the style and character of the farming than with crop statistics. And this style was really gardening on a grand scale. The nice little furrows, to which I have referred, all had the appearance of being carefully K tted by hand, so smooth and even were eir surfaces. ORNAMENTAL BOUNDARY LINES. Then, in addition to the nice regularity of the town crops, there was another peculiar gardening feature. No fences or hedges appeared in the fields, for good lan4 is too valuable, being worth $500 to $900 the acre, and even more in some cases. Boundaries are marked by stakes or stones, with the owner's names or symbol attached. This is not difficult to regulate, as many of the patches are very small. But in place of fences there were crop boundaries in many places on the rim of the fields. For example, a thickly sown row of wheat would extend all around a barley field. The rows of grain usually ran with the ends toward the road, and the bordering row of another crop had a pretty effect. In some cases, however, the grain rows would run one way for a certain distance and then would come another patch sown at right angles. This vas also quite novel and picturesque. Sometimes the ornamental border would be of the same crop, as barley around bar ley, but this was not usually the case. The weeding of these fields is perfect, and our cultivators might take a lesson from the Japs. Numbers of women were crouched between the files of barley weed ing by hand. With the furrow system the cultivator is out of place; and, more over, handwork is the rule in this crowded country, and in a day's drive of thirty-two miles we only saw two horses. Where animals were employed they were bullocks ar wretched little cows. All were shod with sandals of rice straw. The weeding women were attended by boys, who care fully lugged the spoil out of the fields in baskets or mats. Near the scattered farm honses the weeds were spread out to cure. They are utilized as food for people and cattle, and for bedding for the beasts, bnt mostly for manure. Along the roadsides men were cutting grass and weeds with curved bladed knives. In ono little grovo men and boys wer? weeding by hand, sparing only the pretty and harm less flowering plants and shrubs The roadsides were permitted also to retain Borne of the flowering weeds, buttercups, dandelions, chickweed and the like, but no mercy was shown to any growth of pestilent propensities.—American Agri culturist. SLAUGHTER OF FOWLS. A Difference Between Amateur and Pro fessional Work—The Chicago Way. Billing a chicken is a feat that few men care to undertake a second time. It is not half so easy as it looks. A man with out experience may approach his victim confidently, serte it by the neck with a vise-like grip and swing it round his head and shoulders until he is tired or until poor "chick" ceases to flop her wings or wriggle her feet, and the chances are that the half strangled bird will go cavorting all over the back yard the instant it is laid on the ground. Its slayer, tired and sweaty and covered with dust and feath ers, chases it around a circle, and finally, after a number of desperate plunges, re gains his grip on the limp but unbroken neck. "Take the ax and cut its head off, John," suggests his wife, who has been an interested bnt silent spectator of the attempted slaughter. John acts upon the advice with a promptness that proves that he knows a good thing. The ax is procured, and again the wriggling bird is imprisoned. John carries it in triumph over to a block of wood, lays its neck ont as evenly as the muscular contortions of its body and legs will permit, and then raises the keen blade for the fatal blow. It de scends with unerring aim, and the severed head rolls off the block. Bnt before John has time to congratulate himself on the success of his expedient the head gives one flutter that is its Inst, and a tiny stream of blood hardly bigger than a darn ing needle spurts from the gaping wound like a geyser, and stains his white shirt front a deep red. Then he vows in lan guage that will hardly bear reproduction that he has killed his last chicken. If the victim is an aged and tough hen with a steel spring neck and extraordinary vitality the work of slaughter is even more diffi cult. This is the way a man kills a chicken intended for his own table. Down in South Water street there are fourteen chicken slaughter houses that turn out an average of about thirty thousand dead birds every twenty-four hours. The process is simpler and more rapid. There is an institution near the corner of Clark street which alone is ready to kill off the feathered tribe at the rate of 10,000 a day if the consumption of chicken meat warrants the wholesale slaughter. The chickens are brought to the place by thousands and turned loose in immense coops that occupy whole floors, and there they crow and cluck and eat corn until the remorseless hand of the professional butcher closes on their necks. When this happens there is no time for another crow. The needle-like point of the keen knife that the butcher carries in his right hand is deftly inserted behind the victim's ear, and the next instant its lifeless body is shooting through a spont that leads to the floor where the "plump ing" room is located. It is all done in the briefest part of a second, as will be mors readily understood when it Is stated that this butcher, single handed and alone, can stab 10,000 chickens in a day of ten hours. It does not make any difference to him whether the victim is a spring chicken or a full fledged hen. One fall* as easily bofore the plunge of his knife as the other. But it is in the "plumping" room that the hen has a chance to exhibit its vitality. In one comer of this apartment, which is always half filled with wet feathers, is a big iron tank fall of boiling water. Into this the bodies of tbe birds are thrown as fast as they fall from the butcher's spont, and after they have been there half a minute they are hauled out by the legs and stripped of their feathers. This pro cess requires bat two sweeps of a ham like hand, and the bird, denuded, Is flung into a cooling box. From there they go downstairs to another cooler, and then they are packed for shipment.— Chicago Herald. Tho Magnificence of Civilization. Talking about the early days in Cali fornia, there was an old fellow down in the country who was the first senator to go to the legislature from his district. His district was a rural one, and there were no houses—only cabins there—rough wooden cabins, with nails for hat racks and a rope for a wardrobe and a cracked looking glass for a dressing table. He went to Sacramento, and when he got back the entire district camo in to call upon him, and he gave them a wonderful account of the magnificence of civilizatioa in the capital of the state. "Yas, boys; I had a china basin an* a cake o' soap scented by gosh; smelt like tho flowers, an' there wor a little place in the wall with a row of big hooks in it, an* I said to tho waiter, 'What 's that forf 'To hang your clothes in,' says he, an'— well, I didn't have any clothes to hang in it; but it wor splendid; but, boys, that wor nothin'. What do yon think I had? A real bureau, a real, carved bureau, with a looking glass bigger'n this window in it. It wor gorgeous, gorgeous."—"Under tones" in San Francisco Chronicle. Afraltl of a White Cat. As for himself, the old engineer says that he is not at all superstitious, but ho knows men who aro handling the throttle on the Bee Line who regard it as a bad omen to see a white cat cross the road in front of an engine in the night time. "You may think it is extremely foolish," said he, "but there is a man in charge Oi a passenger engine on this line that can never be induced to make time after hav ing seen a white cat cross the track at night. Such a thing does not happen very often, but he claims that it never fails to be the forerunner of some bad luck, not necessarily to his train, but somewhere along the line. After seeing the white cat he always feels his way along, as it were, and gives as an excuse for his failure to work up to the schedule that his engine would not make ste im rapidly enough. Tho other engineers are on to him, but they never joke him about It, as ho is extremely sensitive. - '—Globe Democrat. Nature I* Kind. People who eat garlic and smoke cigar ettes, it is said, will never be attacked by yellow fever. Nature doesn't believe in piling on the agony.