Newspaper Page Text
Helena, Montana, Thursday, January 31 , 1889 . 1JÎ celt ly ifjcralil. R. E. FISK D. W. FISK ». J. FISK. Publisher8 and Proprietors. Largest Circulation of any Paper in Montana Rates of Subscription. WEEKLY °HEKALD : Orie Year. ( i ■■ »«I »mice) .............................*3 00 H1x Months, (In advance)............................... 1 75 Three Months, (In advance)........................... 1 00 When not paid for in advance the raie will be Four Dollars per yeaii Postage, in all cases Prepala. DAILY HERALD: Pity Subscribers,delivered by carrier 81.00a month One Year, by mail, (in advance)................. 89 00 Six Months, by mail, (in advance)............... 5 00 Three Months, bv mail, (in advance)........... 2 50 If not paio in advance, 812 per annum. Entered at the Postoffice at Helena as second class matter.] •«"All communications should be addressed to FISK BROS,, Publishers, Helena, Montana. Superstitious About His Will. There is a man in town who has rheu matic gout. lie has also great riches and a collection of art and curios that have been the joy and solace of a life much broken up l>7 the twinges of his great toe. This collection he values beyond his money, and is in great fear of it falling into the hands of a relative who is his nearest, heir This he is determined at all hazards shall not occur, at the same time, he will not make a will, although his attacks of gout are frequent and dan gerous As many men ho is superstitious about making a will He feels that if it was once done there would be nothing left but to wait for the undertaker The result Is that when he is free from pain he feels the collection to be safe, but when an at tack comes on it is intensified by the man's ludicrous fear lest he will die be fore he has put it out of his brother's reach. nis doctor and friends have argued with him, bu' to no purpose Every tim« he is violently seized the servants run for the doctor and lawyer at the same time. Tables are drawn up, and pen, ink and paper aro in readiness as promptly as the medicines. Again and again wills have been drawn up, but no matter how low he has been he has never yet signed one. The other day he had a violent seizure. There was the usual hurry and scurry. He was really felt to be dying, and as the end was supposed to be near he was held up in bed, quill in hand, and the family held their breaths in suspense at the spectacle. His breath was growing fainter and fainter. His hand was carried to the E aper, but he did not sign. He seemed to e calculating for just time enough to scratch his name, and then, in the lan guage of the novelist, to let the pen drop from his nerveless grasp and expire. The alarm of the family finally gave way to an unruly curiosity as to which would win, the sick man or death. But the old man won. Ho breathed better and at length he spoke out with an air of deci sion: "I guess I won't sign it today." They knew then he was safe for another attack.—New York Evening Sun Tlio Planet Mars. Astronomers claim that they know Mars has aqueous vapor in its atmos phere, but they do not know which part of its surface forms this by evaporation. Their theories follow their observations rapidly, and very few theories come to be substantiated. From the days when Dr. Dick wrote, and suggested plans of open ing communications with the supposed Inhabitants of the moon, to the present, the wildest ideas have constantly at tended the steady, practical investigation of astronomes. Yet the astronomer plods on with the instrument maker, and each century adds its results to those of what has been attained before, and though many wild theories attend each discovery tho discovery itself remains while most of the theories die. However, there is some reason for in ferring that Mars is composed of land and water. The water seems to be al ways connected. Even tho so called canals connect with tho seas, being of tho same color, and no canal ends in the center of a continent. Exchanged Wives for Better or Worse. In Washington county two married couples were living only a short distance apart, and by neighborly intercourse each man became enamored of the other's wife, wliile the ladies soon learned to love the other's husband, and thus became estranged from their first love. When matters took this shape it came to be noticeable by all concerned, and many evenings passed while each husband was at the other's tiouse pour ing out liis tale of love and fidelity into the willing ears of the listeners. Finally one of the husbands, a little bolder than the other, proposed an exchange. This was met with gladness by all the parties interested, and the proposing party con sented to the trade on condition that the other would allow him $5 in cash and seven bushels of Quaker peas. This was readily consented to, ana the trade was made, each wife going to the other's home, carrying with her tho children, and are now living in the sweetest do mestic felicity. They will try to have the courts make the trade legal.—At lanta Clu'onicie. Amuofl« to Un» Trout. The Insolence and inefficiency of men •ervants in England have long been so vividly realized by all heads of house holds, that any step which shall be an advance in tho direction of getting rid of them ought to be bailed with rapture by 'all c Lat. cl aines and housekeepers. Many ladies have given them up altogether, and content themselves with female servants, »electing a peculiarly stalwart specimen of tho genus amazdh to fulfil the duties of butler. She is, moreover, In many cases, dressed in a livery coat and waist coat, which look very smart, although K baps rather suggestive of the stage. to recently, at an afternoon party given in uondon, the guests were entirely served by a bevy of female servants, all dressed aliko in black gowns, white waist coats, and white caps trimmed with black ribbons. Tho effect was, on the whole, very pleasing, and the waiting was much more efficiently and neatly done than If it had been intrusted to a cohort of waiters. —The Argonaut. THE BIG SUGAR FRAUD.' ^TORIES OF FRIEND, THE MAN WITH THE SHAM PROCESS. Tales Told by a Dressmaker—View of the Building Wherein the Victims Sank Their Money, and In Which the Alleged New Way of Making Sugar was Carried On. The old saying that capital is timid has met with a noted disprover in the recent developments of the great Electric Sugar Refining swindle at New York. So adroit were the swindlers, or so gullible the capitalists ; that the stock of the bogus company was selling in London at 500 per cent. Professor Friçnd. the holder of the remarkable secret, is sup posed to havç gone to his last sleep long before the denouement came, and fin ished his career with brandy: so he is not here to participate in the crash. His wife, who inherited the secret, survives * * « One of the most interesting features of the case is the report of Mrs. II. M. Baillie, a Brooklyn dressmaker, who four years ago lived in the same house with the Friends. She has giv«i her observations to a reporter for The New York World. One day it was reported to her that there was to lx? an experiment. The professor received eight barrels of unrefined sugar for refining, for which he was to get $3,000 from the company if he executed the work successfully. Mrs. Baillie was sitting in her room one day, just over the room occupied by Mr. and Mrs. Howard, Mrs. Friend's father and mother. The register was open, and Mrs. Baillie heard voices in the apartment below. The pro r was talking to his wife. This is rs. Baillie's account of tho conversa tion: " 'Well, Ollie, that was a good day's work, wasn't it?' said he, and I could hear him chuckling to himself. " 'Yes,' she answered crossly; 'and I am pretty tired, I tell you. There ain't many women would do what I have done for you, nor there ain't many would have the nerve.' "Then came the deep voice of old Howard. 'You had to lift out all that sugar with your hands, didn't you, Ollie?' 'Yes,' she answered; 'and then I had to put it in the sink and let it run away. My hands are sore from it.' "ï'hey all began to laugh together and talk of how easy it would be to make money. They were all in high spirits, and never thought of being overheard. fiBBBBllo l'ËBBBlEEl ■ ■ friend's sugar Factory. " 'I am to be paid $20,000 for the next experiment,' laughed the professor. 'I am going to have a great big machine, and I will mako things hum, I tell you. You see we can make the box as big as we want to,' and they all laughed. They talked on th.it way for an hour or two, and I learned just how they 'refined' the sugar by 'electricity.' The professor had % little Ikix of a machine in his room by which he purified refined 6ugar in small quantities. This he put into his machine and ground out, the 'company' thinking it was the raw sugar they had sent, when Mrs. Friend had simply let that he mashed th rough the sink. I remember the professor said: " 'Why, I don't care if they box me up and nail me into my machine and pile in their raw sugar behind me. I have the refined sugar in there, and all I have to do is to toss it out to them through the funnels. ' " There seems to have been some dissat isfaction after that with the dressmaker, whom the s Y invited to go elsewhere, and Sirs. Baillie retorted that if they were going to do any more sugar refining they would better keep the register shut. * # # Now it transpires that stepfather How ard. who has carried on the scheme with his daughter Miss Friend 6ince the pro fessor's death, divided his time between the "refinery" and street preaching. On week days ne would devote himself to the former, and on Sundays he would ring psalms and preach in South Brooklyn, or frojn the steps of the city hall in New York. Meahwhile his scientific son-in-law kept a stable in New York with twenty-seven horses in it Yet it is said that his coupe bills outside the use of his stables were usually $250 per month. He regarded brandy the only beverage for a gentleman and a scientist, and would only drink the best. He died in stirring times; times fitting to end the life of one who had lived at such a rapid pace; the time of his death being simultaneous with the great blizzard on the Atlantic coast last spring. # And yet among tlie other mysteries connected with this celebrated Electric Sugar company, there is a mystery about this death of the professor. used to go about with York declares that the death A man who Friend in New was very sudden and suq) rising to lfim; that he called several times during the illness, but that he was told the professor was too ill to see him. He 6ays that he saw a box carried away from Friend's house on a cheap rickety bob sleigh. On the front seat were two men, while two others sat on the box smoking. One of these men, he 6ays, was Howard. This was Friend's funeral. Then the question arose in the observer's mind, "Was the professor dead after all?" After Friend's death Mr. Howard, who had been meek and lowly, and dressed in shabby apparel as he preached the Gospel from the city hall steps, blazed out in great style. The police were notified that there were suspicious circumstances connected with the funeral, and looked into the matter, but nothing came of it. Mrs. Friend went to Milan, Mich., the horses «and furniture in New York were sold, and Mr. and Mrs. Howard went to live at the Madison Avenue hotel in New York city. #** the On. has So the at the of is I I xu nas also transpired that Professor Friend played the sugar refining game on the Chicagoans in 1880. He kept his secret till $80,000 had been paid in for shares, and then put off inquirers by showing them beautiful samples of re fined sugar made from glucose. At last the shareholders became impatient and suspicious. They kicked in the door of the "refinery" and found nothing there but a machine practically worthless. For this episode the professor took up his abode in jail for the term of one year. The president and treasurer of the Electric Refining company say, how ever, that the professor was an injured man, and only remained in jail one night. Meanwhile the crash has come, and a largo number çf duped (shareholders have lost in the aggregate perhaps million. "Capital is timid," but the are always people who have jt who will go into any scheme blindly if it is put before them attractively. That the stock of this liogus affair should have sold at several hundred per cent, premium; that "the street" should have been gulled, is certainly a matter of surprise. a ere COLORED CATHOLIC CONVENTION. Curious Relations of the Catholic Church and Colored Americans. The recent convention of colored Cath olics at Washington may be noted as quite an epoch in the progress both of that race and that church in America. The convention did its work 60 well and gave publicity to facts of so much interest and importance that reading Americans confess a surprise at the peculiar relations, both present and his toric, of the negroes and the Catholic church. There are in the United States twenty distinct colored Catholic churches, each with a school attached, though the church does not encourage separate organization, and most of its colored communicants attend white churches. Tho colored Catholics also have sixty-five schools, eight orphan asylums and three reformatories; 6even educated colored men are now prepar ing for the priesthood, and there are 150 colored women in the various sister hoods. The schools now include 5,000 colored children. # * # It is not generally known that the first movement towards general emanci pation began in the Catholic church, that more than one pope has made it an object of special address, and that the confessor of Charles V of Spain was the first to inaugurate a crusade against African slavery and tho slave trade. As to the abolition of white slavery in England, Macaulay, despite his strong anti-Catholic feeling, gives this testi mony: "The church of Rome creates an aristocracy altogether independent of race, inverts the relation between the oppressor and the oppressed, and com pels the hereditary master to kneel be £ ore the tribunal of the hereditary bonds man. To this day (1848) in some countries where negro slavery exists, popery ap pears in advantageous contrast to other forms of Christianity; it is notorious that the antipathy between the two races is by no means so 5C. J. w. RUDD. President of Convention. his by no means so strong at Rio Janeiro as at W ashington. * * * How grea? a part the Cath olic ecclesiastics had in the aboli tion of villenage, we learn from unexceptiona.b 1 e testimony. When the dying slave holder asked for the last sacra ments, his spirit u a 1 attendants regularly a d - iured him, as he loved his own soul, to emancipate brethren for whom Christ had died." In the United States and adjacent islands there were peculiarities of race which long hindered the natural ten dency of the church. In Louisiana and the Indies the white colonists were Catholic, and so the slaves were bred in that faith, and after the revolution in San Domingo about 2,000 educated and well to do colored men removed to New Orleans. They spoke the French lan guage, were Catholics, and educated their children in France, the northern states or in private schools at home. TIhis there has existed for many years in New Orleans a colored society unlike any in any other part of the country. Victor Séjour, once the private secretary of Louis Napoleon, and a famous dra matic writer of Paris, was a native quad roon • At the close of the civil war the best and probably tho largest colored school in the United States was that directed by the« "Catholic Society for the Instruc tion of Indigent Orphans" at New Or leans, and its history is an encourage ment for all the race. In 1837 there died in New Orleans a black woman, a native of Guinea, known as Widow Bernard Convent, who had acquired her freedom and a small competency. By her will ßhe gave a lot and the buil lings on it for a school for colored orphar.8. Ten influ ential freemen of color associated them selves to give effect to the bequest, were incorporated under the laws of the state, and on the 20th of April, 1847, the insti tution was founded. It received some slight help from the state and city, but was chiefly maintained by contributions, and in 1866 contained 260 pupils. The recent growth of free schools and col leges for the colored has made it rela tively less important. In New Orleans, and probably there only, are the colored Catholics able to do what they wish in church extension. Everywhere else they are confronted, not by the "color une," as in other churches, but by the far more prosaic problem of poverty. The great mass of the white Catholics in America have not yet been in the country long enough to nave created many large fortunes, and the colored Cathohcs are much poorer still. Nevertheless, they have acnieved some striking successes. The Church of St. Augustine, in Washington, is a mag nificent edifice, built entirely by the col cfed Catholics, and the music, especially the vocal choir, is noted even in that city of excellent choirs. The plenary council of Catholic prelates of the United States, held in Baltimore in ISSi, made considerable provision for churches, school houses and priests for the colored people. The recent convention was in furtherance of that object. After a Busy a a ««»uu ui sweiai uays and a call upon President Cleveland the convention ad journed Jan. 4 to meet a year later at Richmond, Va. Doctor (passing a stonecutter's yard)— Good morning, Mr. Jones. Hard at work, I see. 1 suppose you finish your gravestones «as far as "In Memory of," and then wait for some one to die, eh? Stonecutter—Why, yes; unless some body's sick and you're doctoring 'em; then I keep right on.—Boston Gazette. A tame crow belonging to a farmer near Ridgeway, Ont., has been taügbt to distinguish colors, and will pick out from a pile of article.! of various colors one of any color asked for. .... To Shampoo One's Own Hair. Half tho pleasure of having the hair washed and groomed is to have some one do it who knows how. In England, in the large stores, there is a department of hair dressing where an accomplished bar ber, with every convenience for shower ing and drying, will wash tho hair of ladies for ono shilling. In this country a good shampoo cost from fifty cents to $1 —which is a large sum for so simple an operation. After combing the snarls from the hair, braid it loosely and bind the end®with a small elastic band. Draw tepid water in a basin and first wash the scalp thor oughly with castile soap; then let the braid fall in tho water, soap it and wash as if clothes. Afterward thoroughly rinse and wring the braid in a towel. Wipe the head dry, undo tho braid and brush out, beginning at the lower end, when it will not tangle. Let tho hair loose in the sun and air and it will dry in less than half an hour. A woman's hair should be washed at least monthly if kept fine and healthy.—New York Evening Sun. Fads of the Seashore. One of tho queer fads of tho seashore Is a sidewalk luncheon. All along the walks are booths where Vienna sausages are cooked and handed to you on a clam shell —a sausage on one shell and a baked po tato on tho other. You aro supposed to sit on the sand and eat them without salt and lick your chops for more. Silly? WeU, this is the place for silly things. Another fad is crabbing. A party num bering from six to a dozen go out In the marsh channels and bait for crabs with a iece of beef tied to a line. The crab is ust idiot enough to hang on until lifted to the boat. And yet another is the moonlight fad— promenading the beach to listen to the sighing of tho clams. Yes, clams sigh. That's one of their duties on a moonlight night. Some folks can't hear it, but a pair of lovers, with his arm around her waist and walking at a slow gait, can catch every sigh that a dam sighs.—Cor. Detroit Free Press. t XUvers Which Fish Desert. Close observers have ascertained that rivers running through treeless tracts of country aro nearly, if not quite, destitute of fish, and that fish will desert a stream from which timber has been removed, although they previously swarmed there in. In the propagation of fish it is not enough to place the fry in water; they must be provided with food, and the best means to do this is to preserve the bor der trees and insure a steady supply of water and food by preserving tho forests whence the supply of food is derived. If new forests are cultivated on tho barren ranges, many a stream now nearly empty during the dry seasons will bo refilled with fish and food for tho many.—Tho Timberman. A Gift for tho Emperor. Among tho gifts presented to the Em E eror Francis Joseph on tho occasion of is 58th birthday was a representation of a double eagle composed of 15,000 beetles, belonging to numerous species found in Austria-Hungary, and displaying all man ner of hues. Beside the emblem are the members of the imperial family, printed in characters likewise composed of beetles. The donor is a gardener, and it has taken him, with the assistance of friends in all parts of tho empire, two years to collect the insects; their arrangement has occu pied him for three-quarters of a year.— New York Post. Scenes in a Spanish City. The antiquities of Toledo are not the only interesting things. The sights from day to day on the streets and in the family cirâlo are peculiar. The very children have queer sports. One of their favorite pastimes is to parade in a dark hall with slow step and drone a chant in imitation of a church festival service Boys are also fond of playing bull fights, "the boll" part being taken by some lad not distressed by rough handling. Owing to the narrow streets, everything seems mixed up together—wine shops, vege tables, children, citizens, cadets, loafers and beggars mingling in one mass. The people generally are simple and natured. The chief street is shaded y awnimp, and every public doorway is screenecÄiy a striped curtain. Foreigners visiting the town are dubbed the "Strangers," and so referred to on every occasion when designation is necessary. The leading place of amusement is called the "Grand Summer theatre." It is with in the ragged walls of a once grand build ing, now half torn down. It is quite a common thing In the evening to hear E litär duets in the narrow, dark streets, ing given as serenades to ladies in the house before which the playing is done. The skill displayed by some of the players is marvelous, and the music is de lightful. The treble is carried on a small instrument called a "mandura" that makes a most pleasing combination with the guitar. Often professional plaj ers are hired to go and play before a house, and will thrum out native airs for several hours, smoking cigarettes assiduously all the while.—Globe-Democrat. poleo Y5b. Where He Got It. Magistrate—You say your name is Na leon Bonaparte Pancko? Witness— sah. Magistrate—Where did you get that name? Witness—I wuz named arter my poo' ole fadder. His name was de same as mine. Napoleon Bonaparte, I 'specs, sah, am a family name.—Utica Ob server. With Their Shoes On. Five Kansas young ladies were recently caught in the middle of a long railroad bridge by a passenger train and forced to Jump twenty feet into the water to save themselves. It would also be correct to state that it was a jump of ten feet. ad at at to FINE NEW BUILDINGS. THE CAPITOL OF GEORGIA ABOUT COMPLETED. It Will Be an Ornament to the Capital City of the Empire State of the Sonth. Government Buildings at Wilmington, N. C., and San Antonio, Texas. Georgia has long ranked as the empire state of the south. Stretching from the mountains of the middle south to the sea, the changes of elevation making variations of climate three times as great as do the changes of latitude, the state includes in its products almost every GEORGIA'S NEW CAPITOL, thing native to the temperate and sub tropical regions—from the hard white corn of the upper valleys apd wheat of the plateaus to the cotton of the low lands and figs of the coast. Add an equal variety of timber, from oak and hickory to the yellow pine, with a re markable variety of minerals in the mountainous regions, and it will tx seen that the state is commercially and in dustrially indeed an empire in itself. Atlanta, tho capital and principal city, lies at the gateway of the lowlands on the plateau of the last line of hills as one goes from "Cherokee Georgia" (the mountain region) to the gently sloping plains of the east and the wire grass re gion of the south. The enterprise of the people has improved the natural advan tages till Georgia ranks among the first of American commonwealths. Such a state can afford a beautiful capitol, and such a one they have. The legislature has just appropriated $75,000 for furnish ing the same, and it is expected that the new state house will be ready for occu pancy by the 1st of May. Some idea of the destined elegance of the new state house may be gained by a study of the estimates made by the legislative com mittee. There aro twenty-six items, ranging from $200 to $12,000, including: Carpets, rugs and mats, $12,000; gas fixtures, $10,000; 1,160 chairs and gallery seats, $7,500; 219 desks in house and senate chambers, $5,425; thirty-seven document file cases, $4,000; shelving in libraries, $5,000; roller shelves, book cases, drawers, etc., $7,500. and the remainder for stands, tables, settees, railings, spit toons, hat racks, lounges, wash and um brella stands and all the minor adjuncts. It raises a smile to read in the newspa pers of Atlanta that the report of the committee "was received in the legisla ture with pleasure and surprise, as the members were under the impression that it would cost from $100,000 to $150,000 to furnish the capitol in appropriate style." Public furnishings which cost less than was anticipated are indeed a surprise in these days, but Georgia will have an elegant capitol. The United States custom house, post office, etc., at Wilmington, N. C., will be three stories in height above base of in K •r. ? GOVERNMENT BUILDING, WILMINGTON, N. C. ment and 60 feet deep through tower by 120 feet in length, to be built of Wades boro, N. C., brown stone with brick backing, the basement walls being rock faced. The style of architecture employed is Italian Romanesque—the design of bold and pleasing character, sufficiently enriched vvhh carvings to give it rank among the best class of public buildings. The first story is assigned to postoffice uses and to railway mail service; the second story to United States courts and the various offices belonging thereto, to internal revenue, chief engineer of land office, etc., while the third story contains land offices, jury rÖoms and signal service offices with station for observations. The basement is assigned to customs, heating apparatus, closets and general sanitary arrangements. The structure generally will be fire proof. The cost of site is $39,520.30, while the total ap propriation is $200,000. The new government building in pro cess of erection at San Antonio, Tex., is of Romanesque 6tyle of architecture, with general dimensions of 60 feet by 134 feet 6 inches, exclusive of one story bay projections to increase the area of first floor. The structure will be of stone with brick backing, three stories high above basement, with a square tower 95 feet high above ground line. GOVERNMENT BUILDING, SAN ANTONIO.TEX. The first story will be used exclusively for Dostoffice, workina room nostmaster. the of money order office, etc.; while the second story will be for United States courts and the several officials connected therewith. The cost of building will be about $180,000. That Most Serious Problem. Too many young mothers, in their effort to make their first child perfect, go to great extremes in noticing every fault and laying too great stress upon gov ernment. This is done before every one, even the p«assing caller. I think it has the tendency to harden a child, and the expostulation loses its effect. It is pro verbial that children always act their worst when there is company in the house. I had one child who seemed to take advantage every time any one called. I grew perfectly discouraged, and felt as if there was no remedy for it. He would slide down the banisters, go whooping through the house, slam doors and do the most unexpected things, till I was mortified beyond expression. I finally made it a point to take him by the hand, and ask my caller to ex cuse us a moment—take him to another part of the house, set him in «a chair and say that I would send fçr him when he was wanted. He would remain there quietly waiting. When the caller was gone 1 would go and release him. It seemed the only way tq do. The more he was punished and admonished before people tho worse he became. So I tried hiding his faults and praising him for the good he did. It had a much better effect, and is still as effective. To some children's natures it is even humiliating to be reproved before other children. I do not think humiliation the proper way to reform. Self respect is a much better trait to develop. Let your child begin to feel early that you expect only the best things of it, and you will start it in a much better wav. Do not allow it to argue wit! you from the beg tiing, and never laugh at cute things it may do or 6ay, and repeat them to your friends in the presence of the child. If it is a wide awake child it will do and say man) things that will be intensely amusing, and, if you wish, keep a book and put them down for future enjoyment—but never let the child know it.—Philadel phia Call. a of Gauss' Invention of the Telegraph. "I don't remember," writes Gauss to Olbers on the 20th of November of the year 1833, "my having made any pre vious mention to you of an astonishing piece of mechanism that we have de vised. It consists of a galvanic circuit conducted through wires stretched through the air over the houses ;:p to the steeple of St. John and down again, and connecting the observatory with the physical laboratory, which is under the direction of Weber. The entire length of wire may be computed at about 8,U00 feet. Both ends of the wire are connected with a multiplicator, the one at my end consisting of 170, that in Weber's labo ratory of 50 coils of wire, each wound around a one pound magnet suspended according to a method which I have de vised. By a simple contrivance—which I have named a commutator—I can re verse the current instantaneously. Care fully operating my voltaic pile, I can causo 6o violent a motion of the noodle in the laboratory to take place that it strikes a bell, the sound of which is audi ble in the adjoining room. This serves merely as an amusement. Our aim is to display the movements with tho utmost accuracy. Wo have already made use of this apparatus for telegraphic experi ments, which have resulted successfully in the transmission of entire words and small phrases. This method of telegraph ing has the advantage of being quite in dependent of either daytime or weather; the one who gives the signal and the one who receives it remain in their rooms, with, if they desire it, the shutters drawn, The employment of sufficiently stout wires, I feel convinced, would en able us to telegraph with but a single tap from Gottingen to Hanover, or from Hanover to Bremen."—"Gauss and the Electric Telegraph" in Popular Science Monthly. Educated Horses. Doubtless most of you think when you see the performances of trained horses in tho circuses of today tha*t a great ad vance has been made in educating the animals over what was done in ancient times. But you are mistaken, for even the most wonderful exploits of the horses of the present day aro repetitions of what was done with them several hundred years ago. In those days horses not only danced upon their hind legs, but fought mock battles, striking at their enemies with their fore feet, «and showing what appeared to be remarkable intelligence. Perhaps the most surprising feat ever performed by a horse was in tho olden time. A large three sided braided rope was stretched several feet from the ground, and upon this tho horse walked, preserving its balance perfectly. In an old print a picture of tho act is shown, while another cut represents a horse striking tho shield of a soldier with its hoofs. Even the elephant, generally considered the most ungainly of animals, was trained in those days to walk the tight rope, not only near the ground, but, if we may believe the old writers, it traversed ropes swung above the heads of the audience, and not only preserved its balance, but bore a man upon its back.—Philadelphia Times. back.—Philadelphia Times. The Way to Wash Windows. There is a right and wrong way to wash windows, and as this operation is usually dreaded, the following method will doubtless be appreciated, as it saves both time and labor; Choose a dull day, or at least a time when the sun is not shining on the window, for when the sun shines on the window it causes it to be dry streaked, no matter how much it is rubbed. Take a painter's brush and dust them inside ana out, washing all the wood work inside before touching the glass. The latter must be washed sim ply in warm water diluted with ammo nia—do not use soap. Use a small cloth with a pointed stick to get the dust out of the corners; wipe dry with a soft piece of cotton cloth—do not use linen, as it makes the glass linty when dry. Polish with tissue paper or old news paper. You will find this can be done m half the time taken where soap is used, and the result will be brighter windows.—Pittsburg Reporter. To meant ferns use a glue with three parta white sugar, two parts starch, and a very little water. Boil until white. CHEWING GUM. SOMETHING ABOUT THE THAT HAS GROWN ON HABIT US. Some of the Girls Arc Asked Why They Chew —Evolution in Gum Making—Opin ions of Physicians on the Effects—Tons Are .Manufactured. In spite of the manifold warnings of physicians; in spite of tho fact that the shape of Cupid's bow is changed; and in spite of all the contemptuous and sarcas tic remarks which are constantly appear ing in the papers, gum chewing in this country is rapidly on the increase. Two-thirds of the girls, lx? they pretty or otherwise, that one meets on the high ways of this city are either working their jaws for all they are worth or havo a small lump tucked away in some ob scure corner of tho mouth and give it a gentle squeeze between tho teeth when they are sure of being unobserved. Gum chewing is less disgusting than tobacco chewing. And if it becomes a natural habit, as it seems likely to do, wo may comfort ourselves that the gum chewing Ameri can is far preferable to the snuff dipping Mexican. And gum chewing is not as exclusively confined to the female 6ex as is smoking to the male, for many men use gum to help still the cTaving for tobacco, thus jumping from the frying pan into tho fire, perhaps. True, gay young women are Lately be coming somewhat addicted to the use of the weed, claiming that if men have the right to put their feet on tho mantel and make a room blue with smoke why should they lie denied tho privilege, since it has such a soothing effect on the temper? And if women can find any thing that lies a salutary effect upon their tempers what folly to deprive thorn of it! UNSATISFACTORY REASONS. Why do women chew gum? You do not know, and even the chewers them selves do not seem to. "O, I chew because I can, I guess," s«aid one pert young miss upon being questioned, "And 1 because my mother tells me not to," said another, with a mischievous laugh. "I chew because I like the taste and because everybody else chews," said a third indifferently, and likewise an swered they all; the truth is, they really did rot know why they chewed and had never thought to ask themselves the question. The history of chewing gum is Tike the growth of all animal and vegetable life— one of evolution. Cnildren began to chew tho exuda tions from different trees, from the peach, plum, pine, spruce and sweet gum, thus putting it into somebody's mind to make artificial an artificial gum. It was first made of beeswax, gutta percha, and other rubbery and sticky substances, which were perfectly pure and harmless, and costly in preparation. But three years ago some inventive ge nius discovered that by boiling some of the baser elements of petroleum and mixing in a small amount of beeswax a gum similar to tho more expensive could be produced which was quite susceptible to flavors and trifling in cost. By the use of scents and large quanti ties of sugar, which is the principal article used in the composition of any gum, the disagreeable taste and odor of petroleum was entirely obliterated and a salable article was produced. About the same time a gum called "Balsam Tolu" wa3 produced, which also found a ready sale, particularly among children, and tlion "Pnrnffîn M in nil nf ifo mixtures had its day. One variety of white gum was for some time quite extensively manufac tured in China. That country has a tree peculiar to itself which possesses an at traction for an insect with a queer Chinese name which one will neither «at tempt to write nor pronounce. Numbers of them collect upon the tree, «and when they have departed to pastures new branches «ore found to be literally cov ered with a w.axy deposit. By boiling the branches the wax is separated from them, and when the water and twigs are drawn o'" 'lie white deposit remains. MORE THAN $1,500,000 A YEAR. This is purified, sweetened, flavored, coded in cakes, and a little fancy picture parted on top, and we have the old white gum which so many of us have chewed until our jaws ached. Tho sale of this variety was enormous, but it lias now been supplanted by newer kinds, as has tho old rubber wax. Physicians differ considerably in their views on the subject. An eminent phy sician from Ohio declares that gum chewing seriously affects the eyesight, and that he never fails to detect the use of it by an examination of the eye. Another says that the muscles of the jaw and face near the temple are enlarged and hardened and the curve of the lips is destroyed. And, on the other hand, doctors without number advise its use to cleanse the teeth and aid digestion. It is quite tho fad at the present time to chew spruce gum. It, at least, is pure from all the admterations which are now so common. Dealers in gum say that until within a few years its use was almost exclusively confined to children, but at tho present time the demand among adults is con tinually increasing. It has been computed by a statistician that the people of the United States spend more than $1,500,000 every year for chewing gum. There is a manufac tory in Louisville, Ky., that alone turns out 500,000 boxes of six dozen cakes each yearly, wliich is distributed all over the world. And when wo think of all the other manufactories of gums of different varieties which are in full blast, selling as much or more than the one mentioned above, we are astounded at what man's jaws can do.—Chicago Tribune. A Successful Man. If I were asked to define tho meaning of a successful man, I should say a man who has made a happy home for his wife and children. No matter what he has not done in tho way of achieving wealth or honors, if ho h«ap done that ho is a grand success. If he has not done that, and it is his own fault, though he be the highest in the land, ho is a most pitiable failure.—Ella Wheeler Wilcox.