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Helena weekly herald. [volume] (Helena, Mont.) 1867-1900, March 21, 1889, Image 2

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IRRIGATING CANALS.
Millions cf Montana Acres to Be Brought
Uunder the Plow.
Compensating Dividends to the Enter
prising Investors and Stock
holders.
The sources of water in Montana are the
condensing clouds, snow deposits on the
mountains and rain during a short season.
As this supply is const-jtly following the
grooves of the ancient rivers and water
courses, and as Montana needs this water
to make fruitful the millions of acres that
are arid without it, a plan has been
adopted of diverting the water from
cbese chanels by artilicial means
tailed water ditches or canals and
the process of distributing the water upon
the land that lies higher than the streams
is called irrigation. The simplest mode of
obtaining this water is by tapping the
sources of the natural streams and conduct
ing them upon lands remote from the
mountains by aqueducts or canals.
Irrigation is older than history, and has
always been practiced in rainless countries.
The valley of many of the rivers of ancient
history have been irrigated from the earl
iest times. The canals are too costly for
individual enterprise, so it has been neces
sary to form combinations of capital for
the purpose of making them do the duty
of refreshing showers and copious
rains. For this purpose a
number of enterprising capatalists
have commenced the work of constructing
canals in different parts of Montana by
which several millions of acres of land will
be made productive and profitable. There
can be no doubt but that the work will
prove a general benefaction which will en
rich the farmers and enable them to grow
annual crops of wheat averaging twenty
five bushels to the acre, where not a bushel
could be raised without irregation. A fair
estimate of the production of the lands
covered by the canals under construction,
supposing the area to be three millions
of acres, one-third of which to be
sown in wheat would yield 25,000,000
of bushels equal in cash to $20,000,000
every year. According to this, showing if
other parts of Montana were covered by
canals, it would be but a short time until
this State would outrank in the production
of wheat as Montana does in the produc
tion of gold, silver and copper. These pio
neers who are leading these "life arteries"
upon some of the best lands in the West
deserve to be considered public benefactors
who will no doubt be rewarded for their
enterprise by paying dividends and the
benisons of a grateful people. These great
enterprises are fully described by
the following account of the
Sun River canal, the Florence Canal and
Reservoir Company, the Teton canal, the
Chestnut Valley canal, the Gallatin canal,
Wilson & Thompson's canal, and the Dear
born canal.
In addition to the great work of irriga
tion, some of these canals are large enough
to transport barges, timber and cord-wood,
thus not only beautifying and fructifying
the country, but being the means of carry
ing cheap fuel and lumber as supplies for
farmers and villagers occupying the
lands. As lor an investment
there can be none safer, and the outlook
now is that those will be most benefitted
who are able to secure stock in any of the
canal companies before they begin to de
clare dividends. These enterprising con
ductors of canals, with the hardy prospec
tors, millmen and smelters, are the great
promoters of the age—one party of them en
gaged in developing the hidden mineral
resources of the mountains, and the others
the agricultural possibilities of the plains.
Robt. C. Walked,
Secretary Helena Board of Trade.
THE GALLATIN CANAL COMPANY
was organized at Helena last June for the
purpose of building and operating the Gal
latin canal in Gallatin county, and is to be
used for purposes of irrigation and trans
portation.
The source of water supply is the West
Gallatin river, where it issues from the
mountains, and the canal is being con
structed Irom this point in a northeasterly
direction a distance of twenty-five miles to
the city of Bozeman.
The breadth is twenty-four feet in the
bottom, thirty-eight feet on top and five
feet deep at the head and gradually dimin
ishes in size until at the lower end it is
only fourteen feet wide on the bottom,
twenty-four feet wide on top and three feet
deep.
The individuals comprising the company
are Walter N. Grange, of St. Paul; Albert
Kleinschmidt and J. D. McIntyre, of
Helena.
The estimated cost is $79,000, and may
exceed that sum.
The water supply is based on a half
miner's inch of water for each acre of land,
and the price agreed upon between the
company and the farmers for water rent is
to be $1 per acre per year, this is from 20
to 30 cents lower than the maximum rate
fixed by the legislature of Colorado. The
company has already received applications
from farmers to rent all the water they can
furnish this season. The question does not
seem to be whether the water will rent,
but who shall be fortunate enough to secure
a long lease. It is estimated that there is
over 60,000 acres of the famous farming
lands of Gallatin valley entirely depend
ent upon this canal for irrigation, and it
would be almost impossible to overestimate
the direct value and permanent advantage
the completion of this artery of life will
be to Gallatin valley and indirectly to Boze
man.
The canal is now completed to within
five miles of Middle Creek and the com
pany is under heavy bonds to the farmers
to have the work completed and the water
running before the irrigation season comes
on this year.
The far famed richness of the soil of Gal
latin valley and the great need of more
water for irrigation would indicate that
the canal should at once become one of the
permanently paying institutions of the
county.
FLORENCE CANAL.
The Florence Canal and Reservoir Co.,
was organized in May 1888 and soon there
after purchased of the old company all
their rights and franchises including the
old Florence canal which was partly con
structed, and also the right of way.
A contract was at once let, work com
menced and pushed rapidly to completion.
The water is now running to Sims Creek a
distance of about fifteen miles.
The source of the water supply is the
south fork of Sun river and the canal runs
in an easterly direction from near the base
oj Hay stack butte to a point below Au
gusta. The water course is twenty feet
wide on the bottom, forty-five feet wide on
the top and five feet deep, and is capable
of furnishing about 23,000 inches of water.
There are about 150,000 acres of land
which can be irrigated from it, and about
two-thirds of this area is still open to set
tlement under the homestead, preeemption
and desert land act. To the emigrant in
search of land for a farm this region fur
nishes a rare opportunity.
The persons composing the company are
Walter N. Granger, of St Paul, Albert
Kleinschmidt and J. D. McIntyre, of
Helena.
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THE SUN BIVEK CANAL.
The Sun River CaDal Company was
organized in 1885 by Hebna capitalists,
with A. M. Holter as president, H. M. Pär
chen, treasurer, Henry Klein, secretary and
J. D. McIntyre chief engineer, the board of
directors being S. T. Hauser, H. M. Pär
chen, Henry Klein. J. D McIntyre and A.
M. Holter. The same officers have been
re elected from time to time and are now
at the head of the company's affairs.
The object of the organization is to re
claim by irrigation all the land lying be
tween the Teton river on the north, the
Missouri river on the east, the Sun river on
the south and the Rocky Mountains
on the West, comprising au area of 2,500,
000 acres of land A system or net work
of canals will be required to bring this vast
acreage of land under irrigation. Already
over two hundred miles of canals have
been constructed and are in operation,
about a quarter of a million of dollars
have been expended and yet the work is
only fairly commenced.
The source of the main canal is at the
base of the mountains, on the south fork
of Sun river, and runs in an easterly di
rection along the main ridge, which forms
the divide between Sun river and the
Teton. The canal is 15 feet wide on the
bottom and 24 feet wide on top and 4
feet deep. About 8 miles are now com
pleted.
THE TETON CANAL,
which is now completed for a
distance of 20 miles, takes its name
or heading from the Teton river near the
mountains, runs in an easterly direction,
and is thirty miles in length, about mid
way upon the line is an immense flume one
and one-half miles in length and forty five
feet high; it is connected in the center by
2.000 feet of heavy iron pipe 2 feet in diam
eter, which carries the water over a deep
ravine. But the most extensive, and per
haps the most important branch of the compa
ny's canals is under construction. The old
Benton lake, known to all old-timers of
stage coach days, has been converted into
an immense storage reservoir covering an
area of over twenty-one square miles. The
lake itself seems to have had a strange ori
gin. Many old residents of Montana will
remember when the Benton stage road ran
through about the center of the present
lake. The story, which is corroborate by many
responsible citizens is to the effect that the
station-keeper, "Dutch John," undertook
to sink a well. When he had reached the
depth of twelve feet the bottom fell out of
the well and the water rushed up in such
volume that he barely escaped with his
life. During the coldest weather ice never
freezes within several miles of the spot
where the old well is located, showing
plainly that much water is derived from
this source. The lake is tapped at the
south end by an immense cut one and one
half miles in length and thiity five feet
deep. In order to make this opening a cut
4.000 in length and rising to twenty feet in
height was made by scraper teams, and at
this point a 40-horse power engine was
erected to pump water over the highest
point of the ridge, and furnishing
water for a hydraulic which is
removing the earth at a cost of of two
cents per yard. The engineers who
planned this work and carried it to a suc
cessful completion are J. D. McIntyre, who
was the originator of the whole enterprise,
and Charles McIntyre the engineer in
charge of the canal. The water of this
lake it is said will irrigate 40,000 i acres.
Much of the land under this system of
canals is still open to settlers under the
land laws and the company affords every
inducement to actual settlers locating un
der their canals. Two canals each about
twenty-five miles long are constructed
from the cut to carry the water onto the
rich table lands lying between the lake
and Fort Benton.
rich table lands lying between the lake
and Fort Benton.
THE CHESTNUT VALLEY CANAL.
The Chestnut Valley canal takes its
source or heading at Half Breed rapids on
the right bank of the Missouri river and
runs northerly a distance of twenty miles
and covers the whole Chestnut valley. The
projectors are Walter N. Granger, Albert
Kleinschmidt and J. D. McIntyre, of
Helena. The contract has been let to John
Lequist and the work of construction has
just begun. The canal will be about
twelve feet wide and three feet deep.
THE DEABBOBNE CANAL.
begins about section 16, township 18, N. R.
8 W. unsurveyed lands, which iie in the
canyon of the North fork of the Dearborne
river, in Lewis and Clarke county. The
waters of the river are diverted by an im
mense dam 238 feet long, composed of
cribs built of 12 inch logs bolted together
and filled with rock, the whole* being
placed npon solid rock in the bed of the
stream; the canal runs thence over a hill
which separates the Dearborn from the
head of Flat Creek, this portion of the ca
nal being four and one-half miles long
twenty feet wide in the bottom, thirty
eight feet at the top and will convey
six feet depth of water. The canal is
so planned that a raft 100 feet long and 20
feet wide can be floated down by the force
of the current and the guidance of two
men. The main continuous canal will be
when entirely completed 119 miles in
length and the lateral ditches 475 miles
long. Creek beds and lakes are utilized
to a very large extent, thus saving the con
struction of the same length of canals
covering 200,000 acres of land with an
expenditure of about $75,000 The sup
ply of water is so plentiful that, with the
aid of reservoirs, the whole 200,000 acres
can be irrigated at one time.
The land covered is the best quality
known in Montana, of a sandy loam char
acter and varies in depth from two to
twenty feet. It ia bounded on all sides by
one of tne finest ranges in the mountain
region, where stock keep fat the year
through upon its nutricious grasses. The
farmers will be charged one dollar an acre
per annum, which is very low, considering
the benefits plenty of water brings to the
user. It is the purpose of the company to
extend its system to the great body of
land lying Southwest of Great Falls. The
new Montana and Canada railroad will
cross its lands, thus affording the farmers
easy access to the markets with their cat
tle, sheep and grain. Donald Bradford was
the originator of the enterprise and is now
manager and Secretary. L V. S.
Ames, of St Louis, is President,
William Muth vice president and A. G.
Lombard engineer. Francis Adkinson and
R. L. Word, with the above mentioned
officers, compose the board of directors.
Capital stock, 200,000 shares, $1 each, fully
paid up.
The company will be ready to deliver
water during the coming irrigation season.
WILSON A THOMPSON'S CANAL.
This is one of the enterprises that will
cover a large amount of excellent land in
Cascade county. The work of irrigating
some of the bât land in Montana has been
undertaken as a private enterprise by
Messrs. Wilson & Thompson, of Helena,
and by a system of reservoirs they will
have when oompleted a canal twenty-five
miles in length.
• -~
Army Circulars.
Washington, March 15.—Gen. Scho
field has issued a circular to the army an
nouncing that the maximum age for cav
alry recruits upon the original enlistment
is fixed at 30 years. Also that the stand
ard of minimum weight for cavalry
recruits established in June, 1877, is
abolished, and that the service may be
made without regard to minimum weight,
provided the chest measurement and chest
girth are satisfactory.
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THE GOVERNORSHIP.
Hershfield Decidedly the Preference
of Helena Republicans.
Id a hurried run about, town this morn
ing a Hebald reporter sought oat as many
Republicans of prominencea she coaid in an
hoar's time. The interviews below might
be multiplied many times over, with sub
stantially the same answers or their sub
stance obtained in Republican circles. The
party preference for Governor is unques
tionably largely in favor of the appoint
ment of Louis H. Hershfield, and if this
preference here, (which is scarcely less pro
nounced in other parts of the Territory,) is
regarded by President Harrison, the Re
publican choice will be our Executive.
WHAT THE REPUBLICANS SAY.
M. H. Keefe: Who shall be Governor?
Hershfield, of coarse. What did we elect
Tom Carter for? To represent us in Wash
ington, of course. He says Hershfield
should be Governor, and Tom's right.
J. P. Wool man: Hershfield is one of the
old Republican Guard of Montana. He
has fonght bard, has put up his money,
and it will be an injustice to the Republi
can party of Montana if be is not ap
pointed.
Hugh Kirkendall: You bet your life!
Hershfield will be Governor, and don't you
forget it !
W. F. Sanders: Hershfield has done a
great deal for the Republican party in
Montana, and his services should not be
overlooked. He would make a good Gov
ernor, and I should like to see him ap
pointed.
T. C. Power: We mast not let personal
friendships influence ns in this matter.
We must look to the future welfare
of our party. My choice is Hershfield.
Wm. Sims : If the Old Guard is not to
be recognized it is time we should know it.
Hershfield is my choice.
A. K Barbour: From a party standpoint
Hershfield is our man. He should be the
Governor.
D. H. Cuthbert : The Republican choice
seems to be Chairman Hershfield. He de
serves the honor.
W. A. Chessman: While I have noth
ing against other candidates that are men
tioned. for the good of the Republican
party L. H. Hershfield should be named
for Governor.
Moses Morris: I believe the Governor
ship should go to Hershfield. If parties
are not ungrateful he will get the prize.
R. C. Wallace; We want a Helena man.
Of the names mentioned I should say Mr.
Hershfield.
Beu Benson: I hope a deserving man
will get there. His name is Hershfield.
S. S. Huntley: Capt. Mills, Dr. Massig -
brôd, Judge Knowles, and nine-tenths of
the stannch Republicans of the West side
are for Hershfield.
T. P. Fuller: I should regret very much
if, by undue interference in oar political
matters, a break shoald be made in our
party that might cripple us this fall.
Hershfield is unquestionably the choice of
the Republican party of Montana for gov
ernor.
T. H. Kleinschmidt: I am not taking
any part in the present fight for the gov
ernorship.
C. M. Jeffris: It looks as though they
were not going to appoint any body.
J. G. Sanders: I'm « straight up party
man, and go in for the best interests of the
party. Consequently I am for Hershfield.
H. M. Pärchen: Yes, I had a very pleas
ant trip in the East. Spent two weeks in
New York city. Did not hear the Gover
norship discussed until I started home.
Hershfield has been an important factor in
the Republican party, and his appointment
wonld be a deserved recognition of services
rendered.
Richard Hoback: Of course I am for
Hershfield for Governor. Who isn't?
Heh?
R. S. Hamilton: Lots of people have
done as mnch for the Republican party in
Montana. He has always contributed
money, and so has other people. I think
things are shaping themselves so he will
be appointed.
WHO THEY AKE.
Biographical Sketches of the New Ap*
pointées.
Washington, March 18.— Mitchell, who
was nominated for Commissioner of Patents,
is a patent attorney living in New Britain,
Conn. He is about 45 years old, and is
well known throughout the New England
States.
Thomas, of Maine, who is named for the
Swedish mission, gets his old office back
again, he having been U. S. Minister to
Sweden and Norway when Cleveland be
came president. While Thomas was Min
ister a greater number of Swedes emigrated
to this conntry than during any similar
period and this large emigration is said to
have been directly dne to efforts of Thom
as. Thomas has always been a Republican
and in the political canvas resulting in
Harrison's election he rendered valuable
service to the party as a Swedish stamp
speaker.
James N. Tyner, who to-day was ap
pointed assistant attorney general for the
postoffice department, was born in 1826 and
has been in public life more than thirty
years. He was a member of Congress from
1869 to 1875. President Grant appointed
him second assistant postmaster general
and npon the resignation of Marshal Jew
ell he became postmaster general serving
as snch to the end of Grant's administra
tion. In April, 1877, he was appointed
first assistant postmaster general and held
the office until 1881, when he resigned.
Smith A. Whitfield, nominee for second
assistant postmaster general, is a well
known Ohio Republican about forty-five
years of age. He was appointed postmas
ter at Cincinnati.
Abraham Hazen was nominated to be
Third Assistant Post Master General. He
held that office for some years prior to the
spring of 1887, when he was superceded by
Harris, who was a Democrat. Hazen is a
Pennsylvania man who, after graduating
from college entered the post office depart
ment as a clerk. He rose through various
grades to the place of chief of the division
of stamps and supplies. In 1887 he was
appointed Third Assistant Post master Gen
eral and in this capacity he served with
ability and efficiency forten years. When
Cleveland came into office Hazen although
a Republican, was retamed for two years
because of bis knowledge of the business
that passed through bis hands. The Third
Assistant Post Master General has charge
of all the matters relating to the finances
of the postal service and has the letting of
contracts involving the expenditure of a
large amount of money.
Samuel R. Taylor, who was nominated
Minister to the Netherlands, is a lawyer in
Minneapolis. He is forty seven-years of
age, a native of New York State and grad
uated from Colombia college. He went to
Minneapolis and entered npon the practice
of his profession, where he attained a posi
tion in tb.e front rank. He is highly es
teemed by the people of Minn esota and he
is said to be well qualified for the duties
of his position.
Public Printer.
Washington, March 19.—It is said that
Angn8t Donath, of Pennsylvania, has the
becking of Senators Cameron, Quay and
Gorman for Public Printer, and will prob
ably get it.
THE GOVERNORSHIP.
The fairest way, it seems to us, is to make
the selection of Governor so as to quiet
party contentions and prevent party divis
ions, is to go back to the opening of the last
campaign, while the forces and influences
were gathering which swept Montana so
grandly into the Republican fold. It was
then that Mr. Lonis H. Hershfield was
chosen as the head of the Republican
organization, not for the first time, because
on a former occasion he had shown himself
a successful organizer for an aggressive
campaign. Mr. Hershfield accepted the
trnst in the face of general discouragement,
brought order ont of confasion and victory
out of defeat. As the head of the Terri
torial Committee he more than any ene
else represents the organized Republicans
of Montana. He has so represented the
party before, and his last selection was de
termined by bis fidelity and zeal in other
campaigns. He represented the party
while mustering for battle and in the day
of victory, and who else can so j nstly repre
sent it now, claiming recognition from a
Republican administration, as Republican
Governor of Montana ?
Mr. Hershfield is one of oar oldest citi
zens and a successful banker. He is a
thoroughbred, consistent Republican, with
the natural conservatism of his business
nnited to the aggressive principles of his
party. The most popular and satisfactory
Governor Montana has ever had was S. T.
Hauser, himself a banker, and like Hersh
field identified with the people of Montana
in their interests, wishes and ambitions.
The only thing that ever was suggested as
a disqualification is that Mr. hershfield is
a Jew, one of the race that included Abra
ham, the father of the faithful, and David,
the warrior and psalmist, and all the prop
hets, Jesus the Christian Savior aod all the
Apostles. Can it be possible in this day of
enlightenment and in the country that for
a hundred years has had imbedded
in its fundamental law that
no relisions qualification of citizenship
shoald be required, there yet remaius a
trace of that bigotry which more than all
else has kept the Jews a distinct people.
Was not Disraeli, of the same Jewish stock,
the most powerful Prime Minister of recent
times in England, excepting Gladstone?
And who among all the Frenchmen of re
cent years can compare with Gambetta,
another representative of this once de
spised and persecuted people? In the free
air of Montana snch a suggestion of disad
vantage or disability ought not to be
breathed, but on the contrary we ought to
be prond of the opportunity to express to
the world that we are not tainted with
any snch unworthy relic of the supersti
tions of the dark ages.
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tions of the dark ages.
The laws of the Territory provide that
the governor, the president of the council
and the speaker of the honse shall "con
tract with such person or persons as they
may deem proper" to do the official print
ing of the Territory, in all of its depart
ments. In compliance with that provision
the officers designated have entered into a
contract with the Journal Publishing Com
pany for the term of two years. The print
ing is to be done in the Helena Journal , a
paper that will soon be issued from this
office.— Record.
The Journal, which is born as the Record
expires, is largely owned, according to re
port, by foreign capital. The ecstacies of
the Record, now extinct, witneesed within
the past few days, is owing to the fact that
its managers, Messrs. Harrison and
Boos, have got the contract
for all Territorial printing. This
contract ander existing laws is awarded by
the Governor, President of the Council and
Speaker of the Honse, and has been held
for the past two years by the Independent.
In dollars and cents it has never amounted
to very mach. The Independent did not
get rich on the profits, and the Hebald
managed to make a living daring the two
years. Bnt the awarding of the contract to
the Journal was an injustice not only to
the Hebald, bat to the party it represents
and we are mistaken if the Repnblicans of
Montana do not, when the opportunity oc
curs, relegate to the rear those
who, by their official act awarded
it to the Journal. It is com
mon report that certain "influences"
were brought to bear in securing this
award. As to the troth of this we are not
prepared to say. It is said that Gov.
Leslie hopes, through contentions as to
who shall be the Executive, to hold on to
his office nntil the election of State officers
next fall; and thns hoping, it would not do
to offend young Mr. Harrison by refusing
to sign. Dr. Cole is a supposed candidate
for Governor. If he hoped for this ap
pointment it wonld not do to have it wired
to Washington that he refused to sign. Mr.
Mantle, from the West Side, and young Mr.
Harrison, from the East Side, are even now
reported in the field for senatorial honors.
If snch is the fact, it wonld not be advis
able to have General Manager Boos wire to
Washington that the Hon. Lee had "gone
back" on the partnersnip by refusing to
append his Signatare to the coveted con
tract But whatever influences were
brought to bear or arguments nsed with
the board, the fact remains that the Journal,
a nursling in the newspaper enterprises,
was awarded the Territorial printing; and
the Herald, after fighting the battles of the
party for twenty odd years, to nse a little
slang, gets "soup." Gentlemen, let the
band strike np and the procession move on.
Speaker Lee Mantle, before leaving
the city for home on Friday last, is re
ported in substance as saying : "I consider
it unfortunate that this question of public
printing shoald have come np at this time.
Some weeks ago I proposed to Cole, Presi
dent of the Council, that when the Board
met to make the award he shoald vote for
the Herald, I wonld vote for the Journal (
and we wonld throw the responsibility on the
Governor in giving the casting vote. This,
to a certain extent, wonld leave the Demo
cratic party, through the Governor, re
sponsible for the award, and the losing
paper would not feel that i'j had been
altogether left by party authorities. To
this proposition the Doctor made no reply,
nor did he speak to me about the matter
again."
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STATE headquarters.
The resignation of Senator Chace, of
Rhode Island, has precipitated a discussion
upon the compensation that is paid to
members of congress. Some people think
that $5,000 a year is a large salary and
onght to be sufficient for any man, bat it
came out in debate that there is , need of
close economy for a Senator to live on
twice that amonnt. We hear very
mach said about the millionaires in
our United States Senate. The fact is that
none but a rich man can afford
to go to Congress. Washington is getting
to be an expensive place to live in and the
member of eithtr House who tries to live
within his income is pat to each straits
and shifts that it makes life a perpetual
straggle, tortnre and humiliation, distract
ing and diverting their attention and
tempting many to resort to ontside sources
to increase their means. As the bnsiness
of Congress increases and the sessions each
year become longer, expenses increase in
proportion and the members are unable
to attend to any ordinary ontside business.
Instead of increasing the salary of congress
men it occurs to ns that each State shoald
baild and own a honse in Washington,
where its representatives could have free
quarters with their families. If the city
could be planned anew, it would be a good
idea that the broad avenues should repre
sent the stripes in the American fisg, with
the capitol building as the central si ar and
the several State headquarters as the rays.
Possibly these State headquarters cunld be
arranged aronnd the President's house in
some each way, the Government furnish
ing the ground and regulating to some ex
tent the location and character of the
buildings, so that the smaller and poorer
States shoald not be overwhelmed by the
magnificance of the structures provided by
the larger and richer ones.
The Masonic host of New York, nearly
100,000 strong, are going to hold a special
thanksgiving celebration April 24th to cele
brate the extinction of their temple debt.
When the present Grand Master Lawrence
was elected head of the craft, there
was a debt of over $500,000, incurred in
the erection of their great temple, which
cost upwards of $1,000,000. To the ex
tinction of this debt the Grand Master de
voted himself with all his energy, and so
successfully that the whole has been paid
off and the temple is free from any incum
brance. Bat the secret of the rejoicing
does not come merely from the fact that the
great fraternity is free from debt, with its
magnificent temple paid for. The build
ing of the temple was only a part of the
great scheme which included an asylum
for the indigent and orphans. To this
purpose all the revennes of the Temple
are consecrated. Instead of finishing their
great mission work, the New York crafts
men have just begun their proper and glori
ous work of providing for the destitute
and helpless. Only the foundation work
is done. It will not be long
till one of the most complete, compre
hensive and commodious Masonic asylums
in the world will rise within the borders
of the Empire State to furnish a refuge and
home for every worthy brother in need and
for every destitute widow and orphan.
The Masons of Helena contemplate a simi
lar organized charity when relieved of the
debt npon their temple, and they will join
in hearty congratulation to their brothers
in New York, the nearer dawn of the
bright day when their highest ambition ia
to be realized.
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Not only have the school lands of most
of the States been sold at one-tenth of
their present value,bnt the monies received
from these sales have, to a great extent
been lost by poor'investments. It will be
the coarse of wisdom for Montana to pat
in its constitution that the school lands
donated by the general government shall
not be sold, but only leased for such terms
as shall promote their earliest develop
ment and realize the most income for the
support of the schools. Under this policy
Montana will, in a few years, have the
largest, best invested and best paying
school fand of any State in the world.
An interesting article from Peter Koch,
treating the subject of the population of
Montana, is elsewhere printed. Mr. Koch
is perhaps the best statistical citizen we
have, and his estimate of the number of
oar people may be nearer accurate than
others whose figures place our people in
excess of his. We are accustomed to esti
mate the population of the Territory at
about 160,000, while many believe our ac
tual numbers exceed that fignre very con
siderably. Mr. Koch is an authority, how
evor, who commands the respect of those
who know his aptitnde in statistical mat
ters. _
New North-West: There is some little
strife for the principal Federal offices of
Montana, bnt for the first time in history
the applicants are all Montanians, and the
carpet bagger is incontinently bonneed.
There is glory enough in that to assnage
any ordinary grief a disappointed candi
date may be subjected to. How strange it
does seem that a President of the United
States shoald feel in daty bound by the
platform of his party to appoint only bona
fide residents of the Territories to office
therein, and be conscientious enough to
fulfill the obligation to the letter! It is
enough to make Cleveland tarn over in
his—law office.
A dispatch to the Inter-Ocean of jMarch
13, says the Santa Clara mines of Lower
California are not a myth or a failure.
That there are 2,200 Americans, 250 In
dians and abont 100 Mexicans at present at
the mines. The first comers were disarmed
by the Mexicans, bat this has been given
np. We notice that the Qloibe-Democrat
editorially speaks of this discovery as pos
sibly producing snch an abondance of gold
that silver will go np again as in the days
of California's abundant production.
The Arizona legislature agreed to ad
journ over and continue its session without
pay in order to confirm the appointments
of the new Governor.
THE NEWSPAPER WAR.
After an existence of a little over six
months the Helena Record gives np the
ghost, and in its place the Helena Journal
is born. Daring its brief existence the
Record sank over $15,000, and has little or
nothing to show for it. Looking to the fu
ture we fail to see a sign of encouragement
for the newly-fledged Journal. It enters a
newspaper field that is already fully occu
pied. We venture the assertion that no
practical newspaper man can be found
who, alter studying the situation,
will say that a third daily news
paper in Helena can lie made to pay
expenses for years to come. St. Paul, with
a quarter of a million of people, sapports
only two morning papers, and its twin
sister, Minneapolis, bnt one. "The survival
of the fittest" reads very smoothly in the
Journal's editorial, but practically it is
pure buncombe. It is a fight to the finish
between the Journal and Independent. The
latter paper is the organ of the Democratic
party of the Territory; is well officered
and prints a ne wspaper that cannot be ex
celled by the Journal; is owned by home
capital, and its owners can afford to put up
many thousands a year, if nec
essary, for years to come aud not
miss an hoar's sleep in consequence
of the annual outlay. The capital that
starts the Journal comes from afar off, and
the balk of the stock is held there. At the
end of the first six months the stockhold
ers will be looking for interest money.
They have no interest in the prosperity of
Montaua except in dollars and cents, and
what will they say when, instead of
a dividend, a deficit is shown equal to that
of the Record for the first six months of its
existence? We imagine the excases of the
president and general manager will not be
cordially received, and in the end there
will be a wailing and gnashing of teeth.
Gentlemen of the Independent and Journal,
on to the battle !
Many think that the discovery of rich
mines in Lower California aud the rush of
American miners into that region will ere
long result in the annexation of the conn
try to the United States, aud such would
not be surprising. But we are not yet sat
isfied of the extent and richness of these
mines. If they are only placer mines they
will soon be worked oat and as for the
country for general utility and permanent
settlement it is a very poor one indeed.
There are no good harbors on the coast and
the region is almost destitute of fresh wa
ter streams. If we coaid acquire the whole
of Northern Mexico from the north of the
Rio Grande to the southern extremity of
the peninsula of Lower California, we coaid
afford to make some handsome contribn
tion to the reduction of the Mexican Na
tional debt.
It is said the site of the government
navy yard on Paget Soand has been se
lected at Port Orchard, in Kitsof county,
across the sound from Seattle. A year's
option on 2,000 acres has been secured and
the price agreed npon is $50,000. A glance
at the map wonld indicate that there was
room for thousands of navy yards along
that labyrinth of waters, bnt there is a
choice in getting conveniences for fresh
water and coal. The government is not
moving any too soon in this important
matter. The nation is moving west. The
commerce of the Pacific is in sight of the
new and inexhaustible fisheries of the
Alaskan waters.
Alaskan waters.
Emmons Blaine, the thorough paced
business son of Secretary Blaine,'is held in
high estimation by railroad people. He
was connected for a long time with the
Chicago & Northwestern, and afterwards
with the Chicago, Sante Fe & California
road as general freight and passenger agent.
He has now accepted a position in the man
agement of the West Virginia Central rail
road, with headquarters at Baltimore.
While British capitalists are over in
this conntry seeking to bay np all the
breweries a syndicate of American tin-plate
consumers is over in Swansea trying to bay
np all the tin-plate mills in South Wales.
They might wait a little and perhaps the
Black Hills tin mines will enable ns to
start these works in this country.
At least give "Treasurer and General
Manager" Boos credit for his rustling qual
ities, if nothing more. There are no flies
on his concern.— Journal.
Well, some people mightcall it "rustling"
and others might give it a very different
name. "Yon pays your money and takes
your choice"_
And now the "General Manager," with
all of his "rustling qualities," is said to
have an eye on the nomination for aider
man from the Fourth ward. Wopder if his
eagle visionary orgaD can be sfeking city
printing contracts? Verily, having posses
sion of the earth, the "General Manager''
would encompass it about with a barbed
wire fence._
Mrs. McKee, the Presidet's young mar
ried daughter, has the happy faculty, it is
said, of making every person she meets at
the White Hovse believe that she has a
particular interest in his or her welfare and
acquaintance.
Governor Mellette, of Dakota, has
given fair warning that he will remove the
last one of Gov. Chnrch's late appoint
ments. _
As oar Territorial law requires 6 months
residence as a qualification for a voter, only
those who come before April 15 will be en
titled to vote at the October election.
The snicide of young Oliver at Missoula
onght *o serve as a warning to all fast
young men, of which there are plenty left
here as well as elsewhere. It is only a
question of time when their careen: will
end in a tragedy, or what is even worse, a
life of infamy._
The surplus is not accumulating. Every
bond offered at market rates is taken.
Washington expects the reappointment
of ex-Governor Watson C. Squire.
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It is an old saying that, "There is never
any great loss without some small gain."
It is only restating the great law of com
pensation that pervaaas the universe. The
disposition of^Camida to narrass our eastern
fishermen will have one good effect if it
drives a portion of them, at least, to exploit
and develop our Pacific coast fisheries. So
it will hasten the day of Canadian annexa
tion, if the Dominion government opposes
commercial anion and refuses to
cultivate friendly relations. Even now
Canada is paying for immigration and
bonding all the frontier roads to trans
port these emigrants to their own vacant
lands. The result is that the raw emigrant
takes the place of some more enterprising
citizen who improves his chance to sell oat
and move over the line. If we were to
spend millions on pensioned agents in Can
ada to work for our interest, we doubt if we
could secure any better results. "To those
who have, shall be given in greater abun
dance and from those who have not shall
be taken away even wbat they have."
This principle is working for a ssteadily and
strongly. Canada is becoming a great Cas
tle Garden for the United States, assorting
the immigration and sending us the best.
It is reported that the nomination of
Eugene Schnyler for Assistant Secretary
was withdrawn on account of opposition in
the Senate, caused by criticisms of
Schuyler in his work on "American Diplo
macy." We presume the same obstacle
wonld be encountered if he were nominated
for the Turkish mission. But it is greatly
tc be regretted that the country is to lose
Mr. Schuyler's services when the
fact is that we have so very
few fitted for this diplomatic
career. The day has gone by when
intelligent Americans will think that any
body will do for a foreign mission that
political service at home is any qualifica
tion for foreign service. If we are not to
have any foreign policy, perhaps we might
dispense with foreign ministers, but so long
as we are to have any at all we should
have those who can do ns creditable ser
vice. We are not so much criticising any
action of the President as the narrow views
of some of the Senators. So far the foreign
appointments have been first-class, and
this is the best assurance that they will
continoe so to be.
The Chicago, Burlington & Qnincy road
makes a bad showing for last year's busi
nessân the shape of a deficiency of over
four millions. The engineers' strike and
the Inter State law are given aa the cause.
The probability is that it was about nine
tenths of the former and one-tenth or less
of the latter. We consider that the strike
was the result of bad man
agement and that it might
have bien avoided. If the managers were
backed by the stockholders then the loss
and blame go together. Bat we do not be
lieve this 'o be the case generally. Every
body loses end no one gains. Twice four
millions wonld not cover all the loss, and
against this where is all the gain to be off
set? Can anybody show any gain, near or
remote? There shoald be some way to
stop these industrial vendettas.
If we adopt the principle that our
school lands shall not be sold, bnt only
leased, we think we coaid be certain the
principal of onr school fand would never
be lost or deprecated in vaine. Invest
ments will lapse and fail, rates of interest
will fluctuate and fall; dishonest agents
will sometimes betray their trnst and
sacrifice this educational dowry, bnt if the
land is retained unsold and unavailable it
will enhanse in vaine as long as the world
stands and the income from it will corres
pondingly increase. Some of it will no
doubt in years to come prove more vain -
able for the mineral it contains than the
whole coaid be sold for to-day.
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We may expect to derive much benefit
from the visit of the Senate Committee on
Irrigation, but we shall get some certain,
substantial action when we get Senators
and Representatives in Washington who
can vote as well as talk. Besides the
four States whose admission is already
provided for, there will probably be
two or three more admitted before this ad
ministration closes. Then we may expect
something io be done for onr arid lands,
either by the government or through the
States in which they lie, by disposing of
those in the same way that the swamp
lands were donated for reclamation.
News from Rapid City, Dakota, leave no
doubt that the tin mines in that region are
going to be a great success. Miils are go
ing np to work the ores and 100 stamps
will very soon be at work. The most ex
haustive tests have been made of the ores
and the abundance of it will soon revolu
tionize the world. An English Syndicate
has bonght the Harney Peak mine and
several others, bnt they cannot possibly
monopolize the conntry. Tin is now King
in the Black Hills.
The Hebald gallery of portraits is in
teresting to-day, as usual. Excellent pic
tures appear of Whitelaw Reid, yesterday
appointed Minister to France, and of Col
Fred Grant and John C. New, appointed
to-day Minister to Austria and Consol
General to London respectively. Goo*'
portraits of Batcheller, Assistant Secretary
of the Treasury and Ericsson, the Monitor
inventor, also are presented.
It seems curions to read the history of
events in this conntry only 100 years ago,
at the time onr present constitution was
being shaped, to find snch an able states
man as Gouverneur Morris advocating the
western boundary of the conntry at the
Alleghenies. He did not want anything to
do with the Mississippi valley, and pre
dicted that if it was ever settled that it
would become independent. Now the cen
ter of population is west of Cincinnati and
moving westward faster than ever.
As a consequence of Democratic mis
rule there is not a dollar in the State treas
ury of Indiana and the members of the last
legislature had to stand a shave of three

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