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Twentieth Day--July 23. The convention met at 10 o'clock pursu ant to adjournment. Roll call. Quorum present. Luce ex cused for the day. Prayer by chaplain. Minutes of yesterday read and approved. A message was received and read from the American Sabbath Union, New York, asking that the convention pass a resolution encouraging observance of the Sabbath. Callaway objected to the reading of the message. He thought it was not constitu tional. Warren moved it be referred to the com mittee on Education. Collins asked for the reading of the message for information. Carried and the chief clerk read a few lices when Hogan rose and moved that further reading of the message be dispensed with. Carried. Richards moved as an amendment to Warren's motion, that it be referred to the committee on Education, that it be indetin ately laid on the table. Carried. Hershtield, chairman of the committee on miscellaneous subjects to whom was re ferred, Proposition sixteen relating to gambling, reported the same back having resolved it was for the Legislative power to act upon, and recommend it do not pass; also Resolution 10, relating to free passes, was reported back, having introduced a substitute for the same which will be in troduced at some tu uie day, and recom mend that resolution does not pass; also a message irom the Methodist Episcopal church, which they think belongs to legis lative power and recommend that it be not adopted. Middleton, chairman of the select com mittee, to whom was referred Resolution 7, relating to stenographers, reported same back with »-ubstitute. and recommend that Resolntion 7 be not adopted. The substitute provides that the chief stenographer shall receive $15 per day for every day and 20 cents per folio. Bullard moved adoption of report and substitute. Robinson wanted to know if debates and speeches made in the convention were to be taken l»y the shorthand reporter and printed. Middleton stated that in some States they had two or three stenographers to take proceedings, etc., but that in Kansas, when the Constitutional Convention met at that place there were no stenographers provided, but an enterprising newspaper put its shorthand reporters to work and to full proceedings, and they were afterwards paid $10,UOU lor the said proceedings. Callaway stated the subject was the same as was up live years ago. We are to day, every minute and every hour, making a part of the history ol Montana. I tor one would like at some time in the future to read the debates and speeches. The steno grapher under orders from a few wide awake and enterprising citizens went to work here taking his own chances and it is only right and just that he should be paid the said compensation. A gentleman told him the other day that if the proceedings of the constitu tional convention of 20 years ago conld be found he could raise $5,000 in an hoar, so tney could be placed in the history ot the state. Robinson spoke at some length, stating he dm not Detleve in luxury. Rickaid's stated he did and called for the previous motion. Carried. Ayes, 40; nays, 10. Carpenter, chairman ot the committee of the whole, naving in charge proposition 11, relating to Labor, reported the same back with amendments. Witter moved that ehe report be adopted. Carried. J. K. Toole moved that the rules be sus pended and the proposition placed on final passage. Carried. J. K. Toole moved to strike out of section 1, the words, "except otherwise provided by this constitution." Carried. Collins moved amen ment by substi tuting, "agriculture, labor and industry." Carried. Burleigh offered amendment "whoee compensation shall be provided by law." Carried. Section 2 as amended was read. Mid dleton called for the ay es and nays on the final passage of the section. Passed by vote. Ayes, 61; noes, Robinson absent, 13 Section two having been stricken out sec ion three was substituted therefore on motion of Kennedy. Rickards moved that section two be stricken out. Courtney objected on the grounds that it had been caretully discussed for over two hours, pro and con, and stated that it would only retard the passage of the propo sition it it were stnken out. Rickards stated he was not in favor of constitution voting on convict labor, and hoped the members would take broad views of the matter. He would vote to strike It out. Ayes and nays were called for. Ayes 15, nays 39. Rickard's motion was lost. Carpenter moved section two be referred to committee on labor for revision. "I think," stated Carpenter, "that it is cruel and barbarous to allow convicts to decay in prison without anything to do. They come out of prison decayed aud use less as citizens. 1 do not believe in letting them interfere with our honest, hard work ing men, but there is work that they could do. Laboring men are not t-o plentiful in the S ate but that we could find work for the convicts. They could work lor the State, on roads, grading mountains, etc. Thus they could not interfere with our hard working men." J. R. Toole came to the rescue of the resolution he introduced yesterday. He stated that it was only to prevent the rent ing out ot convicts to private parties. It was drawn up from the constitution ot Illi nois. Courtney wanted to know if it wasn't tramp labor that made convicts. Hogan stated he did not think it was tramp labor and thought tramps should be on the same standing and equal footing with everybody. He said he did not think it right to hire out convicts to a man at 25c per day, when they were doing him $1.50 or $2.00 worth of work. Carpenter's motion lost by vote of 39 to 20 . Rickard's motion to strike out section 2 was carried by vole, ayes 57, noes 5, absent 13. J. R. Toole introduced a new section to be called section 3. Harimau moved it be laid on table. J K. Toole called lor ayes nnd nays. Voie: Ayes, 37; nays, 26, and section laid on table. Maginnis moved proposition be en grossed and relerred to committee on phraseology and adjustment. Calloway moved General File No. 1 be made special order of business for 11 o'clock to morrow. Lost. J. K. Toole moved recess till 2 o'clock. Carried. AFTERNOON SESSION. The convention met again at 2 o'clock. The usual order of opening business being dispensed with, the special order of unfin ished business was taken up. Callaway, chairman of the committee on Public Lands, reported articles relating to schools, Slate and agricultural college, deal, dumb and blind schools, and recom mended they be inserted in the constitu tion. Report received and ordered printed. 1, on Preamble, was Proposition No, taken up. Bickford moved its adoption. Warren asked for information whether the substitute offered by Dixon bad b» en done away with. Burleigh stated that he had asked for a decision of the vote taken last Saturday morning on this substitute and a-iked if the decision had as yet been given. The question was called for when Jadge Knowles rose and said: "I do not wish to be reported as being opposed to religion. I wish to say that a great many of this body are not religious Religion should not be mixed up with constitution or gov ernment. In years past it has been so and the result has been war. The persecution of the Christians in Rome was on account of Rome being governed by religion. The 30 years' war in the Netherlands and the 80 years' war in Europe was all on account of religion. Cities were destroyed and people were slaughtered in the most in human manner. In Russia religion is part of the government. In days of anti slavery in the United States the word of God was taken as a pass word and the cry was "Let us have an anti-slavery God." I believe in eliminating all religion from civil government. I am opposed to the mixing up of public affairs with religion. We have had to eliminate it from our public schools. If you put it in the constitution why not put it in the public schools." J. K. Toole stated he did not see why the gentleman was so sensitive on this subject because of an act of Congress. In a cer tain city was a man who did not belive in God. At church one day the bishop asked all that believed in God to stand up. No one stood up. He then asked all those who wanted to go to heaven to stand up. No one stood up. As a last appeal he asked all those who were frieuds of the Lord to stand up. He looked around for a minute or so when up rose this man and said : "Bishop, seeing the Lord has so lew friends in this (own I will be his friend." [Laughter.] Rickards answered Knowle's statements at some length and pointed out that there are twenty-seven states that acknowledge ! God in the preamble, and as tar back as 1776 Connecticut acknowledged God in its preamble. Middleton asked for the previous ques tion. The substitute by Dixon was voted down by a vote of 44 to 23. Callaway offered an amendment for the preamble which was the same as that in the Declaration of Independence. The amendment was read when Middle ton rose to point of order, which was decid ed well taken, and the amendment was not cted upon. The preamble was then adopted. The first, second, third, fourth, fifth, sixth, seventh and eighth sections of the bill of rights were read and passed without amendment. Several amendments to section 9 were discussed but were not carried. Sections 10, 11, 12, 13 and 14 were then passed without amendment. Carpenter offered an amendment to sec tion 15 as follows: Private roads may be opened in the man ner to be prescribed by law; but in every case the necessity of the road or the amount of damage to be sustained by the owner thereof shall be first determined by a jury; and such amount together with the expenses of the proceedings shall be paid by the person to be benetitted. Car ried. Carpenter moved to amend section 17 as to lows: "Section 17. That no person shall be im prisoned for the purpose of securing his testimony in any case longer than may be necessary in order to take his depositions If he can give security for his appearance at the time of trial he shall be discharged, upon giving the same; if he cannot give security his deposition shall be taken in the manner prescribed by law and in the presence of the accused and his counsel, or without their presence if they shall fail to attend the examination after a reasonable notice of the time and place thereof. Any deposition authorized by this section may be received as evidence in the trial, it the witness shall be dead or absent from the State." Carried. Carpenter moved to amend Section 18 so as to provide that the jury shall be dis charged in cases of sickness of court or jury or in case of sickness of judge. Carried. Dixon moved to amend the section so as to read as follows : Section 18—That no per son shall be compelled to testify against himself in a criminal case, nor shall aay person be twice put in jeopardy for the same offense. If the jury disagree, or if the veidict beset aside, Gr if a new trial be granted, or if the judgment be reversed on appeal, or if any juror or the judge of the court shall from sickness or any other cause become unable to act after the im panelling ot the jury, the jury shall be dis charged and the accuseid shall not be deemed to have been in jeopardy. Robinson moved to amend by striking out word "verdict" and inserting word "judgment" in lieu there. Lost. Dixon's amendment carried. Hartman moved to strike out all of sec tion 18 afier the ward "offense" in the sec ond line. Carried. Collins moved the following amendment to section 23 : "In all civil actions and in all criminal cases not amounting to felony, two thirds in number of the jury may render a verdict, and such verdict so ren dered shall have the same force and effect as if all of such jury concurred therein." Car ried. Carpenter moved to strike out in section 24 the five last words—"and not of vindic tive justice." Burleigh moved to strike out the entire section. Lost. Carpenter's amendment was carried. Dixon moved to add to section 24 the following: "But this shall not affect the power of the legislative assembly to pro vide for the punishment of offenses by death." Carried. Whitehall offered an amendment to sec tion 25 as follows: "Aliens who are or who may hereafter become bona fide resi dents of this State may acquire, inherit, pofsess, enjoy and dispose of property, real and persona), as native born citizens." Lost. Conrad moved to amend section 25 by striking out all after the word "inherit," and insert in lieu thereof, "real and per sonal property." Lost. Dixon moved to strike out the words "native born" in section 25. Carried. Maginnis moved the edoption of the entire proposition No. 1, and the same was referred to engrossing committee. Adjourned. '1 wenty-tirst Day--July 24. The convention was calltd to order at 10 o'clock, Mr. President in the chair. Luce was excused mdefinateiy on account of sickness. Durfee presented a petition from citizens of Deer Lodge county, relating to the Snn day law, which was read and referred to the committee on miscellaneous subjects. Haskell presented remonstrance against the passage of the Conrad clause relating to taxable value of $3,000,000 in organiza tion of counties. The remoustrance was received, read and referred to committee on city, county and town organization. Dixon, chairman of committee on judi ciary reported as follows:— Your committee on judiciary, to whom was referred Resolution No. —, herewith returned, have directed me to report that they have examined the question referred and are of opinion that the enabling act of Congress provides lor a general election to ! be held, before admission, to fill all the offices, both State and county, provided for by the constitution, but that such provision is not mandatory, and that the convention has the right and power, in its discreticn, to provide that all or any State, district or county officers provided for by the consti tution shall be elected at such time and for such terms as may be prescribed, or to provide that any district or county officers now holding offices under the laws of the Territory, may continue in office nnder the constitution until such time as may be pre scribed. Your committee are of the opinion that the whole matter is within the power of the convention to regulate. Brown, from the committee on city county and town organizations, reported articles pertinent to this department and recommended incorporation in the constitu tion; also adverse report on extract from proposition 2, relating to Chinese Labor. The extracts were ordered read. Knowles moved farther reading of same be dispensed with, but the clerk stated there we • only a few lines more and tit reading was finished. The report was re ceived and extracts were ordered printed. Joy reported that a part of the commit tee on city, county and town organizations having in charge Resolution No. 6, reported the same back recommending that it be incorporated in the constitution. Maginnis offered the following: Resolved, That nothing contained in this constitution shall be construed as to de prive the general assembly of power to au thorize municipal corporations to incur such indebtedness as may be necessary to procure an ample supply of water for such municipalities, provided such water supply shall be owned and controlled by said municipalities, and the revenues derived from the same be applied to the payment of the debt Bums, A. S., introduced a resolution pro viding for the establishment of a mining bureau and office of commissioner of mines and providing for compensation. Resolution received and referred to com mittee on agriculture, manufactures, com merce and immiuration. Myers introduced resolution, providing that no person holding an office of profit nnder the United »States and commissioned by the President shall, during bis coutinu auce in such office, be eligible, appointed hold or exercise any office of profit under this State. It was received and referred to the committee on miscellaneous subjects. J. R. Toole moved convention go into committee of the whole lor consideration of general fiie. Chessman asked if there was not a spe order for this morning at 11 o'clock. Clark stated there was none. Toole's motion carried. Maginnis took the chair and section 13 of resolution 1, relating to judiciary, was taken up. Joy moved to strike out the word Yel lowstone and renumber the district, mak ing Park and Yellowstone one district. Collins offered a substitute making each county a district. He didn't want the counties cut up, but stated if the counties were divided so ns to make six or seven dis'rictshe would withdraw his amend ment. Whitehill made quite an argument on this subject, supporting the amendment. Parberry also spoke id favor of the amendment. Hartman was opposed to the amendment Dixon took the same view as that of Whitehill. Rickards called for the reading of the amendment offered by Parbeiry; also amendments by Collins and Goddard, re lating to apportionment of counties into districts. J. R. Toole moved when the committee rise they report section 13 back to the ju diciary committee for amendment and revision, but was ruled out of order. Rickards rose and in a short address em phasized the remarks of Parberry, Dixon and Hartman in turn. He stated there was a slight rumor afloat that they were making offices for office-seekers. He spoke as being heartily in favor of the argument made by Dixon. President W. A. Clark spoke against the amendment of Collins, and was in favor of cutting the districts down to nine. He was in favor of having seven districts and tak ing the remaining money and paying the officers larger salaries and thus securing better service. Goddard rose to the rescue of his amend ment and stated the arrangement he had made was the best and most convenient to the judges. No compensation was pro vided for the judges, so he thought it only just and right to pay them larger salaries or at least as large as those allowed the judges in Silver Bow and Lewis and Clarke. Burleigh moved the committee rise and re port progress aod ask leave to sit again. Carried. Maginnis, chairman of committee of the whole, reported progress and asked lei. ve to sit again. Gianted. Burleigh moved recess till 2 o'clock. Carried. At this afternoon's session the question of judicial district* was debated. The proposition to give the State eight Judges was under fire and several of the delegates were hotly contending that each county should be given a Judge. No deci°ion in the matter has been reached as we go to press. A Homan Missionary Sentenced to Death. Washington, July 24.— Dr. Allen, secretary of the Corean Ambassy, called at the State Department thi3 morning and talked with Acting Secretary Wharton about the case of Mrs Hattie C. Heron, a Missionary reported under sentence of death in Corea for preaching the doctrines of Christianity Dr. Allen stated to Wharton his entire disbelief in the truth of the story. Even if the lady has been charged with the offence she would be un der the jurisdiction of the Consular Courts pnd the Emperor, except by the exercise of arbitrary power, co Id not have ordered her execution. Outing of the Wisconsin Press Associ ation. Eal Claire, Wis., July 24.—[Special.] The Wisconsin Press Association arrived in this city this morning from LaCroese, on their scnoal summer outiDg. About 150 ladies and gentlemen compose the party. They were met at the depot by a brass band aud escorted to he hotel for break frst, after which they were taken around the city in carri ges. Governor and Mrs. Hoard, Mrs. Aubertine Woodward Moore, Miss Nettie Booth, are with the party as specially invited guests. At 10 o'clock a formal dinner was served at the Light Guard's Armory. The address of welcome, which was delivered by Mayor Shaw, was responded to by George W. Peck, the well known humorist. Brief addresses were also made by several members of the Asso ciation. __ Cat Nail Combine. Wheeling, W.Va.,Jnly 24 —At a meet ing of the Western Cnt Nail Association preliminary steps, looking to the combina tion of all cut nails mills by which their product would be handled by a single cen tral organization, were taken. A SHORT VACATION. Herald Correspondent Visits the West Coast—The Journey to Tacoma Over the North ern Pacific. Tacoma, W. T, July 20,1889. To the Herald :—Having seen the first locomotive steam into Helena and watched the subsequent multiplication of train ser vice on the Northern Pacific, it was with no small degree of pleasure that I boarded the west-bound train at home last week for my first trip over that part of the great transcontinental railroad connecting the capital of Montana with the Northwestern sea poits. Though I had read and heard much of the journey, my anticipations fell short of the reality. The weather was beautiful, and, to a passenger luxuriating in one of the palace vestit ale sleeping cars that now form part of the equipment of every Northern Pacific express train, the ever changing prospect from a car window or platiorm gives a peculiar pleasure at this season. Climbing THE MAIN BANGE OF THE ROCKIES shortly after leaving Helena and cross ing it through the Mullan tunnel at an al titude of over 5,000 is an experience so familiar to Helena people as to need scarce a mention; yet it must impress one who has given Montana's march of progress even the most casual attention as something that can never be wholly divested of novel interest. Just six years ago I had crossed the same range in a stage coach, whœe six strong horses crawled like snails up the steep ascent of McDonald's pass. Now the "rocky backbone" is made a highway for the iron horse, who requires no stop» for breathing spells in making the ascent. ADd from the actions of passengers a stranger would never be aware that he was actually crossing that gnat mountain chain which was so long a stumbling block to transportation. The utmost indifference reigns among the tourists and train officials and if, perchance, some one remarks that we are approaching Mullen tunnel, the an nouncement awakens but little interest. Aod, as the trains now tud, the dining car conductor announces "supper is now ready" while the engine steams up the eastern approaches, and soon fifty peo ple are engaged in uiscussiug their evening meal while the train that bears them rush es past dizzy precipices, crosses lofty trestles over deep gulches and plunges into the bowels of the earth to emerge after a dark journey of over 3,000 feet into the daylight on the western slope. What a striking illustra tion of the triumphs of modern engineering. COLUMBIA'S HEADWATERS. Speeding down the western slope [the traveler is soon flying aloDg the banks .of the Little Blackloot, and as the crystal waters glitter in the sunlight and lave the feet of rustling cottonwoods and bloomiDg shrubbery, visions of speckled trout and game birds cannot fail to force themselves upon the mind of anyone famililiar with the locality. Another reflection soon comes, and wonder with it, as the ripples of the little stream follow the train in its westward course and teem to say that they are aiming at the Pacific ocean, too, and that in the course of time they will soon be lost in the current of the great Columbia river. It is difficult to realize that at this point, scarcely thirty miles from Helena, we are watching the head waters of the Columbia, but such is the fact. Before aware of the change, the Lit tle Blacktoot is lost in the Hell Gate river, the Hell Gate in the Missoula and the Mis soula in Clarke's Fork of the Columbia. Down this great water course lies tae path of the Northern Pacific, and through its smiling valleys and picturesque canyons we revel in the delights of mountain land scape in its fairest aspect. My party with others on the train were viewing this natural panorama and drinking in the fragrance of wild flowers and balsamic trees through the open car windows, when we were afforded what is not a rare but still an unusual sight. A PRETTY PICTURE. Our train had just passed Avon, the para dise of fishermen, and was speed ing through the natural groves that line the track and the banks of the creek, when a sharp-eyed passenger exclaimed "There's a deer!" And on tne grassy margin of the stream, close against a background ot green undergrowth, with broadside to the train stood a young white tailed buck, his form as still as a statue, his antlers high in the air and his pretty head turned straight towards the passing cars. So close was he that the velvet on his horns could be distinctly seen. He moved no muscle while the train thun dered by, but stood, apparemly in wonder, gazing steadily at us until a curve in the road lost him to view. The next morning, on ihe Clarke's Fork, a few early nsere among the passengers des cried three more of the beautiful animals close io the track, though wrapped in tne morniDg mist, which made the sight a shadowy picture. A more animated dis play of a similar nature we were fortunate enough to witness on the western slope of the Cascade mountains. The train was winding its way up the picturesque gorge through which Green river flows, and a curve of unusual length kept the locomotive some time within sight of the rear one of our ten cars. Suddenly a red doe bounded out of the bushes and jumped on the track ahead of the engine. It trotted along the ties lor a minute or more, just keeping clear of the pursuing cow-catcher, until it reached a point where the road approaches close to the river, when, with a bound and a leap, remarkable in its agiliiy, it vaulted over the intervening ground and fell with a splash almost in mid stream. In a second its nose was seen above the water pointing towards the opposite shore, and in a few seconds more it bad swum across the river. Emerging from the stream with its flanks dripping, it dashed into the thicket on the baok and disappeared. Marvelling on the number of such novel sights that I had witnessed, I asked the conductor if such was the usual experience of tourists on the Northern Pacific. He replied, "No, we don't see deer from the train every day, but the road furnishes them occasionally for the entertainment of its patrons " This reminds me of another incident of my westward journey, which showed that the train officials, even in jesting, lose no opportunity to sing the praises of their road. We were stopped at Sand Point tor three hours, awaiting the repair of a sec tiod of trestle work that bad been burned. Sand Point is a s'a'ion on tbe western extremity of the picturesque Pen d'Oreille lake, and tbe surrounding landscape is a beautiful specimen of moun tain scenery. I was out on the station platform quizzing tbe conductor on tbe delay, when with a mock serious air he waved his hand in the direction of the lake with its blue waters aad wooded shores, and said : "Don't you observe that, when ever a train is delayed, the Northern Pa cific, thoughtful of the comfort of its pas sengers, always holds the train at some watering place where tourists can enjoy a boat ride and an hour'« fishing while the track is being repaired *" That conductor must be a treasure of byalty and devotion to the road. THROUGH WASHINGTON. The second day out from Helena took us, after a brief transit of the Idaho pan handle, through eastern and central Wash ington Territory. The chief attraction in the former is the flourishing city of Spokane Foils, situated on a rolling table land, hemmed in by timbered hills and abounding in lakes and water courses. The location is a beautiful one. and the adjacent country presents a pleasing spectacle with its many comfort able farm houses and smiling fields of corn, grain and vegetables that tell of fertile soil and growing climate. On through tbe ever widening prairie past the towns of Sprague, Ritzville and other flourishing burgs, tbe road pursues its say towards the Columbia river, traversing blooming val leys and sandy plains until Pasco Junction is reached. Here the trains of the O. R. and N. Co take their cargos to Portland by the Columbia river route, while the North ern Pacific keeps on in a northwesterly di rection toward the Cascade mountains. The town of Ellensburgh, lately visited by a disastrous fire, is soon reached, and after a short stop the prospective capital of the State of Washington is left behind and the coast-bound train soon begins the ascent of the Cascade range, which it crosses through THE NOTED STAMPEDE TUNNEL the 9000 foot bore built two years ago by Nelson Bennett of Montana. This is the greatest of the many monuments of en gineering skill for which the Northern Pa cific is noted. It took our train just 8$ minutes to go through it. The tunnel is constantly lighted with incandescent elec tric lights, strung at close intervals along both walls. These glitter with a white light when first passed, but as they recede in the darkness and smoke they become as two long lines of fiery red balls which dwindle into a perspective that has a weird cast when viewed from the rear platform of a rapidly moving train. Emerging from the western portal of the tunnel, the railroad accomplishes the descent of the Cascades on that sire through a series of small tunnels and snow sheds, across lofty trestles, around gigantic curves hung on the edge of startling prec ipices and skirting the heavily wooded slopes of sheer mountain heights like the Central Pacific at Cape Horn, until strik ing the headquarters of a clear, mountain trout stream, the track follows its tortuous windings through beautiful canyons, lovely in their changmg spectacles of miniature cataracts, smooth waters and verdant woodlands, to the foot of the range. Al ready the freshness of sea air seems to greet the lungs, in marked contrast to the hot breezes of the eastern slope, and a riant vegetation of forest growth, trees of all de scriptions, tall ferns, dense underbrush and luxurious shrubbery on each side of the road take the place of the mountain pine, bunch grass and scrubby vegetation of the eastern side. Then for seventy miles the road penetrates a vast forest that stretches clear to the sound. Puyallup and a few other towns built on clearings in the forest, with neighboring fields of bops, grain and garden products, fast maturing under the influence of the semi-tropical climate, are passed as the train speeds coastward, and in little more than an hour after descending the Cascades, a vista opens in the forest that has hitherto hemmed in the road, aod the city of Tacoma aDd Puget Sound burst simultaneously on tbe view. All too soon the train rashes across the open space, crosses an arm of the Bound on a long bridge and we are in Tacoma, the City of Destiny, about which I hope io say something in a succeeding letter. J. The sugar trust is making the best of its fast vanishing opportunity. Unless it were satisfied that congress would surely reduce the sugar duty at the next session, we can hardly believe it would have given such provocation to public hostility. If there was any uncertainty before, there is none now. It is said that sugar duties will be cut down at least one half, while the pro duction of sugar at home will be encour aged by bounty. In view of the coming legislation on this Buhject the administra tion is shrewdly endeavoring to negotiate a reciprocity treaty with Spain, covering trade with Cuba. If we can secure a re moval or reduction of duties on American productions in return for free sugar, it will seem like giving mores a3 things stand now, than after the duty is reduced. If Spain knew that we were going to remove the duty on all foreign sugar, it would be very slow to concede anything in return for what it was likely to get for nothing a little later on. After all that is the way to deal with our duties, when satisfied that a reduction would be better for us. Let us get something in return from others who would also be benefitted by the reduction. We hope it will not be forgotten to in clude among the duties of the Supreme Court, that in cases of great public concern and doubt it shall be the duty of the judges to give written opinions in response to questions submitted to them by the gov ernor or either house of the Legislature. Edison yesterday testified to the potency of electricity applied to capital punish ment. We suppose the method is objected to because it would be a "shocking" death Suggestion is a wise buyer's friend There is always au abundance of sugges tion in the Herald's advertising columns. A HUMAN SACRIFICE. Religions Frenzy Among Southern Blacks. Savannah, Ga., July 24.—A child sacrificed to a pseudo Messiah, who has been working among the negroes of Liberty county, has just been discovered in a re mote part of the county. The child, a black, bad its throat cut and its ears are missing. The negroes possessed by the re ligious craze created by Orth's or Bett's preaching will not talk of the murder, but its believed that the parents did the killing. They are disciples of the false Christ, who preached frequently of human sacrifices. The coroner investigating says the negroes are in a lamentable state of religious frenzy. Edward James, who is acting as leader of the congregation since Orth was sent to the asylum ten days ago, appears before his audience almost perfectly nude ween he preaches. Hogan Turns Up. Detroit, Mich., July 24.— The Journal prints a dispatch from Jackson regarding Hogan, the missing aeronaut. Harvey Flower, of Jackson, who has known Hogan from boyhood, states that last Thursday he saw Hogan in Jackson and talked with him. Hogan requested him to keep quiet for a time. The foregoing information is considered reliable. Two other men claim to have positive knowledge of Hrgan and say he is in hiding until he recovers from his accident LIMITATION OF INDEBTEDNESS Instead of limiting the power of counties and cities to incur indebtedness, we think the better plan would be to require that every proposition to incur indebtedness should be submitted to a special vote of the people, and that only taxpayers should be permitted to vote at such elections. The men whose property is to be subject to mortgage and taxation are the ones prop erly to decide this question, and we think they will always be conservative enongh to keep within moderate limits. Men only become recklessly liberal, as a general thing, when they are giving away other people's property. There ooght to be a distinction made in the character of indebtedness incurred. For instance if a city or town wanted a water supply, or a county wanted to con struct a water ditch that would irrigate a large portion of its area and render it inhabitable and productive, and would fix water rates to pay interest on debts in curred for such purpose as well as for cur rent support and a small reserve for im piovements, these are such debts as ought to be encouraged rather than restricted. They are burdens that carry themselves and leave a large margin of general benefit We do not know yet whether the general government, the State, counties or individ uals and private corporations will construct the great irrigation works. There are many forcible reasons why private indi viduals and corporations should not be al lowed to deal in such a necessity of life and make it a source of private speculation and gain. It might easily become the most oppressive system of landlordism in the world. Until either the Nation or the State takes up this matter, it will hardly do to forbid private persons or corporations from engag ing in the business. But provision should be made that the State should have aod retain tbe right forever to take into its own han's all sources and means of water supply, not belonging to the general government, by making proper compensation to those hav ing any vested rights therein, in such man ner as the Legislature shall prescribe. If the question had reached that stage when it could be determined that the State would take into its own hands this entire subject of irrigation, th«n it would become a clear case of public use, for which the constitution gives clear warrant of eminent domain. In Illinois there is a system of incorpor ating drainage districts that might be ap plied with equal advantage perhaps to irri gation districts. These would seem to be public and not private corporations and en titled to the right of eminent domain. It must be confessed that the subject is not an easy one or clear from doubt in aDy direction. But we may regard it as certain that if, in Europe where the water supply is more abundant and certain than with us, general systems of irrigation, with reser voirs and canals, are found necessary they are ten times more necessary in Montana, if our area is to become generally settled and cultivated. JUDICIARY. We listened last evening with great in terest to the discussion in the convention on the Judiciary article of the constitu tion. The report of the committee is an admirable one and we doubt if any changes can improve it as a whole. The great con tention was upon the part of some of the smaller counties to be made independent districts and have a judge of their own. Though the discussion only hovored around the matters of expense and amount of bnsinees, it was evident that among the more conservative there was back of it some unuttered conviction that incompet ent men would be raised to the bench by popular vote, whose crude decisions would do our judiciary discredit and overwhelm the Supreme Court with appeals. Fewer judges and better ones has much to be said in its favor. But as the scheme ol the committee does away with Probate courts, there is something to be said in favor of each county having a judge of its own, resident in the couutv, always present for an emergency. It suggested itself to us that an intermediary system of circuit judges might be pro^'de 1 lor, who would sit with the district jadge in more import ant cases Let every county have its court and judge, each county paying the expenses and the salary of its judge, but the State paying the salary of the circuit judges. Make these circuit judges to be ap pointed by the governor and confirmed by the Senate. Four such judges could easily perform the duties and would serve as a balance wheel to the system. If it can be demonstrated that children nnder six years of age by the kindergarten method can be taught as rapidly and profitably as older ones, we presume all ob jection to tbe method aud principle will disappear. No one proposes taking nursit g infants, but children much under six years can and do learn as fast as older ones, and it is very important that education should be properly begun while the child's mind is most plastic and impressionable. It is the universal testimony that children well trained in the kindergarten methods make more rapid and intelligent progress when text books are pat in their hands. It pro vides innocent pleasure for little children not only in bat oat of school, and there is no such aversion to going to echool as is often the case when begun later and in the nsnal method. There will be less occasion for paragoric if little children are gathered in kindergarten schools than at present. We want what experience shows to be the bast methods of instruction, no matter in what direction, aud only ask that the door snail not be closed and bolted against new methods when proved to be better ones. We are more than pleased to chronicle the refreshing showers of yesterday and last night, which, though slight, were enough to settle the dust for a few hours and give hope of more coming. We cannot hope that even a plenty of rain now will raise the dead crops, but it will bring re lief in many forms to all. CITY WATER SUPPLY. The Board of Trade is doing good ser vice in considering the subject of our city water supply. It is the main question of the hour and one of life or deitth to onr city. That the city should own its water sup ply is a sound proposition and the question of exceeding oar limit of indebtedness is Dot an obstacle that will long Btand in the way unless a limitation similar to that of Congress is placed in our State constitution. The present law of Congress will not ap ply to us after we become a State, Dor do we think that our convention will impose any such restrictions as to prevent any city or town from securing for itself an ample supply of water. We are not at the mercy of any syndi cate in this matter and it is foolish to argue upon any such supposition. It is possible that by combining all the sources of supply above and around the city and by constructing sufficient reser voirs a fair supply might be had. But here comes in another risk. The people of Helena ought and will object to the con struction of such extensive reservoirs at the head of the gulches that converge towards our city, and if they should buret would sweep away millions of property and de stroy hundreds of lives. The Missouri river is the only safe, suf ficient supply that we know of. The cost of pumping machinery, pipes and reser voirs can be estimated very closely and so can the cost of service. We do not believe that it would cost the city $70,000 a year to pay reasonable interest on the cost ot the plant and service. The city can afford to pay the reasonable cost of a supply that it can own and maintain. DEBT LIMITATION. In any limitation of indebtedness for public corporations, as cities, towns, coun ties, or the Sta e, an exception must be made in the matter of providing water supply, where water rates are established and a certain income provided for paying the interest on such indebtedness. For in stance, if the city of Helena, to insure an ample and sure supply of good water for all purposes, found it necessary to spend a million of dollars to construct such works, and should provide from the sale of water a sure revenue to pay the interest on that, it would not so much be a burdensome debt as a paying and self-supporting investment. So if a county were to construct an irrigat ing canal wholly within its own borders, providing water rates sufficient to pay more than the interest on the cost, it would again be such a form of indebtedness as ought to be encouraged rather than prevented. And if the State should undertake still larger works, extending, perhaps, through several counties, and provide in the same way for a certain direct income to meet interest, it would be a public benefit. In all these cases the debt carries itself. Those who pay the rates that pay the interest get value received and a profit over. Besides there are general aud indirect benefits that inure to the public good, in the way of health, comfort, growth of business, etc., that are a harvest in themselves. Any limitation to public indebtedness that would prevent such improvements would be a disgrace to our intelligence and a pub lic calamity. Recent correspondents from England say that Gladstone is losing control of his forces. This is seen most conspicuously in the votes for allowances for the royal family. Gladstone supports the grants but cannot hold his party to his ideas. These vast sums spent by the scions of royalty make a heavy drain upon the resources of the Eaglish nation and the inquiry is com ing up constantly and with increasing em phasis, what return is made to the nation. Who ever heard of one of the royal family doing anything for the nation that could not as well be done by others, or perhaps better still, were not done at all ? It is very certain that when Gladstone is go'je the Liberal party of England will very soon beceme an anti-monarchical paity. If each county is to have a judge and court of its own of the highest rank for jury trials it will operate as an objection to the subdivision of our vast area into counties of convenient size. It may as well be considered as settled that the county will be the principal unit ot local government. At the county seat will be kept the record-of all real estate convey ances and for many reasons the counties should not be eo large hut that the county ceat could be reached in a day and the re turn home be made in the same day. It is reported from Pan*, that the Eiffel tower has bad the effect of producing great atmospheric changes in the city. A great increase of rain is reported as one of tbe ef fects. It is a great lightening rod for tbe whole city and draws the electrical accu mulations from the clouds in such a con stant flow that no harm has happened to anyo.ie. If experience establishes this rain producing quality, it points out a way that we may perhaps find some means to try in our desert • ountry. It would be wise to provide that tts legislature should make some general law fixing the minimum area, vealtb and population of new counties, as well aa the manner of giving their names and pro viding for the location ot county seats. There are more fraudulent elections, dis gracefnl and bloody fights aod costly suits growing out of the location of county seats than almost anything else. If every connty is to be a diatri-t, as it seems to be quite a general desire, there is no reason for retaining the name of district Judge, but it weald in every way »be better to call him connty Judge. 8\M AND THE SAL». Sam J ones, reverend or the reverse, made the Salvationists mad. "Keep to yoar barracks or be damned," said Sam at Lead v.lle. The "Sals" mustered on the street and sung in defiance: "Sammy keep vour shirt on, Keep your shirt on ('ammy, keep your shirt on — Ton'c swear as yo-i have dons.