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FISK BROS. - - - Publishers. R. E. FISK, - * - - - - Editor THURSDAY, AUGUST 1!), 1889. Republican Slate Convention. A Republican State Convention will be held at the city of Anaconda, on Thursday at 12 o'clock noon, August 22d. 18« It will be the duty of the Convention to nominate a candidate for liep tesentative in ConKresa, camlidates for Gover nor Lieutenant Governor, Secretary of State, State Treasurer, State Auditor, Attorney Gen eral. Superintendent of l'ublic Instruction, three Justices of the Supreme Court, and such other officers as may be provided for by law; and to transact sue . other business as, in the Judgment of the Convention, appertains to the welfare of the Republican party in Montana. The several counties will be entitled to repre sentation as follows: Counties. No- °f Delegates Beaverhead...................................................... " Choteau............................................................ * Cas* ado............................................................. J? Custer............................................................... ® ....................................... » .......................... - Deer Ixslge...................................................... -_ fiai latin ............................................................ ' Jefferson........................................................... Lewis and Clarke............................................. " Mad'son............................................................ " Meagher........................................................... * Missoula........................................................... i" Dark................................................................ ™ Silver Bow......... ............................................... Yellowstone................................................... ® Total........................................................ 200 The Republican County Committees of the several counties will proceed to call County Conventions in their respective counties, and elect Delegates an 1 Alternate Delegates to the State Convention, as above designated. It is desired that ample n .tice ne given for the several County Conventions. The following rules have t»eon adopted for the government of Republican Statu Conventions In the State of Montana: „ 1 Delegates and Alternats Delegates shall tie elected in the future to State Conventions, anil In the event of a failure of a Delegate to attend, the Alternate Delegate shall cast the vote of the Delegate whose alternate he is. 2 1 a the absence of a Delegate and his Alter nate, a majority of the delegation from that county shall cast the vote of t'.e absentee. 4 In the absence of all the Delegates and Al ternate Delegates from any county, no v Ae shall be cast for such county. 4 In the county in which the State Conven tion sh-ill 1. -, hel l, when any Delegate and his Alternate Delegate are absent, there shall be no vote cast in their behalf. 5 Delegates anil Alternate Delegates must lie Republican residents of the county which they represent. _ . By order of the Republican Ter.itonal Central Committee. , L H. HKK8HFIKLD, Chairman. B. D. Wised, Secretary. To crown all, the Milk river valley clainiH the thickest coal vein to he found iu the Territory. The ground bought for the Inter Ocean block in Chicago was paid for at the rate of $7,500 a front foot. Heal ESTATE in New York city and vicinity doubles on an average once iu eight years. It is said of the Astors that they are buying real estate continually, but they never sell. They give long leases. The New York Herald, proposes a ten million stock company to provide for a world's fair in 1892, without asking aid from Congress. Arkell endorses the scheme, and if the money is raised New York will get the prize and the stockholders would probably get hack a portion of their capital. Eighty-nine per cent, of the silver ores imported into the United States during the last year came from Mexico and with it came 55,250,777 pounds of lead free of duty At 3 cents per pound this lead was of the vaine of$1,665,(KM). This shows the extent to which our miners are subjected to un lawful competition. It is a very general remark by strangers visiting Helena that there are no pleasant drives, though there are so many fine turn outs. A splendid drive could be made by the road to Broadwater's new hotel, and then aronnd by the new cemetery grounds and the fair grounds. It onght to put in a line for an early realization. If the Republicans had carried Ken^ tncky we should not have been more sur prised thaD at the Gentiles carrying Salt Lake City. Goodwin has not worked all those years in v,;in. The downfall of Mor monism cannot he far off. One such vic tory will lead to others. It will stiffen the backbone of Rome doubtful and fearful ones and invite desirable immigration, be sides giving confidence and energy to Gen tile capital. Nine cheers and three tigers for the Salt Lake Gentiles and their first victory in the stronghold of Mormonism. George Duncan Bryson has been hanged protesting to the last his innocence of the murder of Anna Lundstrom. For his poor father we have the profoundest re spect and sympathy, but without a doubt of the guilt of his sou, we can only wish for his sake that such an unworthy son had never been born. His persistance to the last of his innocence does not shake oar couvictions in his guilt, but confirms our opinion that he is one of the worst •riminals ever bong who would face his maker with a transparent lie on his lips. Of course any one so depraved as to commit murder would not hesitate to lie about it, and even to the last moment he may have had hope of a commutation or reprieve. Governor White only did his duty in leav ing the case where the law, courts and juries had fixed it after hearing all the evidence. There was not a standing place for any reasonable doubt Against • solid array of most convincing proof, there was the simple protestation of inno cence of one clinging to life, bat offering no plausible explanation consistent with innocence. He has gone to meet bis vic tim and render his answer to the Judge whose omuisceot eye sees even the inner most workings of the human heart. No doubt mistakes are sometimes made by courts and juries, but we do not believe any mistake was made in this instance. There has been no disturbing element of popular clamor, blindly crying out for vengeance, but simply a calm, general conviction of guilt without a mitigating circumstance or plausible chance for doubt. It is often Baid that it is poor use to make of a man to hang him, but perpetual imprisonment could lie no mercy to such a creature, and one who has reached his depth of depravity, and in spite of so many good influences, offers little hope of his growing better in solitary confinement Children Cry for Pitcher's Castoria. THE MILK RIVER COUNTRY. Having accepted Col. Broadwater's in vitation to accompany him in a special train with the Governor, Secretary and Chief Justice and representatatives of the other city papers, as far as Chinook, in the heart of the Milk River valley, we are pleased to report what we saw, and have brought back even more convincing evi dence in the shape of wheat and oats, breast high, which we saw gathered in fields where there had been no irrigation, and potatoes as large as the fist, still grow ing rankly, where do irrigation had been used, indeed where noDe was available. Beyond the Marias the county looked re freshingly green as far as we went, the sightly little city of Chinook, in the vicin ity of Fort Belknap. In all the cuts along the railroad water was standing and seemed abundant everywhere. Through the Big Sandy country there were more hay staks in sight than we ever saw before in aDy year in any part of the Territory, and mowing machines were running in every direction. Hundreds of car loads of stock from other portions of the Territory and from outside the Territory have rec ently been unloaded in this section, brought in on the Manitoba road, and fatter, more sleek and contented looking stock we never saw anywhere. Far as the eye could reach on either side stretched unlimited verdure. We verily believe that we saw enough good range to leed all the stock in Montana through the present season and the coming winter, and still the grass is growing and where the stock is ranging in thousands, cattle, horses and sheep, a good swath could be cut with the mower. At various little stopping places we saw vegetables growing on the top of the mounds thrown up from the railroad cuts where there was no possible chance for irrigation. This was our first visit to the Milk River valley, though we have lived in Montana for 25 years. What we saw was a new revelation that has raised our estimate of Montana as an agricultural State at least one hundred per cent., for we veritably be lieve there is as much first-class tillable land in the Milk River valley as in all the rest of the valleys put together. The provocation for the trip was an article that appeared in the New York Times under date of July lOih, and over the signature of Frank Wilkerson. His statement, in brief, was that the Milk River country was the most worthless, God-forsaken region in the world, blasted by sirrocos in summer and swept by con gealing blizzard i in the winter, destitute of water and vegetation aid a perfect charnel house, where the chief occupation was in gathering up the bones of the animals that had made the perilous venture of trying to live there. A more mendacious, baseless story was never retailed by a perjured hireling than in the account ol Frank Wilkerson. There was bat one single item of his story that was ever founded on fact. There were some piles of bones that the Indians had gathered near stations, from the sale of which the squaws eke out their pin money. But the fact of the bones being there in such quantities is proof positive that it was the favorite resort and campiDg ground for wild game for a long time. Wilkerson s statement that the grass had to be burned so that the bone gatherers could see their quest, is evidence of the rank growth of the grass. Though there has not been a third of the usual rain fall on the Big Sandy and along Milk river, there is not a greener lawn in the city than the hundreds of square miles that we passed through yesterday and crops are growing vigorously at the present time aDd will mature if there is not another drop of rain. No doubt more rain or irri gation, if practicable, would be a benefit. But we justly regard the present as a crucial test of the durable qualities and certain prosperity of this portion of Montana. The Milk river valley is the veritable counterpart of the valley of the Nile in miniature, and far to the north and the interior. The soil is a friable sandy loam of great depth, resting on a clay sub soil. Milk river is a sluggish, serpentine stream, which, when filled to overflowing, spreads out all over the valley, depositing its rich slime and doing no damage by wearing or catting. Back from the valley stretch the uplands, with easy slopes, and furnish rich, sure and ample pasturage. Lack of space prevents us from doing the subject justice Senator Manderson has some sensible ideas about the reorganization and service of our regular army. He thinks it should be concentrated at points most convenient for transportation and that they should be utilized as the nucleus for militia organiza tions. Detachments can be need in mak ing snrveys and in doing much other nse ful work. We onght to pay onr private soldiers better wages, so that we could command the services of better men and employ them in each way that their ser vices would repay the increased cost. It is the same with onr navy. It is very ex pensive to sustain a navy, bat if we woald keep it employed iu varions duties that would extend our commerce, our knowl edge of the resources of other countries, or in exploring little known or dangerous coasts, it could be made a very useful arm of ser vice in times of peace. It is an event almost as welcome to South Dakota as Statehood to secure the reduction of the great Sioux reservation. It not only opens to settlement a large area of excellent laud for the thousands of waiting settlers, but it insures the immed iate construction of railroads whose pro gress has been blocked by the intervening reservation. The government will prob ably pnrsne to the end the policy illus trated by the humane gentleman who cat off his dog's tail an inch at a time. We believe intermarriage of whites and reds will lead to snre deterioration of both and it ought to be altogether prohibited. And it is the same between whites and blacks. We believe in and desire the elevation of troth reds and blacks, but it will never come by intermarriage so far as human ex perience has ever indicated. THE ARID LANDS COMMISSION To the suggestion of Senator S je wart, of Nevada, we are indebted for the appoint ment of a commission to visit Montana in connection with other States and Terri tories constituting the so called arid region, where the precipitation is generally in sufficient for successful agricalture. To day that commission will he in our midst and prepared to see and hear the evidence i that will lead them to a conclusion as to * what to report and recommend as a policy for the National government to pursue. The visit is well timed to see our country at its worst; onr water courses destroyed o r shrunken to almost nothing; our vegata tion dried up; our atmosphere heavy with the smoke of forest fires. The demand for water is universal and most pressing. While most of the country is flooded and drowned ont we are suffering from scarcity. The winds that bear the evaporation of distant seas empty their store before reaching us, and we get only the scant and uncertain remnants. Here are the fixed conditions of the problem to be solved. \\ e cannot look to the atmosphere for watery stores brought from distant ocean plains. We most create a home supply or go without. In Dakota, Nebraska and Kansas the problem is a very different one. They have no mountains towering into the clouds, where the snows may be accumu lated during the cold months, nor do they possess sites for elevated reservoirs and j rivers of great fall to fill successions of res ervoirs. There, it seems, the artesian well mast be the principal idiauce for an in crease of water supply. There are portions of northern and eastern Montana that may require to lie watered in the same way, hut for most of our area, it is a very plain and simple case. Y\ T e have the head fountains ol all the great rivers of the country, some times at flood height, and forgreaUportions of the year running idly to the Gulf of Mexico or the Pacific. We have water enough running to waste,gathered from an area of mountains not susceptible of culti vation, so that if gathered in ample reser voirs, there would be an abundance to water every waste acre susceptible of colti vation, when m >st neéded for growing crops. A glance at onr country is enough to sat isfy the commission on th's point. „ A good j relief map would perhaps accomplish the same result. Another very important poiut is for the commission to satisfy itself that onr coun try is worth the expense of reclaiming in this way. To the casual observer of our sagebrush plains and barren, sandy looking soil, the most natural suggestion would he that it did not contain the elements of fertility »nd that no amount of water would reclaim it. A sight of a few good grain fields where irrigation has been ap plied will be a surprise and remove all further doubt. The lands thus far occupied are only a portion of the valleys, where water ditches were of easy construction. But in seasons like this, when the streams that should supply the water ditches go dry, some further reliance is found necessary. It needs the reservoirs to supply the nataral water courses from which the present water ditches are fed. Most of onr large area is beyond the reach of these small water ditches. It will need large and long canals, carried across ravines and gulches in aqueducts of solid masonry. It is a work that will take time and much capital to accomplish. Reservoirs are to be built that will stand for centuries and beyond su-pxion of dan ger from breaking. With hundreds of acres of reservoir water surface and thousands of acres of irrigated surface exposed to evaporation in our long summer days, our atmosphere would no longer he so dry. We should have both rains and dews more frequent and abun dant and at all times there would be more moisture in the atmosphere that vegeta tion would inhale through its foliage. The forests would grow again and trees would be grown all over the irrigated lands. Millions of actes of mountain and plain would become productive and valuable that otherwise will be worthless to the government or anyone else. Through these visiting Senators we hope not only to secure favorable legislation, bnt we hope to call the atteotion of the whole country to the importance of irriga tion which is destined some time to over spread the whole country and change the conditions ot agriculture and increase pro duction many fold. Senators Stewart, Reagan and Plumb, in their addresses yesterday before the con vention, each and all expressed themselves unmistakably in favor of free coinage of silver, and were warmly applauded. We do not know how Eastern Congressmen and newspapers will regard this expression of opinion by members of a commission appointed for another purpose, but the opinions of these Senators on the silver question were well known, and so too the interests, convictions and wishes of the people of Montana were quite as well known. There was no need of any mis sionary work being done in Montana in this direction. Whoever goes to Washing ton to represent Montana in either house will be by the necessities of the case an advocate and supporter of the free coinage oft-ilver. It is the money of the constitu tion, it is honest money, it furnishes the only coin that represents the unit of onr currency system. If too heavy to be handled in large amounts, the coin can be stored, and its paper representative will do the work. It is the coinage that the whole American continent will accept and sus tain, and the only opposing interest and in fluence is along the Eastern sea-board, where English ideas have been imported free of duty. We find no fault with Eng lishmen for advocating free trade and sin gle gold standard. They are simply caring for their interests, as any shrewd people will do, bat the sophistry that would rep resent onr interests to be identical with theirs we are not obliged to accept, and self-interest and 'self-respect alike compel ns to reject it Children Cry for Pitcher's Castoria. THE ARID LANDS. Members of the Senatorial Committee Irrigation. on Arrival in Helena This Morning of Sena tors Stewart and Reagan. At an early hour this morning a special train steamed into Helena hearing a dis tinguished party of visitors, among them Hon. William. M. Stewart, of Nevada, and Hon. John H. Reagan, of Texas. These gentlemen are of the Senatorial Committee on Irrigation, and were preceded to this point by their colleagues of the committee, Senators Plumb and Vest, of Kansas and Missouri, whose portraits have appeared in these columns, with brief sketches of their life and public services. , «*(*.• . //.■ p 7wKt m ft llWNfVi « M "W . K 's WILLIAM M. STEWART. United States Senator from Nevada. Senator Stewart is personally well known to very many of our people, who more than once have hospitably welcomed his visits to Montana, and in social and other ways have signified their pleasure in meet ing the able and valliant champion of West ern interests. William Morris Stewart is a Dative of New York, born in WayDe county, in 1827 and this month will have rounded out his sixty-second year. In 1833 he removed with his parents io Ohio, where his school boy days were spent. In his teens he worked at farm service until he had means enough to enter as a stadent at Trnmbnll Academy, where he took a course of Jhree years. He then returned to Wayne connty ( N. Y., where he taught school and earned enough to pay his expenses at Yale College. After two years of training there he joined the great procession making California its destination. In 1850 he was fairly suc cessful as a gold miner in Nevada county that State. With the proceeds to back him he engaged in the study of law and was admitted to the bar of Nevada City in 1852. Two years later he in located San Francisco,where he practiced his profession with success. In 1860 he removed to Virginia City,Nev.,where he rose to prominence as a mining lawyer, and became the possessor of valnahle mining property.} jin 1863, when Nevada was ad mitted to the Union of States, he was the first Senator elected and sent to Washing ton from the new State. He was re-elec ted, his second term closing in 1875. After an interval j . in private life he was again and for a third time chosen to the Senate and represented Nevada as the successor of James G. Fair. Mr. Stewart is a man of great ability, an earnest Republican and a man near to the hearts of the Western people. His resi dence, when at home, is divided between Nevada and California, and in San Fran cisco, he keeps up a house where he and Mrs. Stewart entertain handsomely. \ Î ^ ¥ 1 J 86 yiis-v < mr m - • W -V \| ■' A M:/ \ JOHN H. REAGAN. United States "Lone Senator From Star State." the Onr portrait is of John H. Reagan, whose public service in Congress extended through six terms in the House of Repre sentatives before his election to the Senate. Mr Reagan is a Dative of Tennessee, where he was born October 8,1818. He is a law yer by profess .on, aDd also a farmer on an extensive scale. In 1839 Mr. Reagan settled in Texas, be fore the "Republic" became a State. His abilities for official and public life were qnickly recognized. He served in the Texas Legislature two years and for twelve years was on the bench as judge of the dis trict con:t. He was first elected to the National House of Representatives in 185 1 and re-elected in 1859 and was a member of the Thirty sixth Congress. At the outbreak of the Rebellion, in 1861, Mr. Reagan joined his fortunes to the Confederacy. He was elected to the Secession Convention of Texas, and by that body was named a Deputy to the Pro visional Congress of the seceding States. From this body he was transferred by ap pointment of Jeff Davis to a cabinet place 1 that of Postmaster General of the Con federacy. A year later, when the seceded States constructed "a permanent govern ment," he was reappointed to the office he then held and continued Postmaster Gen eral until the Confederacy collapsed. Mr. Reagan did not again take any prominent part in public affairs until his election to the Forty-fourth Congress. In 1875 he was a member of the State Consti tutional Convention. His term in the United States Senate expires in 1893. SENATORS SPEAK. The Convention Addressed by Senators Stewart, Reagan, Plumb and Major Powell. Eloquent and Interesting Words on the Irrigation Problem and the Silver Question. Pursuant to a resolution introduced by Hon. J. K. Toole yesterday, the members of the Senate committee on arid lands and irrigation were granted the privileges of the floor, and by invitation several ad dressed the constitutional convention. Sen ator Stewart spoke in the morning and Senators Reagan and Plnrnb and Major Powell in the afternoon. SENATOR STEWART'S REMARKS. Senator Stewart, of Nevada, said that Montana was among the brightest of the four new States, and the irrigation move ment was an important one to her. His committee was charged with the duty ot ascertaining such facts as they could on the subject and laying them before the Senate. While an old subject irrigation was com paratively little understood among our people. It is known as the oldest mode of successful agriculture and has been prac ticed in Europe for several hundred years. Our ancestors left Northern Europe before the days ot irrigation and hence it has not been practiced in this country uni il quite recently. The results of irrigation in Egypt, Italy Spain, Austria, Tnrkey, China India, Ceylon and in our own country in Nevada and Arizona were wonderful. In India in parts there is a great deal of rain fall, but little of it comes in the right sea son. But all the small streams are cared for and the mountains are dotted all over with reservoirs, each farmer damming wa for his own use, but the men of those times were unable to handle the large rivers. The English came and took hold of the question. At first they spent $150,000,000, and they have now laid out three or four times that amount. The government re tains the water and sells it at a lov rate. They are paying up all the interest on the bonds and still the country is filling up and growing prosperous. British India has 800,000 square miles. But the United States has 1,200,000 square miles of the same kind of country. In order to utilize this land and make it available, it is nec essary for the country to know what it is. All that land that is west of the 100th meridian is certainly a portion of the arid region, and some of the land east of the 100th meridian, aud they, the people, must have an increased water supply to make the land profitable. Now here is an area a third larger than British India, and we do not expect to spend $250,000,000 on it. There is no doubt that the arid land of the United States will produce more by irriga tion than in the regions where they have plenty of rainfall. Oar government has appropriated $100, 000 for surveying and investigating the question, and $200,000 more to be dis bursed in the interests of homestead settlers. Now, I know there are plenty ot people who live in Montana and are inter ested in agriculture but they can do nothing tor the want ol water. They had better go up in the mountains and see if they cannot gel more water. I believe they will find lakes there that hold water enough for all their purposes, for it is well known to old prospectors that upon the ridg B of all tie mountains thrill h tba country and near the summit there aie 'o be found flats and swamps and lakes dis charging through narrow gorges, where a Blight dam will keep it back, a large amonot of water that can be utilized wl eu it is needed. The government has decided that it will survey public lands for the benefit of the settlers, and it is proposed to have these mountain ranges surveyed, have locations tor reservoirs decided upon, and an estimate made of sufficient accuracy for general purposes, and the probable cost. SENATOR REAGAN'S SPEECH. Senator Reagan, of Texas, addressed the convention at 2 o'clock. After generalizing on the subject ot irrigation be said he would not encourage the people to expect too much from the Federal govern ment in this matter. Surveys will he tar nished by the United States and a founda tion established, and the people of the States and Territories will possibly have to manage for themselves thereat ter. I am not in favor of the government having too to do with State affairs. I believe in a government for the people and by the peo ple, and think the affairs of a community should be left to themselves for their own action. The data which this committee collects will go a great ways towards gov erning the action of Congress in this matter. The speaker then tamed his attention to the silver question. He allnded to the de monetization of silver in 1873, and said the mass of the people snfiered thereby to make capitalists richer. Continuing, be remarked that if Montana and the new States would send representatives to Con gress who will co operate with the silver States we will see a change. Gold is coined at the expense of the government, while silver is required to pay its seniorage for conversion into money. This shows a pur pose to degrade silver. England is the creditor of all nations and their people. Whatever will increase valnse of securities held by them will be indorsed by that government; hence they will never consent to the remonetization of silver. She is interested in keeping the circulating medium down, as the smaller the variety of money is, the better it is for her people. Germany occupies pretty nearly the same position as regards silver, bat there is sach an uprising of the masses against her present monetary laws, which were made in the interest of her capitalists, that I predict it is only a question of time when the wishes of the people are recog nized and silver remonetized. The people of the West will find many from the out side States who are willing to co-operate with them and enact legislation in the in terests of the masses and not for the classes. SENATOR PLUMB'S TALK. Senator Plnrnb, of Kansas, made a fine address. A famous Englishman once said; "Statesmenship consists in the knowledge of the resources of one's own country." If that were literally applied to the American people of to-day there would be no states men, in the absolute sense of the term, because no one knows and no one can know, unless gifted with prophetic vision , the entire resources of this country. Suf fice to say than while we learn something every day, we know enough to know that this is the greatest country of natural resources in the world; and it is because the inhabitants of this country are wiser, better and stronger people that elsewhere. Y ou are gathered here to make a constitu tion for a new State that is to be admitted into the Union; and I hope that you have been admonished of the fact that self-gov ernment began in a mining community, and that therefore you are expected to make a constitution and a government which shall not only be equal to the ins Ra tions of other States surrounding you, bnt that it shall be bet er than all of them pat together. No one would admit that he wauted money fur money's sake, bnt it na fact that the greatest ambition of man is the acquisition of wealth, because money is ennobling and gives courage to every indi vidual who possesses it. In luture the Eastern Statt» woald not control the desti nies of the nation, bnt the people ot the new States who were forming constitutions to day would. Montana would not only enter the Union as the peer of any other State but in luture years she woald make many an older State join hands with her and even how to her as to a superior. We struggle, each lor his own interests. You struggle for silver aud irrigation, things peculiar to you; the Eastern States lor things peculiar to them Ail these strug gling« together for their own interests finally result to the geueral advantage of the people of the United States. Y'ou are lor silver because it is one of your own products; I am for silver because I am for my whole country. major powell's thoughts Major Powell, the noted scientist, said some very interesting thiogs. He had been in Montana as a pioneer in the early days aud hud studied bet natural resources ever since to know what is to become of this country. Montana has an area of 90,000, 000 acres of laud, 35,000,000 of which is mountainous and dedicated to special in dustries In these hills you find copper, lead, gold, silver, coal and iron, and on them timber. Oh the plains and iu the valleys no timber grows They are part pastoral aDd part agricultural lands. By the latest estimates 35,000,000 acres can he redeemed by irrigation Tnat means that not a drop of water flowing within the State will he wasted, hut used in the in terest of agriculture. It has been carefully computed and that is the result. If all the water flowing in the streams be used in irrigation it will reclaim 35,000,000 acres. Seasons of irrigation will vary from six to nine weeks. Water will have to be Btored. Then there remain 20,000,000 acres which lie at waste. It is a magnificent heritage, 35,000,000 acres filled with rich ores, 35,000,000 acres that can he made useful by your waters and 20,000,000 acres of pasture lands. Tne constitutional convention should re member thsse things aud remember the importance of preserving onr forests, of such value to the people. Soon also the question of water rights will become prorn nent. It is an important oue. It would be practical to adopt a clause in the consti tution providing for the establishment of water courts in each county. Yon have got to provide local self government in the affair. The people are all interested in it. 1 believe that the government of the United States should cede to the people in a drain age basin all of the lands within the basin. I believe the people who live in a valley should control the water and pasture lands and timber on the mountains in and sur rounding the valley. T le people are fill ing up this new conntry and they wili soon make other people recognize their claims and interests. REPRESENTATION. The People And Not the Counties Should Control. Editor Herald:— The proposition to give to the counties, instead of the people, representation in the legislature of the State of Montana is startling and revolu tionary. It is an unworthy surrender of self-government. It is robbing the people of those equal rights proclaimed in the Declaration of Independence and guranteed in the Federal Constitntion. The proposition to give to the 1,000 peo ple ot Dawson county the same represen tation in the Senate of Montanaas is given to the 25 000 of Lewis and Clarke, or to the 30,000 of Silver Bow county, cannot he justified on any principle of republicanism or democracy. The theory of our govern ment is that the people make the laws through their servan s and agents. Repre sentation belongs to the people and not to the counties. The law-making power of the State resides with the State thereof. It belongs to the man and not to the county in which he lives Every voter in the State is a nnit of po litical power. He must count odc, and his voice must be heard in enacting the laws by which he is to be governed, or his right ol self government is gone. The whole theory of our government rests upon the proposition that the major ity mast rule, this is the cornerstone and foundation of self government by the peo ple. It is the American idea ot govern ment. It is the priceless gilt of our coun try to mankind. It has given to the United States strength, s'ability, greatness It has enabled it to endure every trial and to triumph over eveTy foe. In small things as well as great, this principle permeates onr political life aDd gives respect and va lidity to our laws. It is present at the town meeting, at the primary election, in the conventions, at the ballot box, and in the legislative hall. For more than one hnndred years the people have been edneated to the idea, that the will of the majority, fairly and bon estly expressed, is supreme, and the mi nority has been content, knowing that the laws are made for all, and that the major ity and minority alike mast obey. And now comes Montana, enterprising, thrifty, glorified Montana, and says that a majority of the people shall not, but that a majority of the counties shall, rale. The county and Dot the voters who live in it is to have exclusive political power. A cattle raDge, whether any people live npon it or not, is to have the same power in our State legislature as thongh it were the home for a million free men. The peo ple in their homes, with their schools and colleges, with their industry and enterprise, with their hnman hearts and souls, with their longings and strivings for a better and higher life, with their desire for im provement and progress, with their power ot thought and feeling, with their prompt ings of affection, love and charity, with their patriotism and philanthopy, with their wonderful intellects, with their hnmna life, are not to he represented in onr State Senate, bnt the connty, thongh barren desert, with no people, is alone to be represented there, and to make laws for the people. Can anyone intelligently defend the proposition that Dawson with its 1,000 people should have the same représenta tion as Silver Bow, with its 30,000? But according to the plan proposed Dawson and Silver Bow are each to have bnt one vote in onr State Senate. In other words, the 1,000 people of Daw son are to be represented, and an equal number in Silver Bow, while 29,000 people of Silver Bow are not to be represented at all. That is to say, the people of Dawson are to have thirty-five tiroes the political power as the people of Silver Bow, and if Silver Bow should increase its population to a million, and that of Dawson should decrease to one hundred, still they are each to have one vote, and but one, in the Mon tana Senate. And this condition must always remain for the sparsely populated counties of vast Montana must always outnumber those that contain the centers of population. The physical condituns make this certain. Montana will always have vast regions that support and coii'ain but few people. Bat no matter about the people. As loDg as we have mountains, deserts and counties we can have a Montana -Senate. We have outgrown the doctrine that tl e e can be an aristocracy among men. All are eqnel before the law. But in the Mon'ana plan men do not count. We are to have an aristocracy of counties, and whether the people are free or enslaved is no matter. All things must bend to the idea that a certain amount of land, and not the liest land at that, must he represented, and have its vote in the Montana Senate. If only the mountains and the rocks are represented, the men who build and develop the country may go to the dogs. What makes a State? Mountains, cattle ranges and deserts, while the men, women and children .>re of no account. The county and not the man is king. There is no analogy between the counties of Montana and the States of the Union. The counties have no sovereignty to pre* serve, tor they are not sovereign in any re spect, or for aay purpose. The State Sen ate is elected by the people, the same as the House, and both should represent the whole people. It is a narrow and ignorant idea that a State Senator or a member of the House simply represents his coun'y oi district. They each represent or should represent the whole people of the State, and are charged with the duty of making laws for ell the jieoplo. But it is said there is danger that the rich, populous counties will overshadow and swallow up the less populous ones, and to provide against this dauger it is pro posed to deprive the populous coun ties of representation in the State Senate. This remedy is much more dangerous than the disease. No political evil can be cured or alleviated by depriving American citizens ot iheir rights. The laws are made for all the people of the fctate without reicence to their place of residence. There can he no special legisla tion. A man has the right to live in any county he may select, and his right to vote or to be repreesnted in the legislature can not depend upon the selection he happens to make. He is an American citizen, and whether he lives in a large county or a small one, in a city or in the country, he is entitled to all the rights of self govern ment as secured and guaranteed by the Federal constitution, which is the supreme law of the land. The constitution of Montana must be republican in form. As it is the latest it onght to be the best. It ought to contain the best provisions in all the constitutions formed 1 efore it. With all the models be fore the convention, there ia no excuse for experiments, and no reason for departure from beaten paths which have secured and protected the rights of American freemen. A constitution that gives representation to the counties ; nd not to the people , is not republican in term. Such a constitution would he at war with the principles of self government for which our fathers fought, aud if such a constitution is saodled upon the people of Montana our admission to the Union is endangered, and if properly un derstood would be overwhelmingly re jected by the people. The people will not voluntarily adopt a fundamental law that deprives them of representation and the right of self-govern ment. Better, a thousand times better to re main a territorv than to go into the Union and be deprived of representation in the State legislature ; better to have a territo torial legislature with representation ac cording to Dopnlation than to become a State, with county representation without regard to population ; better to remain a territory and he free than to become a state without freedom. The chief desire to become a State is with the politicians, who wish the offices, bnt the people are not going to gratify this desire at the expense of any of their rights. THEY FAILED. An Incipient Revolution Put Down. San Francisco, Agust 10.— The steamer Alema, that arrived Friday evening from Australia, brings news of a daring, though futile insurrection in Honolalu July 30 Two half breed HawaiiaDs, Robert W. Wilcox and Robert Boyd, who had been sent at the government's expanse to he edneated at the Italian military school, have been plotting an insurrection for some time bnt the rumors were little heeded nntil the movement culminated in an armed baud of about 120 native Hawaiians marching from Palama two miles and securing an entrance to the palace grounds at Honolulu. The King was absent from the palace at the time. The alarm was sent him by telephone. The royal party then hastened to the king's boat honse, where 'they remained during the day, guarded by a dozen household troops. Meanwhile the rebels summoned Lient. Parker to Bnrrender the palace, but that officer refused to surrender, although repeated demands were made by Wilcox to do so. After an hoar's bombardment the rioter? rushed from the building waving a white sheet npon a pole and snouting "Peace," "Surrender." The gates were thrown open and a force of volunteers entered and took all of the rioters prisoners. The firing ceased about 7 p. m. and Wit* cox was marched to the station bouse at 7.15 p. m. His comrade prisoners arriving at the lock-np a few minâtes later. Among those opposed to the rioters, the only casualty was a wonnd in the shoulder received by Lient. Parker and it is sup posed that it was from a =;hot fired by Wilcox. On the side of the rioters there were seven natives killed nnd twelve wounded. All a Canard. Washington, August 10 .— Adjatant General Kelton received a telegram from General Miles at San Francisco informing him that the commanding general of the Department of Columbia has received » dispatch from Capt. Kuhn, of the Fourth infantry, who was sent with bis company to Calispel, W. T., to investigate the reports of Indian outrages. Capt. Kuhn reports, under date of August 7tb. that there were no hay stacks burned and no threats made by the Indians. Some land was burned over, bnt. there is no reason thu think the fire was started by the Indians. Captain Kahn has been ordered hack to l°ri Spokane.