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Making a Garden.
"A good garden Is half the farm," •ays one writer, and "the garden fur nishes about one-half of our living in summer, and Its products are on the table every day in winter," says an other, and neither of them is a vege tarian, though with a liking for fresh vegetables and fruits In season. To have a good garden the first requisite Is a piece of strong but well-drained land, well manured. It should not be shaded with trees, nor should it be on a northerly slope, if possible to get a southerly or easterly slope. Certain crops belong in a permanent garden, and may be in one place for several .years. The pie plant, asparagus, the bush fruits and grapes or peach trees may be on the south side of a high board fence at the north end of the garden. In front of these the hotbeds and cold frames may be permanent fix tures. Onions do well for many years In the same locality, and so will celery or carrots, though not so long. Sweet corn may follow sweet corn for many years In the same place, and so may peas, but If it Is desired to put In an other crop after peas or early corn, It is not so easy to tind the late crop that grows well two years In the same lo cality. Cabbages and turnips certain ly will not For this reason, when on a farm, we preferred to move our gar den, or at least the peas, corn, vines of all kinds, beaus nud all roots to a new location every few years, or so often that we did not have the same place oftener than once in five or six years. Even for such crops as lettuce, spinach, kale and dandelion a new lo cality Is better than to continue them for many years, though sometimes they can be changed about with other crops. But with only a village lot one must change about, or omit some crops for a few years to get Insects nud fungous diseases out of the soil. If «ne will take this trouble, and will be sure to obtain good seed from reliable seedsmen, aud put In work enough to .keep It In good condition, the garden will not only furnish half the living for the family, but sales of surplus from it may help greatly In buying the other iialf.—American Cultivator. Hotbeds. Whoever has a hotbed in which to start early plants for setting in the garden should also have a cold frame Into which he can transplant some of them to give them more room aud harden them up a little before setting them In the open ground. Of course there are some who sow so late In the liotbed that this is not necessary, but they do not get their plants so well ad vanced, and gain but a week or two when they should gain as many months. Many are at a loss to know when the temperature is right for sow ing seed in the hotbed. The best way is to use a thermometer, as oue fairly good can be bought for a few cents. Plants which require much heat to germinate in open air. like tomatoes, peppers, egg plants or melons, should go in when the heat Is at or about 90 degrees, while cabbages, cauliflowers and other medium early plants will do better If the glass does not mark above SO degrees, and lettuce or radish would sprout readily at 70 degrees.—Ex change. Care of 8heep. There are two things that the sheep need as much as any animals on the farm. They need fresh air and they need exercise. The sheep shed should be so built that when it rains or snows so that the sheep cannot take their daily run In the field, the windows or upper half doors can be opened to allow the fresh air to enter freely. If they have not been shorn they will not feel the cold, and only those who grow winter lambs shear In the fall. But whenever the weather Is suitable they should have a run out In the field, not a yard bare of grass and filled with mud and manure, but in an open field. Even in a damp day they may be out for a short time, but not long enough to get their wool wet through. The uneasiness of sheep when In a pasture shows their Deed of exercise. They will not eat and lie down as a cow does, and some of the •mailer breeds are almost as ready to jump on a wall for the fun of jumping, as goats are. Changing Plana. The farmer who Is continually chang ing his breeds of stock or his favorite crops Is very Beldom a money-maker. He Is apt to find out that he made the change Just a little too late. He sees some one making money on beef cattle, and be abandons dairy farming to breed fat cattle, only to learn that he ought to have bred hogs. He tries hogs, and be comes convinced that sheep are more profitable. He gives up a crop that he knows how to grow to take up some specialty that his neighbor has found a profitable one. and a few years' ex perience teaches him how to grow It, but It also teaches him that he could have bought his experience much cheaper. We do not mean that a man should not change his breeds of stock, his crops or his methods of farming, but he will do well to make his changes gradually, and not part with a good thing every time he thinks any one else has a better thing.—Exchange. Kill ing Weed». When the land has been plowed In the fall the farmer sometimes objects to cultivating or cross-plowing the field early In the season because the hardy weeds put In an appearance al most before frost leaves the ground. (This la In favor of the farmer If he will give the subject the proper view, as bp can destroy the weeds by loosen ing the soil, allowing warmth to enter, thus forcing the weeds to germinate, so as to destroy them before the seeding of grain Is done. The earlier the weeds can be started the fewer there will be later on if the cultivator is used fre quently after the weeds begin to ap pear. Baiting Their Land. Two farmers living near loin, Kan., have received a 40,000-pound car of salt from Hutchinson, which they will use on their farm. Both have exten sive farm Interests which they look after themselves, and they propose to sow the salt with oats, wheat and flax, on the theory that land so treated Is given tlie chemicals required by those grains and In the belief that chinch bugs will shun the fields. Some of their unpractical town friends have rather a hankering for the belief that wheat so treated will grow loaves of salt-rising bread. At any rate the test Is one which will be watched with interest, and the farmers may reap good re turns from the $100 or more invested by these gentlemen in an experiment. —Abilene Chronicle. I Stretching Wire Fence. ! I want to tell how I "paid out" wire In an easy and expeditious manner. Bored a hole In floor of small manure sled and in it fitted a piu made of an old fork handle. On this pin put a buggy wheel, on the wheel inverted a bushel basket and tied bandies to spokes to keep It In place. Put a coll of wire over the basket, put one end through end post aud into ratchet, hitched horse to sled aud drove across field, cut wire and stretched it up and fastened in proper place on post. Went back across field, stapling wire loosely to each post, turned up the ratchet and was ready for another wire. If on op posite side of fence from where wire Is wanted, a person following sled can easily pass it over tops of post.— J. V. McEllienie. Jersey Cow. The Jersey cow Tulip 7th was bred by Lord Rothschild, Tring Park, Hert fordshire, England, aud has just been purchased by Mr. W. Rockefeller, New York. She Is a beautiful cow, dark tulip 7rn. fawn, calved In 1898; got by Spot's Lad 44389; dam Tulip by Sultan's Favorite. She has been highly successful in the show ring, among the prizes she has won being second in a strong class at the Royal Agricultural Society's show at Birmingham. Spring Wheat. When the fall sown wheat has winter killed, or where the Hessian fly has been troublesome, spring wheat may be sown. This crop was once the favorite in many sections, but has been aban-, doned to a large extent, excepting in some northern localities as in Canada. ' There they still grow it'in preference, and they obtain as good crops as are usually grown from winter wheat. We see no reason why seed obtained from the North should not yield a good crop in New York or Ohio, on any land that would grow winter wheat, and In a place where the fly abounds it would have to contend only with so many of them as came on the field from some field of fall sown wheat near by. The winter wheat has to contend against both the fall brood and the larger spring brood which results from iL-r Excbange. Cure for Colic in Horses. When a horse takes the colic, procure some gunpowder containing saltpetre, * which acts upon the kidneys. Char- j coal and sodn, which act on the stom ach and the intestines. To give relief ■ drench the horse with this: or. better. ! drench the horse with this; or, better, take saltpetre, alum, charcoal and laudanum, equal. parts, and make a drench and give the horse. These are all safe with the exception of the laud anum. Be careful not to give over an ounce of the laudanum. Keep horse well blanketed aud In good warm sta ble. See that he is not driven hard nor overheated, as this will cause colic; also, see that he has plenty of water, but not too much, and feed.—H. A. Cooley. Wooden Walled Cisterns. Cisterns made in the form of a large tank and let Into the ground possess several advantages over the walled and cemented affairs, aside from the first cost. While a good cemented cistern is hard to Improve upon, It is a fact that there are but comparatively few that ! do not leak water out or in. And where a crack Is once developed, It Is next to Impossible to stop it so that water will j not pass through. The first cost of a nlatn.n th.t «„HI hnM eavantv. t wooden cistern that will hold seventy- j five barrels will not exceed $25. And ! then the expense is stopped, for If well made of the right material there will, be little danger of leakage. They seem ' to give the best of satisfaction where In use.—J. L. Irwin. Overworking Boys. I once knew a farmer who had four sons. They all left him and the farm before they were 18 because they were overworked, and now the old man la overworked, being left alone to run the farm. He threatens to disinherit them for leaving him In a time when be needed them so badly, but they are very indifferent to his plans, for they are all doing well and getting along very nice ly. When a boy knows more than a mule he knows when he Is overworked. A mule knows that much, and a son ought to be better than a mule.—Home stead Farm Farrow*. ------— BARBER TO POUR MILLIONAIRES Thomas Whalen Shaves Armour, Fair bank, Allerton and Field. Thomas Whalen shaves four million aires a day. He makes the round of their residences every morning and oses bis own fast pacer to save time. They all pay him a liberal salary and In three hours each morning he earns I more than the average barber does in tour days. Mr. Whalen's clients are P. D. Ar mour, 8. W. Allerton, Marshall Field and N. K. Fairbank. They employ him by the year, and his salary continues whether they are In Europe, New York, California or Chicago. His contract calls for a daily shave In Chicago, and If the millionaires' chins are not to be found, Whalen Is not the sufferer, "pull" Is said to be of the gentlest, but his fellow barbers declare it Is very strong, and besides the salary he gets there Is always a liberal Christmas present. The salaries paid are as follows: Mr. Armour, $75 per month; jjjg ! ! Field, $75; Mr. Allerton. $50. and Mr. Falrbank, $35. All of these gentlemen have their private barber shops, and Mr. Whalen has the running of them. He keeps each supplied with the finest razors, shears, strops, soaps, mugs, and other requisites of a first-class tonsorlal parlor. He know? the turn of every whisker of his patrons, and there is never any kick about razors with a "pull." His labors begin early. Mr. Armour's home Is ills first stopping place, though recently, during that gentleman's resi dence in California, he has not been getting up so early. Mr. Armour has always shaved by 6 o'clock and often earlier. From there It is only a block to Mr. Field's Prairie avenue mansion, and just across the street, a little to the south, he finds Mr. Ailerton ready for his daily scrape. But to reach Mr. Falrbank he must make a big jump to the North Side, and his fast pacer comes in good use. Cars are too uncer tain, and Mr. Fairbank cannot be kept waiting or disappointed, and before 9 o'clock Whalen is at the Lake Shore drive residence, ready for Mr. Fair bank to come to the private barber shop. "Tom" Whalen Is one of the belt known barbers In Chicago. He has made a competency out of bis work, and his Income now Is by no means beggarly, averaging close to $3,000 for the year. His last shop was in the Methodist church block. This he sold several years ago. He now devotes his attention to his four millionaire cus tomers and several fine horses.—Chi cago Inter Ocean. [ I Sun Worship. The most complete system of sun worship that we have any account of was that existing in Peru when discov ered by the Spaniards in 1526. The Incas, as the Peruvian monarchs were called, claimed to be children of the sun and his representatives on earth. Their government was a despotic theoc racy, of which the Inca was both high priest and king. In Cuzco, the capital, stood a splendid temple to the sun, in which all the implements were of solid gold. On the west end of the Interior was a representation of the sun's disk an ^ rays in the same precious metai g0 p i ace( j that the rising sun, shining .u at the open east end, fell full upon the im a ge and was reflected with dazzling ap iendor. In the plaza or square of the temple a great annual festival was a t the summer solstice. The mul t}t u d e assembled from all parts of the empire, and presided over by the Inca awaited in breathless solemnity the first rays of their deity to strike the ' golden Image In the temple when they | all prostrated themselves in adoration, j Sacrifices, similar to those of the Jews, were offered on the occasion, and bread and wine were partaken of in a manner i strikingly resemblng the Christian sac rament. The moon as the spouse of the sun, the planet Venus as his page, i ___________ _____ * the Pleiades, and the remarkable con- j j atellation of the Southern Cross, were minor deities. The rainbow and light -1 ■ Ding were also worshipped as servants ! 0 f the sun; and fire, air, earth and the water were not without adoration. In fact, there was little In Nature that the Peruvians did not contrive to make a deity. ___ *Vv ! regular course of business, Mr. Hobart's First Fee. One of the neighbors has told how the Vice President made his first fee as a lawyer. He was employed to write the will of a well-known manufacturer of Paterson, who was wealthy. Asked his fee, Mr. Hobart, the legal fledgling, replied: "One hundred dollars." It was from this that be received a sig nificant hint how to succeed as a law yer. The manufacturer was well pleased with his attorney, and turning to his desk drew out a package of bank checks that had come in during the Taking up one for $800 he Indorsed it and handed it to Mr. Hobart j "With this start In life," said the narrator of the story, "Mr. Hobart mar- ' t iJ.l «1«. il .# Onm.,.. 1 j rled the daughter of Socrates Tuttle, ' ! who has been his helpmeet through all . the years that have followed. Years ; afterward Mr. Hobart learned that the ' ' granddaughter of his first client was about to be married, and that the family had been reduced to financial straits. He sent to her his check for $150 to assist In purchasing her trousseau, and took steps to provide other members of the family with employment"—Philadel phia North American. _J Hilled In Spanish Bull Fights, i The average number of horses killed Spanish bull fights every year ex *®*ds 5,000, while from 1,000 to 1,200 ^olls 8X8 sacrificed, Glove Trade o t Fmnoe. 4 France makes nearly 28,000,000 pairs ^££2 ^ i BACK TO THE OLD HOME. 0 • • 0 V. HE coach was crowded, and it looked very much like I would have to stand for the trip into town, when a little old "lady, her man ner ludicating that she was off on a well-earned pleasure jaunt, called to me to take a seat beside her, which I was very glad to do. As is usual with old ladies, as soon as I was seated, she looked me over, nodded and smiled, aud began to talk. "Did you have any rain down this way, dear?" "No, ma'am," I replied. "We have had sunshine and glorious weather all the day long." "It was raining pretty hard—coming down mighty lively—this morning, when I took the train," my new-found friend continued pleasantly. "I have been on this same train since early morning, and I'm getting just a little bit tired; it's been pretty warm all the day long, and I'm well nigh worn out; but mercy me, I ain't half way there yet; won't get there until to-morrow morning, 'bout 11 o'clock; guess I'll be powerful glad. I ain't done no travel ing for nigh on twenty-seven years, to 'mount to much," and she nodded and smiled, and looked very important, in deed. "You are on a long journey, then, madam?" I inquired, and accompanied the question with a smile which I hoped would invite further confidence. "Yes; I'm going back to the old home in Ohio; I ain't been there since just a little while after I was married; we just had our first little girl when me yk '/ y y / AND THEN THE SWEET OLD FACE BECAME VERY THOUGHTFUL. and my husband left the old home— ' sold off the old farm, and went out to | Iowa to live. There ain't no one back j to the old home expecting me; I ain't never told nobody I was coming; guess they'll be awfully surprised to see me," i und her face lighted up wonderfully at the prospect of the pleasant surprise 8 ^ e hud planned for the "folks at i home." "My husband died just about j a y ear ago—just a year ago last June— 80 now I ain't really got nothing to -1 keep me to home, so I thought I might J U8t 08 we ^ en J°y myself a little as no *' 8 lonesome back to home now since father's gone," and a tear found Its way down the deeply furrowed cheek, "so I'm going back to see the folks at the old home." "Then you are going to visit your children and the little grandchildren? I do hope you will have a nice visit madam." "No, I ain't got no children In Ohio; all my children live out In Missouri, where I come from; but my husband, he's got four sisters, and then my uncle and some of my cousins live back to the old home, and I'm going to visit them. I Just know I'll have a lovely time; maybe I might stay a year—It's such a long way there; I'm Just going to stay as long as I want to—till I get tired; there ain't yeally nothing to take me back home now, you see," and again the dim, brown eyes filled with tears. "I know they'll be mighty glad to see me. I kept house back to our home in Missouri, where I come from, till my ' last boy got married, and now I ain't 1 -__ 1 __ A, _ « _____ t______ Inn* ' agoing to keep house no longer; just . live around among my children—I've ; got four children living and one dead; ' our youngest little girl—the baby—died about ten years ago. You know, It's pretty lonesome for an old woman like me to keep house all by myself, and 'taln't really no use nohow: so. I'm go ing to enjoy mvself a little first and i Make Money on the Wreck. Gaston Drake of Nassau, Bahama, with other Americans now own the wreck of the Spanish warship Infanta Marla Teresa, lying in two fathoms of water near Bird Point, Cat Island. Drake and his associates purpose to break up the wreck for the metal there is In it. Mr. Drake wants to bring the metal Into thiB country free of du Mr. Drake's lawyers asked ths then live 'round among the children; first with one and then the other; I've got mighty good children; there ain't no one got better children than I have," and the thin, careworn features of the loving mother were once more lighted up with a radiant smile. "There's go ing to be a reunion of soldiers down where I come from pretty soon; I hated awful bad to leave home just at this time, but, you see, they've got cheap rates back to the old home now and it won't cost nothing like so much money to go now as 'tw r ould to go later on; my son thought first he would go with me, but it cost too much money for him to go—you see, he's married now—and he said he didn't see how he could spare such an awful lot of money; so, I just picked up courage and started by my self; I guess I'll get through all right. I have to change cars twice." "Don't let that worry you, madam; the conductor and station-master will see that you are well taken care of; you will get through without a bit of trouble," 1 hastened to assure her, and she smiled contentedly. "I brought a lunch with me; I did get a cup of coffee for dinner; they charged me 10 cents for it, and it wasn't very strong, either; and then, too, it was al most cold; and I did buy some bananas, two for 5 cents, and they were Just about half ripe; back home where I come from you get five, and sometimes six, nice bananas for 5 cents; but, mercy me, they do cheat you on these railroad trains"—and the dim brown eyes twinkled merrily. Glancing over me, out through the car window, over the fields of corn, she continued cheerfully, nodding aud smiling: "Crops out this way look mighty poor; guess you had too much rain. My son-in-law has Just got the most lovely corn you ever did see; he's going to make money this time; he's got most sixteen acres of the best land just outside the corporation line; he's done mighty fine this year. But you can't make nothing gardening now days; times is too hard, and money Is too scarce; can't sell a thing; there's so many men out of work, and they get just a little bit of ground, just big enough to garden, and raise their own vegetables—so you can't sell nothing; just can't give vegetables away. Now, my husband did gardening; he done pretty well; always made a good liv ing for me and the children," and the voice trembled slightly, "but then times was not so hard them days as now r . We've got lots of peaches out on our place, but cherries don't do so well. My, how that river winds about; just seems as though we didn't do a thing but just keep crossing that river. Them there bluffs over there look powerful pretty; I ain't seen nothing so nice to look at as them there bluffs for many a loug day. Guess we'll cross the Mis sissippi River pretty soon, won't we?" "Yes, ma'am, after you leave St. Louis; the Mississippi River, you re member, winds along between Missouri and Illinois. You will see wheat fields and plenty of corn In Illinois." "That's what my son-in-law told me; be said they raise a mighty lot of wheat In Illinois. But, my, I ain't been this far from my children before; never was this far from them In my whole life. I bet they'll miss me just awful," and then the sweet old face became wonderfully thoughtful. "My son-in-law, the one that married my treasury department if this could be done. In reply counsel for the treas ury department wrote: "The Spanish war vessel was not the property of the'United States at the time she was originally wrecked, but was the property of the Spanish govern ment, and as the United States govern ment has abandoned the vessel on Cat Island, Its owners have been changed from the United States to private citi next eldest daughter, he's a fireman s^ the road; he runs out in the State: h? told me Just the other day he might have to come this time on an extra train to St. Louis; maybe I'll see hin» here; I just hope I do. He makes goodl money, my son-in-law does; sometimes he makes $80 a month; that's doing mighty well; folks ought to get lots of happiness and live mighty comfortable on $80 a month. I just believe I'll take my bonnet off; guess I might feel little cooler," and she laid the old fashioned bonnet in her lap and smoothed back the hair from her tem ples. "And, do you know, I believe I am getting sleepy," and again she smiled contentedly. You have some little grandchildren at home, have you not, madam? I'm afraid they will miss their 'grandmam ma;' children are always so fond of their 'grandmamma.' " "Yes; my daughter says I spoil the children; I guess maybe I do. I have five grandchildren; one of my daugh ters, she's got two little girls, and one of my sons, he's got a little boy, and then one of my other girls, she's got two little children—a little girl and a little boy; the oldest one, she's a little girl about 5 years old, and thinks there was never no one like me. Yes, they'll all miss 'grandma,' " and again the quaint old face was wreathed In smiles. "My husband was back to the old home most seventeen years ago. They were all mighty glad to see him. When wa left there to go to Iowa our farm wasn't worth nothing like $40 an acre, and when my husband was there—* that's seventeen years ago—It was worth nigh onto $100 an acre. I reck on I just won't know the old placel You see, first we went to Iowa, but It was too cold there in the winter—they have powerful cold winters up in Iowa —so we sold off the place there and went out to Missouri; that's where I come from now; we've done pretty well out there. You ain't a going to get off here, are you? I'm so sorry." "Yes, ma'am," I told her, "I get off here, but you don't know how glad I am to have met you. And I do hope you will get back to the old home all right and find all the folks well and happy. I know they will be glad to have you with them. The conductor will take care of you when you change cars, so don't let that cause you any uneasiness whatever. I do hope you will enjoy every minute of your visit. Good-by, and the God you love be with you and take care of you." The dim brown eyes lighted up with great pleasure, and her good-by sound ed very sweet and pleasant, though IS was partially drowned by the noise of the train as it neared the station. I tenderly pressed the toil-worn hand she put into mine, the hand that had labored unceasingly so many years for the husband and children she so dearly loved, and I looked at the quaint slight figure In its tidy black dress and at the old-fashioned bonnet in her lap. She seemed so sure they would be delight ed to see her at the old home and the children so many miles away would miss her. The dim old eyes could still twinkle and the sweet old face still lighted up with a bright smile. What unbounded faith these old folks have in the love of their children and kindred! May that faith never be shaken. God bless the quaint old lady, with her nods and smiles, and may she have a royal reception from the "folks at the old home," and when the chil dren way out in Missouri write her— and may they send many a loving mis sive to the one on earth who of all oth ers loves them best—God grant that they will remember to tell her, to tell her lovingly and often, how much they miss her at home, and how lonesome the place is without "mother."—Cincin nati Commercial-Tribune. Wasted Sympathy. She Is a charming widow, pretty, bright and light hearted. She was a charming young woman before she married Mr. Blank, and moved away to live In Georgia. Her married life was most happy, and the death of her husband was a great loss to her, but she bore up under it After the funer al and a general packing up of things she returned to her old home. The day after she arrived she was met on the street by one of her very solemn-faced friends, who Intended to give her a cluster of that sympathy that makes one feel as If the sympathizer had thrown something at and on the "sym pathizee." "Oh, Mrs. Blank," said the solemn one, "I am so glad you are so well." "Yes," answered the widow, "I am as well as can be. I was never ill In my life, you know." "And, Mrs. Blank," continued the solemn one In more solemn tones, "I'm glad to see you so happy." "Why, yes. Yes, I'm very happy. You know it was not I that died. It was Mr. Blank."—Memphis Sclmetar. The Debate Closed. "Yes, sir!" shouted the little man with thin, straggling hair, "the constitution of the United States guarantees to every man liberty of speech, and I'd like to see any one try to deprive me of It!" "John Henry," exclaimed a large woman of a decided mien, who had just entered the room, "you dry up and come home."—New York Journal. Penniless Klondlkers. The number of penniless men 1* the Klondike is placed at 3,000. zens. Formal wreckage upon its Im portation to the United States will be duitable." Mr. Drake and his partners believe there will be a profit in the Importation from the metal of the wreck if admit ted free of duty, but not otherwise. If the stars went out of business be cause they were not suns the night would be drear.