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IDEA FOB FAB SIEBS.
%-HE OÖ-OPERAT1V* COLONY OF ROCKWELL, IOWA. Nearly Six Hundred Farmers Com bined Twelve Years Ago—Plain Busl j mess, with No Philosophy, Creed, I Politics Nor Factions. Co-operative living without commu nity life; active practice in buying in the cheapest market and selling in the highest; without a common religion, common politics or daily association all the elements that control "the new Idea for farmers," as comprised in a model co-operative colony at Rockwell, Iowa. Here 600 farmers combined twelve years ago, eliminating all mid dlemen, starting out on the basis of ! CAMP®BLL asmwtw A6W. ' , ' I I plain business, with no philosophy, creed, politics nor factions, and their scheme is described as a success. Rockwell is eleven miles south of Mason City, on the Iowa Central Rail road. Twelve years ago the commu nity now centering there adopted a basic principle of co-operation not fol lowing "trust" lines. The association was not conducted for profit, but the cardinal doctrine of the society was this; The middleman is always an in strument of injustice toward the bnyer and the seller. The character of the competition of the association with the private stores in Rockwell has been such that the population of the town THE CO-OPERATIVE OFFICE. a 6 to In to has doubled since 1888, and the busi ness last year aggregated nearly $400, 000. The association now controls two grain elevators, a lumber yard and a supply house of paint oils, salt, fish and other commodities. How all this prosperity has been brought about Is an interesting story. A strong senti ment that has been enunciated by an active member well covers the theme: "The only tie that binds us together is that of financial need. We have nothing else in common. Aside from financial need, each farmer In our association walks his own way." Rockwell has a population of 1,000. !A farming community of several thou I 4 l 1 !,/ _______' THE ROCKWELL ELEVATOR. sands surrounds it The village was once Lynn Grove. The soil is fat and Tich; corn is produced iu abundance; •Iso wheat, rye, oats and timothy. Hogs thrive in the region, as do beef cattle, jtnd many fine horses are bred. The community is made up of Germans, Irish, some Americans, some Scotch, no Scandinavians. There is a sehool bouse every two miles in the country, iml weekly and daily newspapers are liberally taken. Works on communism, socialism, commnntiy life or social de mocracy are not found tn the homes or the store places. Rockwell is practical, •nd common sense has made it so. Twelve years ago the farmers In and about Rockwell decided to become mer chants and grain dealers. At that time two brothers owned the main store of the town, charged what prices they fiiwi, and had a practical monopoly on trad«, inch as exists In hundreds of «ountry towns. The farmers protested ^gaw the rates current bat the mer chants pointed to the long railroad of the in Is all no out the of haul, to the capitalist Jobbers of tha big Cities. A fight was started to battle the wrong use of money and power with the right use of money and power. The farmers of Rockwell incorporated under the title of the Farmers' incor porated Co-operative Society. The limit on the capital stock was not less than $1,000, and no more than $25,000, the shares being $10 each. No member was allowed to own more than ten E shares, and had only one vote in the conduct of affairs. Only "practical farmer8" were admitted. A business agent was appointed, and the start j made to put in store such goods as were ; wanted. The manufacturing companies objected to allowing a community to buy at wholesale and sell at the same prices. The result was that the asso ciation turned farther away from home trade centers until they found concerns that would sell to them. Each farmer reports the amount of his sales on j ' honor, and pays a certain percentage that enables the liquidation of associa tion expenses. When the company has a surplus of proflts the same runs at a 6 per cent. Interest rate. In 1809 the expenses of the society were $6,007, of which $2,002 was paid to the business agent and his clerks, in permanent im provements $1,236 was Invested. The same year the liabilities of the society amounted to $10,677.55, and the assets to $22,131, represented by lumber, grain and seeds, elevator property and cash. In 1897 the assets exceeded the liabili ties by $6,459. Nearly half a million bushels of grain were handled, the vol ume of business generally reaching up to nearly $300,000. To demonstrate how business may be done, it is stated that the association sees to it that the lowest shipping rates are secured, that grain is sold only when the highest rate can be obtained, and that the home elevator charges and facilities are made so as to favor mem bers always In the store a member buys a sack of flour, for Instance. He gets it for 95 cents, or at a profit to the society of 2% cents. If a non-society member buys it, he pays $1.05. Outside of Rockwell it would cost him $1.25. The illustration shows the effect operatlon has on Rockwell prices. If the society price of corn is 31 cents, and track agents offer 33 cents, the member selling at the latter figure turns in one quarter of a cent to the association for every bushel sold. According to recent reports, Rockwell is handling more grain than any in terlor point in Iowa. The people are prosperous, the motto of the society is "Honesty among ourselves, small prof its and large sales." Nothing can de stroy the society but individual dis honesty. As to expansion of their trade, members do not believe in it. They have an elevator capacity amounting to 65,000 bushels, a lumber yard, a fine office and good storage sheds. Their advice to communities Is to imitate, not join the original body. ....... -■■■ = ; _______' Thomas Chappell and R. H. Dickson were among the original incorporators of the association. J. H. Brown is its present President, and Frank Campbell the business agent. No saloon exists in the town, churches are plentiful, law and order is visible everywhere. There Is no philosophizing, no theories—it is all cold-blooded, practical business The main officers and directors receive i no salary, and the dividends paid are given out in stock. A clean-posted \ ledger shows what a few hard-headed , farmers can do In the matter of selling j tbelr products for an honest price, and i buying their supplies at the lowest fig- i nre. Rockwell Is an Interest point for ' any practical co-operator to visit and study. Twelve years of success, with out extermination of competition, mark the history of the little village—« plaça of peace and real, not political nor leg islative, prosperity. The only thing original «boat the «ver«c« joke I« Um sin of stealing It HUGE FLO ATING D RY DOCK. Large Enough to Accommodate a War ship of 18,000 Toma. There Is now being constructed at E Sparrow Point, Md., what will be the argest floating dry-dock In the world. It is being built for use by the Navy De partment, and when completed will be towed to Algiers, La., a voyage of 2,000 miles. It will then be placed in posl a * lbe naval station there for the use of all vessels in service In the Carib bean and Mexican waters. The dock j ,s beln 8 bu llt in conformity with a plan ; strengthen ail the Southern naval stations, and to provide there facilities for the handling of the largest vessels in the United States navy, j While the contract capacity of the new dry dock is 15,000 tons, the real ca pacity is really considerably larger than this. As now estimated, a vessel displacing 18,000 tons can be success fully floated and supported by the dock, ' though it is probable that no effort will be made to place any ship of such di mensions within it The work is really gigantic and outclasses that done on the old Havana drj dock In UBe during , the Spanish war. The Havana dry ' dock, by the way, has passed out of the bands of the United States Govern ment, and now belongs to the Govern ment of Vera Cruz, to which it was sold. The feat of traveling from New York to Havana, which at the time was thought to be a very notable one, has been duplicated by a second trip from Havana to Vera Cruz and the practi cability of the floating dry dock again demonstrated. I The new dry dock is to be built at the cost of $810,000, and will be complete In every detail. It will consist of five pontoons, three of which compose the bottom and the other two the sides of the dock. The extreme length of the dock Is 240 feet, while the extreme width is 126. I The dock Is complete tn Itself, hav ing Its own engines, boilers and oper MAMMOTH DRYDOCK FOR THE NAVY. ating machinery aud complete quarters for its crew. It can be towed any where, Is a 8ailable property, and is altogether one of the most desirable ac Qulsltlons that have been made to the United States navy since the upbuild ing of that navy began. The arrangement by which the dock Is operated is very ingenious. Each pontoon is fitted with forty water-tight compartments, with a drain pipe lead into them. These individual drain pip«8 then feed into a large drain pipe in either side. All these pipes are con nected with pumps, which are operated by central engtnes at either side. When desired these engines can be made to run Independently of each other upon separate compartments, or they can he made to individaully operate them ail. By this device all possibility of a gen eral breakdown is almost removed, since in event of accident to one set of machines the other can be set in mo tion to do the entire work of the two. When It is proposed to float a vessel the valves In the various compartments are opened. The dock, which floats at the draught of four feet, is then lower ed with the onrush of water Into the ; various compartments until It reaches the desired depth. By simply closing the valves the depth can be readily con trolled, while If desired a vessel of thir ty feet draught can be taken in. I The vessel Is then floated in and carefully centered over the keel blocks 1 on which It Is expected to rest. The ; pumps are then started and slowly as ■the water Is drawn out of the various ! compartments and discharged through the drain pipes the dock rises, lifting Its ! great burden out of the water. As the i vessel rises it Is secured in Its position I until It finally reaches a height of four j feet above water, permitting every part j of It to be reached by the repair me chantes without difficulty. One of the greatest advantages af forded by the new arrangement, how ever, Is the ability to dock the dry dock I Itself by a simple device. This is ac ! compllsbed by having the pontoons de tachable bo that one at a time each one can be raised out of the water and re paired. This Is accomplished in this way: If it is desired to dock the middle pontoon the fastenings connecting it with the other pontoons are removed and ^ 1® allowed to float loosely. Water * 8 admitted to the end pontoons ttnd s * de walls, and the middle pontoon A 08 * 8 U P untb a 864 of * U 8 S on its bot tom corresponds to the upper connect i l Q g * u 8 8 on the sice wails. This brings the mld ® e P° a toon entirely ont of \ w *i er ; The middle pontoon In turn has , 8u ® c ent capac t y to , dock **° tb end j P or Jtoons at once, and one of the side i wa * 8 ** n *** ^lted out of water by fill i tbe otber one - these various ' mean8 the entlre water ,urface of the lock 18 made accessible for repairs. HAIR TELL8 OF NATIVITY. Results of Obssrvutlou by Hotsl Clsrks and Commsrclsl Travelers. Commercial travelers, and no men It la said are better Judges of character, claim that they can always tell to what part a t the country a man belongs, and this by looking only at hit balr. They say that ln Kentucky the hair Is worn long behind, so long that It is j caught over the ears, permitting the oft-repeated gesture of smoothing it with the fingers as the wearer talks to you. The ends are cut square, and the fashion .requires a certain amount of pomade to keep it in place. This gloss is Imperative. In Indiana, they claim, it is worn equally as long, but with the ends curled in about the neck almost touching the collar. Further West, across the Rockies, and in the southwest, especially in Texas—where of barbers are scarce, or were scarce when P the fashion was set—the hair is worn cowboy fashion, loose over the shoul ders, the untrlmmed ends flying in the winds. In the Eastern States, however, and along the whole Eastern border of the country, except in North Carolina where among the corncrackers it grows wild, the hair is cropped short, espe cially behind, where it is shingled even ly from the top of the head to the neck. Hotel clerks odd to this knowledge of the hair one of the wearer's shoes. It makes all the difference in the world whether they are square, pointed or round. Each fashion proclaims a dis trict of its own. Patent leather shoes with extremely pointed toes belong to the South; while people from the North and West wear square toes and heavy shoes. These fashions, however, are due more to climatic conditions than to local tastes.—Harper's Bazar, Population of Brit'sh Indli. The population of British India—that is. of the territories under direct Brit ish Government—was 198,860,606 in 1881, and had Increased to 221,172,052 when the last census was taken in 1891. The population of the states which are governed by native rulers under the eye of the British represent atives increased In those ten years from 54,032.008 to 66.050,479. The fig ures for 1891 show that of the total population 140,727,206 were males and he he ly, »f ic to of only 140,496,135 were females. British India covers 964,993 square miles and the Native States 595,167; but In the former the average number of persous living on every square mile is 229 and in the Native States It is only 111. The highest average is 471 per square mile in Bengal, aud the next .is 430 ; in the northwest piovinces and Onde; while the lowest average in British In dia Is 35 in Upper Burmah—the native state of Cashmere falling still lower, to 31 per square mile. England had in the same year 540 people to the square mile, and Scotland 134. Japanese Imitation. The Japanese are almost universally condemned by writers for the imitation practiced by them of late years ot Western literature, art, science and in vention. And yet this imitation seems natural and right. Imagine, if possible, the nation of Japan leaping across the civilization of hundreds of years in half a century. Think of her emerging from the darkness of the middle ages and standing suddenly forth in the light of the nineteenth century. Would it not have been worse than madness for her to have said, "This new civilization Is better than nurs, yet we will not imi tate it. We will retain our originality, and perhaps in ages to come we shall reach the enlightened state now enjoy ed by the rest of the world." But fortunately the Japanese did not say this, but gave themselves up to tue acquisition of the wonderful stores ol knowledge opened to them.—Lippin cott's. A Dry Niagara. A few miles southeast of Syracuse, N. Y.. In a cavity whose bottom Is 220 feet below the surface of the adjacent upland, lies Jamesville lake, a body of water 500 feet In diameter and sixty feet in depth. Eastward from the lake extends a gorge through which flows Butternut creek. Professor Quereau of Syracuse says that In former times a river flowed here and that Jamesville ! lake Is the pool that was formed under a great waterfall. Steep cliffs rise around It on three sides, and "all the ! features of a dry Niagara are here dis- ' closed In great detail." --! Harmonious Bicycle. j The latest thing "made In Germany" . ls a "harmonious bicycle." This terri- j ble invention Is constructed to grind out ; 500 tunes, and has been given the name of "II Trovatore." The contrivance is fixed to the handle bar, Is worked by the front wheel, and will play for an hour while the cyclist is pedaling at a ■peed of ten miles. Hog that Weighs 1,524 Pounds. T. M. Williams of Decatur, Ala., Is said to own the largest hog In the world. It weighs 1,524 pounds. Is 10 feet 2 Inches In length and 4)6 feet ! high. Spanish Bullfights. The average number of horses killed tn Spanish ball fights every year ex- | ceeds 5,000, while from 1,000 to 1,200 j holla are sacrificed, j --—- - THIS IS THEIR DEPARTMENT OF THE PAPER. fYÏTD BflVQ A AI H ßT Dl Q vUil DUlO AINU WülLö, j - Qnalnt Saytaga and Cat# Doings of tha Little Folks Everywhere, Gathered end Printed Here for All Other Lit* tie Oaee to Bead. In St. Nicholas Governor Roosevelt of New York tells "What We Can Ex P e ^l of the American Boy." Of course, he says, what we have a right to ex pect of the American boy is that he shall turn out to be a good American man. Now, the chances are strong that he won't be much of a man unless he is a good deal of a boy. He must not be a coward, or a weakling, a bul ly, a shirk, or a prig. He must work hard and play hard. He must be clean minded and clean-lived, and able to hold his own under all circumstances and against all comers. It Is only on these conditions that he will grow Into the kind of American man of whom America can be really proud. There are always In life countless tendencies for good and for evil, and each succeeding generation sees some »f these tendencies strengthened and *ome weakened; nor is it by any means always, alas! that the tendencies for evil are weakened, and those for good strengthened. But during the last few decades there certainly have been some notable changes for good in boy life. The great growth in the love of athlet ic sports, for Instance, while fraught with danger If it becomes one-sided and unhealthy, has beyond all question had an excellent effect In ln-rcared manliness. Forty or fifty years ago the writer on American morals was sure to deplore the effemlnncy and luxury of young Americans who were born of rich parents. The boy who was well off then, especially in the big Eastern cities, lived too luxuriously, took to billiards as his chief Innocent recrea tion, and felt small shame In his Ina bility to take part In rough pastimes and field sports. Nowadays, whatever other faults the son of rich parents may tend to develop, he Is at least forced by the opinion of all his asso ciates of his own age to bear himself well In manly exercise, and to develop his body—aud therefore, to a certain extent, his character—in the rough sports which call for pluck, endurance, and physical address. The Little Hoy's Lament, Ohl why must I always be washed so clean And scrubbed and drenched for Sun day, When yon know, very well, for you've always seen. That I'm dirty again on Monday? It's down my neck nnd up my nose, ; And to choke me yon seem to be trying; That Til B >»it m y mouth you need not My eyes are filled with the lathery soap. Which adown my ears is dripping; And my smarting eyes I can scarcely ope. And my lips the suds are sipping. suppose, For how can I keep from crying? You rub ns hard as ever you can. And your hands are hard, to my sor row; No woman shall wash me when I'm a man. And I wish I was one to-morrow. Mk picasim esutvaa « TMt CAT WN» Live THIS 00*11*6 IN THC ■ 6urw n, KYI ont *r«HT wnen 1 n*T oop Down crufts OH! • HI UHII .....-THAT tU The Shortest Month. Did you know that the month of September, in the calendars of En glish-speaking people, one year had only nineteen days? 'It was made by the change from the old style to the new style In reckoning time. Pope Gregory, you know, dropped ten days from the calendar In 1582 to make civil Unie and solar time agree, and fur- ther ordained that the closing year of a century, instead of being always leap-year, as in the Julian calendar, should be so only when the number of the year was divisible by 400. ! Now, England did not adopt the Gregorian calendar until 1752, and by that time there was a difference of ! eleven days. Instead of ten, between ' that calendar and the Julian, the elev- enth day having been dropped In the year 1700, which was not a leap-year j under the new rule. The English al . rnanacs for 1752, therefore, gave Sep j tember nineteen days Instead of thirty, ; thus making their time accord with the Gregorian, en M « Ie of 46 and a sea eagle of 42, ! 11114 many birds of the age of 40 down Eome Old Birds, An observer mentions the Instance of a raven that has lived 69 years; a pair of eagle owls, one of which is 67 and the other S3 years; a Bateleur eagle and a condor. In the Zoological. Gar dens at Amsterdam, aged 55 and 52; an Imperial eagle of the age of 56, a gold ward are also recorded. Pigeau Form Telegraph Bai 1 a l es. There are several small Islands on | the Pacific Ocean that belong to En j gland. A vessel waa wrecked during a storm on one of theee i s lands and it was necessary to get word to Auck land. Carrier pigeons were used. They carried the messages and brought re turn messages. This success led to the buying of a large flock of carrier pig eons. which were trained for the work on these Islands. Each bird can carry four messages, each written on paper of a certain quality and size. When four messages are ready a bird is sent off. Each message costs either 12 or 25 cents. These pigeons are privat» property. No Food or Water. Eight hundred people live on one of the West India Islands, where there 1* no watei nor food, nor towns nor vil lages. Anguilla is the name of the isl and, and the Government has to send food to the Inhabitants every year to keep them from starving. The only water they have is tainted by the sea and not fit to drink. Purred Banyan Tree*. Among the numerous things consid ered sacred in India is the banyan tree, one of the fig genus, remarkable for Its vast rooting branches. The horizontal branches send down shoots which take root when they reach the ground and enlarge into trunks, which, in their turn, Bend out branches. Windows of Paper A kind of paper is made from sea weed which is so transparent that it may be used instead of glass for win dows. The Basqu.a. The difference between Basques and other Spaniards is striking, not only physically hut mentully. The Basques are clean, quiet and business-like, not profuse in their speech, and they stick tn a promise when this is once given. Other Spaniards think them morose, aa they are people' of few words, rather peppery when contradicted unnecessari ly and only for talking's sake, and they will stand no nonsense. Whilst it 1» the universal custom in the surround ing Spnnish provinces for every peas ant, he it man, woman or child, to greet you with a polite phrase, the Basque» pass by without any salutation. In stead of profuse recognition when meet ing a former employer, aud then, after typical Spanish fashion, inquiring after his own henlth aud that of every mem ber of his family, the Basques pass by without a word, the former business Is over, but he has no objection to enter Into a new contract Wherever there 1» in a typical Spanish town an inn or ho tel run by a Basque, that house is the one to make for; not only is it cleaner and more orderly, but ten to one the landlord will not mind goiug out of his way to help his guest—Dr. Gadow. in Northern Spain. Sentenced to De th Three Times. A famous criminal in Denmark has had the unique experience of being sen tenced to death three separate times. Surti Is the lenity of Danish law, or, rather, the indisposition of the ruling powers to proceed to extreme meas ures, that this notorious person, before he was tried for the third time on the capital charge, had already been re lieved twice and relegated to prison for a long term. It was in prison that he committed his third offense in mur dering one of his Jailers. He began his long career of crime at the age of 8, by setting fire to a farm house. In. October, 1894, a criminal In Germany was found guilty of the murder of two women and attempts to murder others.. Under the German law sentence is passed for each crime, and the prison er in this case wai consequently twice condemned to death on the capital of fenses, and for the murderous assaults to fifteen years' penal servitude. Crystal Island. Crystal Inland is one of the small isles of which such a large number are dot ted about in the Pacific ocean. It re ceived Its name on account of its being, one mass of beautiful crystallized car bonate of lime. One of the most re markable features of the Pacific ocean, and one that distinguishes it from every other, is the vast assemblage of smalt islands with which, on the map, it ap pears to be crowded, particularly in the portion situated between the tropics. These islands are of three distinct forms—the coral, the crystal and th» volcanic. Of these, the first formation greatly predominates, but the largest is lands are of the last description. Of the crystal formation, Crystal Islaud I» one of the few specimens known. Barnabee's Unexpected Hit. H. C. Barnabee of the Bostonians tells a story about a baby which made the hit of the evening at a certain per formance of "Patience" in which he took part "There was a young couple up In the gallery," he says, "and they had the baby contingent along. My thnnderous tones repeating my lines, 'Where the dust of an earthy to-day Is the earth of a dusty to-morrow,' awakened the baby and It began to cry loud and long. Then came my lines, 'It's a little thing of my own.' I made the most of them and the house caught on and yelled itself hoarse." The Reason. The reason why the unexpected hap pens so frequently is because people do not expect what they should.—Som erville Journal. When She Cries. We will have reached the heights of realism In literature when writers hon estly describe the way the heroine look» when she cries. Only a strong-minded man can read the persuasive advertisement of a pat ent medicine without being convinced that he needs a bottle of It Shoddy society Is made of the ■a««i«| dregs thrown np by the wavaa of eo» merdal convulsions. - «