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EMPRESS OF CHINA.
FORMER SLAVE GIRL ATTRACT. ING ATTENTION. %1ie Marvelon« Rise to Power of One of the Century's Most Remarkable 'Warnen— Can at Present Cause or j Prevent War, k The disturbances In China, with the ow celebrated Boxers as the central gures, have brought the Empress of the Celestial Kingdom a prominence unsurpassed by any other reigning monarch and again place conspicu ously before the public one of the cen tury's most remarkable women. A sketch of the noble lady's life outclass es any Action ever written. The Empress was the daughter of & Manchu nobleman of Pekin. Her fa ther lost his fortune and his political position and wandered from Pekin to Canton, where fortune was so unkind to him that want forced him to sell his daughter, Tsl An, to a merchant of that place. In his household she be came a slave. She was reared and educated as a slave and escaped the fashionable Mongolian torture of hav ing her feet compressed. Her duty compelled her to do all the marketing urn DOWAGKB K.MPRKSS OF CHINA. for the family, and she learned to read and write and displayed remarkable ability. She was liberated in 184S at her own entreaty when she desired to enter the great competition among young girls between 15 and 18 years of age for the position of concubines or secondary wives of the Emperor. The ruler, Hien Fung, had made the usual proclamation for all eligible Manchu maidens to appear at the im perial palace in Pekin for examina tion. Tsl An appeared with the rest and stood the test so well that she was one of those chosen. The court authorities pronounced her R faultless specimen of womanhood; well brought up in ethics and possess ing all the virtues needful to the sex; In the front rank in accomplishments; In intelligence the equal of the gradu ate of the first imperial examination. The examinations over, to her delight, although, it is said, not to her surprise, she was among the first ten of the list of successful candidates. She was taken to the palace and there installed In one of the suites of rooms in the woman's quarter. Here began her wonderful career of intrigue. She paid particular attention to the Empress, and at the same time conducted herself with such tact and wisdom as to make friends and few or no enemies among the hundreds of other women in the Imperial household. Thus was the slave girl brought face to face with opportunities, and adroitly did she take advantage of it. She soon became the favorite of the Emperor and even supplanted his head wife. The head wife bears the title Empress of the East; but Tsi An found out that there was an obsolete title, the highest that could be given to a concubine, Em press of the West, and she persuaded the Emperor to bestow it on her. Hien Fung died in 18(50, and Tsi An's aon, Tung Chi, succeeded to the throne under the regency of the two Empress es and his uncle. Prince Kung. Tsi An dominated the board, and ruled with a strong hand, putting down the Tal Ping rebellion in a manner that called attention to her talents. In 1875 Tung Chi died and his wife did not long sur vive him. The 4-year-old son of a Manchurian noble was then placed on the throne under the same regency. In 1881 the Empress of the East died and left Tsi An with a free hand over the Infant Emperor, whom she punished and even imprisoned when he did not yield obedience. She is now In control as absolute as can be imagined, al though her nominal title Is Empress Dowager. The obscure and mysteri ous east has furnished no more won derful story than the career of this remarkable woman who arose from a slave girl to an Empress over 300 - 000,000 people. SAFE OR DOUBTFUL STATES. Work Done in Both Sorte by Preei dential Campaigner«, Politics to-day means organization the same thorough, efficient, compre hensive organization that one finds In «he management of a great railroad or any other large business, says Scrib ner's. The National Committee works In conjunction with the State commit tees. There are some States so hope lessly antagonistic that to make a fight there would be simply to sacrifice mon ay and effort To keep the enemy fully occupied, a sham campaign is some times made in such States, but the m a n agers never count on carrying them. The real fighting ground is In the un certain and doubtful States. These States must be carried to spell success, and It Is here that the Mmp .ip wage with deadly fierceness from the 4v after the nomination has beta asada until the day before the ballots ère cast To bring to their support every voter In the State the two com mittees— thé Republican and the Demo cratic—will 'endeavor to put In the hands of every male of voting age, without regard to present or past affili ations, literature presenting the posi tion of the party on the great issues of the day. To do this millions of docu ments are printed in every modern lan guage, and through the literary bureau given circulation. The head of the literary bureau Is the most important of the national Chair man's subordinate. He must, in a few weeks, create the machinery for the distribution of these documents; he must attend to their preparation and printing; he must have an instinctive knowledge where to distribute his liter ature. In one State "imperialism." for Instance, may really he the great Issue, and the two chairmen will endeavor to flood that state with arguments for i and against It. Not only will the j speeches of the leaders In Congress be placed in the hands of the voters, but ; there will also be distributed carefully j written articles, prepared with all the Ingenuity and sophistry which trained writers know how to employ. Anything can be proved by figures, and in the course of a Presidential campaign any argument advanced on one side is sure to be controverted by the other. Sl"epin<r on the March. Some philosopher has said that a man with a strong mind can sleep or keep awake at will. Perhaps that philos opher never tried forced marching in a tropical country. Owen S. Watkins, who was In the last Sudan campaign with General Ktchener, tells of seeing an adjutant and a senior major riding side by side on long marches, so that If they fell asleep they could lean on each other and not fall from their sad dles. Mr. Watkins repeats some queer stories that were told him, without say ing that they are true. But if truth is stranger than fiction, one of them at least is strange enough to be true. It is about a transport master, who rode in the rear of his train of camels. He had been very busy, and had slept little for a week. The day was hot, and for comfort he had removed his helmet and belt. Then he fell asleep. Pretty soon the jolting of his camel unseated him, and he rolled to the soft ground unhurt. In fact, he was not even awakened. When at last he did wake, the caravan was out of sight and he could not tell how long he had been sleeping. There he was, the master of that column of transport camels, alone in the desert, unarmed and with not even a covering for his head. As nothing was to be gained by stay ing where he was, he started to follow the trail, and had hurried along for some time before he noticed by the fast setting sun that he had started back, instead of ahead, on the trail of the camels. He turned, and fortunate ly a camel and driver soon met him. They had been sent back from the caravan, not to search for him, strange ly enough, but to look for some article that had been lost by the way. Indian Marriage Promise. A young Indian falling in his atten tion to a young squaw, she made com plaint to an old chief, who appointed a hearing or trial. The lady laid her case before the judge, and explained the na ture of the promise made her. It con sisted of sundry visits to her wigwam, many little undefinable attentions and presents, a bunch of feathers, and sev eral yards of red flannel. This was the charge. The faithless swain denied thé "undefinable attentions" in toto. He had visited her father's wigwam for the purpose of passing away time, when it was not convenient to hunt; and had given the feathers and flannel from friendly motives, and nothing fur ther. During the latter part of the de fense the young squaw fainted. The plea was considered invalid, and the offender sentenced to give the lady "a yellow feather, a brooch that was dangling from his nose, and a dozen coon skins." The sentence was no sooner concluded than the squaw sprang upon her feet, and, clapping her hands, exclaimed with Joy, "Now me be ready to court again." Wbat Struck Him. Like the dyspeptic who said that the only food he ever liked was the food he couldn't get, a certain Patrick-once a soldier, now a family servant-seems 1 to have been especially susceptible to i what may be called negative impies sions. This son of Erin, says the Paris American Register, brought an honor able scar or two from India. Once he described his part in a bat tle—the advance, the gallop, the charge, and how, as one rider fell dead from his saddle, the death grip of his fingers on his pistol discharged it and killed bis own horse. "What struck you most forcibly when all was over and you looked back to It?" asked a friend. "Ah," said the old servant, reflec tively, "I think, sir"—with simplicity— "that what struck me most forcible, sir, was the bullets that missed me!" Stop It Instantly. "Pa, will 'teeney-weeney' rhyme with 'eeny-meeny?' " "Stop it, my boy! Stop It Instanten We don't want any Alfred Austins In this happy family."—Cleveland Plain Dealer. Discord. She—Tbs minister's, sermon harmonise with his text. He—No; be evidently forgot bis —Chicago News. «dB* ▲ cheap woman's way of abating i man in to pity his wUA. THE 44 HOLINESS PEOPLE." eat and Sleep Under One Roof, Believe in Sanctification by Faith and the Gift of Divine Healing. V -a-kX îü %■ ill Moundsville, W. Va., is the headquarters of the sect called "Holiness People." They recently held a great religious feast. Many hundreds of the sect came from all parts of the world. The church originated in Michigan in 1880, and the head quarters were moved to Moundsville two years ago. They believe that God's people are coming to unity; that this is a reformation at the Christian religion, and that the true Christians of the world are being turned by God to this belief. They believe in sanctification by faith and divine healing. The congregations, called the "Church of the Living God" or "Holiness People," are very economical. They wear no neckties or clothing of fashionable design. The men all wear white shirts and celluloid collars, with bone collar but tons, and no jewelry is worn. Everything is in communal style. They are all quartered in the Trumpet Home. At this Home the single people have rooms of their own and the families have suites. There is but one kitchen aud one diuing room. These people do not mingle with the outside world, and apparently are a very happy aud contented set. They have a publishing house of their own, and a paper called the Gospel Trumpet. No one working on this journal gets any salary, as the motto of these people is that all persons need is "enough to eat and their clothing." .. . .. .. . _ ti , 1 they 8prCad the d ' 8ea8e infinitely under i P r °P er conditions. 1 he parasite and TUNNEL DISEASE. Curious Affliction of Those Who Delve in Miues und Tunnels. There is a disease which attacks the laborers in tunnels and mines. It is as old as Egypt, but only within this cen tury has it been placed to a specific parasite. It is a painful aud danger ous disease, often resulting in death. A monograph on the subject of this malady, called ankylostomiasis, has just appeared, and, coming as it does from Hugo F. Goldman, M. D., the of ficial physician in the coal miues of Brennberg, near Oldenburg, Germany, it carries great weight, for it is based upon years of experience and practical treatment of this dread disease. It attacks not only men but animals, especially the horses or mules used in the building of tunnels and tbe opera tion of mines. It is a disease caught by it. ectlon, like typhoid or cholera. It may be contracted in the air or by con tact with the germs, which are really the eggs of the little worm, or ankylos toma, as It is called. This name means "hooked mouth," and refers to the six hooked teeth around the mouth of the parasite by which it clings to the inte rior of the human intestine. It is found not only in the duodenum, but also in the smaller intestines, where it grows and flourishes. Male and female can be distinguished among these parasites, the females be ing larger and more numerous than the males. The males grow to the length of .3937 Inch, and the female is on an average half as long again. They can be seen with the naked eye. This ani mal has neither breathing apparatus nor circulatory system, and varies in color from grayish white to brown aud even blood red, according to the condi tion of the person in whom it is found, l'he female lays a large number of eggs in the human intestines, from which the egg develop best In a temperature between (55 and 85 degrees Fahren heit. The air and surrounding medium should be moist. It is on account of the moisture and heat to be found In mines and tunnels that this parasite develops so perfectly among the toil ers in these places. Darkness is also necessary, sunlight killing these ani malculae almost instantly. Ankylostomiasis originated in the Orient. It has been long established In Egypt, but has been mistakenly called Egyptian chlorosis, or aenemla, and was treated as mere poverty of the blood In red corpuscles. It passed over from Egypt to Italy, where It was not really understood until Dublnl found tbe parasite In 1838. When tbe St Gothard tunnel was built, in the '70s. the disease spread throughout central Europe, especially in Switzerland. The further spread ing of the ankylostoma to the mines of Europe was quick to follow. When the men were first attacked In the St Got hard tunnel It was thought that a new disease, tbe "tunnel disease," bad been found, but It was nothing other thn n tbe ankylostoma, as was proved by Perrondto, when he found no less than 1,000 of these parasites In .the duode num of a man who had died of "tun The mode of Infection Is very ap parent The men while at work often carry their hands to their mouths, or eat their food in the tunnels or mines, aud In this way the parasite or its eggs enter through the mouth, pass on into the system and find a permanent home in the Intestines, to the walls of which they cling with all six teeth, feeding on the blood of the unfortunate person attacked. Use of Soap. British critics of the Boers are fond of asserting that the sturdy Transvaal ers use little soap. This may be true or not. Even if true, there is plenty of precedent. The Japanese, the most cleanly people in the world, rarely use soap. The Russians use vapor baths for cleanliness' sake. Rough inside cloth ing cleanses the skin. There are doc tors who have cured skin diseases by insisting upon their delicate patients abandoning silk underwear aud using very coarse stuff instead. Napoleon, whose hands were good to model and beautifully white, used bran and lemon juice, and no soap, unless to shave. In England, on account of coal smoke and smut, soap is more needed than in countries with clear air. Many fashionable ladies of to-day, who would be much offended if they were called barbarous or uncivilized, nevei use soap. They grease themselves with vaseline aud such stuff and carefully rub it all off again.—San Francisco Call. Not Law but Gosp-I. Clergymen of the past often hae traits of individuality which are per haps not so common at the present day. Archbishop Sumner was once holding a confirmation in an English parish church, when he observed that a num ber of people were standing in the aisles, altnough several pews were empty. He stopped the service, and asked the reason. "The pews are private property," an swered a man, "and they're shut up." "There can be no such thing," said the bishop, authoritatively. "Let the pews be opened." "We can't open 'em!" shouted some one. "There're locked." "Is there a locksmith here?" "Yes, my lord." "Very well; let him remove the locks. A hymn shall be sung meanwhile." So the locks were removed, the audi ence seated Itself, and the confirmation went on.—Youth's companion. "Bobs'" LiiUlo Admirer. Of all the communications with which Lord Roberts bas been deluged since he went to South Africa tbe brietest and best, he Bays, Is one be received from three Dublin admirers. It reads: "Dear Lord Bobs-We are Irish, and we think you are the nicest man there ever was, except daddy. Aunt Nell likes yon dreadfully; she has a picture of you. and she kisses It and says 'bless him r—Your little admirers, Frances Martel, Molly, and Eileen." The Blende—I wish I could play the piano, awfully. The Brunette—Why, yon can.—Now York World. If the average man could read the story of his Ufa ho wouldn't believe là SCENE OF M ANY DA RK ORIME9, Bontb Dakota Ialand Where Several 'tragedies Have Been Enacted. A large wooded Island In the Ml» souri River, near the Lyman County line, South Dakota, that has been th* scene of many bloody deeds during the last three-quarters of a century, la about to be converted to the use of civilized man by having a large saw mill erected upon It In early days II was known to the whites as "Dark Island." The history of this name la not definitely known, but It Is thought by old settlers that It may have ac qulred the name from the fact either that It Is heavily wooded, and, there fore, dark and gloomy as compared with the open plains on either side of the river, or, more probably, that It was the scene of many a dark deed. For nearly twenty years preceding 1880 Its only occupant was a man by the name of Frank Phelps, a man around whoso history there clustered umuy doubtful acts. Since the beginning of his occu pancy It has been known as Phelps' Isl an< l It was on this Island that two Jesuit missionaries lost their lives in 1845. They had come out to work among ths Indians, and crossed over to the island to consult White Eagle, a powerful Sioux chief who lived there. This was the last seen of them. Some years afterward the Indians of this tribe used to display two white meu's scalps with long black hair, aud it is thought they were taken from the two Frenchmen, A few years afterward a party of eml-1 grants found this a convenient place to cross the Missouri, but nothing was ever heard of them after they reached the island. In 1893, nt the time when the federal government was converting the Rose bud Indian reservation Into organized counties, Phelps occupied the island. At this time Mot Matson, a Swede, who lived on the west bank of the river, directly opposite Phelps' shanty, was murdered In front of his own door. Henry Shroeder, who was at that time employed by Phelps in cutting wood for the steamboats, was accused of the crime. He was arrested and confessed his part In the murder, but implicated Phelps ns the iustigator of the crime. . Shroeder Is now serving the seventh year of a life sentence In the State penitentiary at Sioux Falls. Phelps was arrested, and In the long trial tlint followed spent all that he was worth, Including the Island, in trying to secure his freedom. He was found guilty, however, and was sentenced to life imprisonment. He appealed his case to the Supreme Court, and on the very day on which the opinion of that court was handed down affirming the decision of the lower court he suddenly died In his cell In the jail at Alexandria, Many other dark deeds have been connected with the island, but It has recently passed into the possession of a , company that has commenced the erec tion of a sawmill for the purpose of cutting the timber and clearing the land and putting It under cultivation. Much Interest is manifested in this work as | lt goes on. for it Is thought that. In cut- ! ting down the ginnt trees aud In clear ing off the land, where so many dark deeds have been committed, evidencs will appear that will throw light upon ; many mysteries which surround ths spot.—Minneapolis Journal. MISTAKES IN FLAG-RAISING. j "Old Glory" Must Go to the Top Every Time and All Klee Below. It Isn't everybody who knows how to throw the American colors to ths breezes, says a writer In the Phlladel- j phia Record. Flag raising are every-1 day occurrences, but there are few peo- ; pie among those in charge, be they ! ever so patriotic, who are cognizant of the fact that Old Glory tops everything . In the American possessions, and must never go below under any clrcum- . stances. At many of the flag raisings there are pennants unfolded on the same poles, aud generally the mistake j of placing the pennant at the top, over , the flag, is made. This is very Irrita talng to the regular navy men, who re gard such an act in their ranks as de- ! serving of dismissal. A number of ths ! officers stationed at League Island navy yard have tlmq and again had the flag given Its proper place on poles In various parts of the city, especially over schoolbouses downtown. On Dec oration day there was a flag raising over the Matthew W. Baldwin School, 10th and Porter streets, and the pen uuu runcr Bireeis, ana cue pen nant, which coutained the school name, was placed at the top of the pole. Word came from League Island * that the country's colors should be put * at the top, aud the error was lmmedl- i ately corrected. Recently the same mlstake was made at National Park, I on the Delaware River. The irritating RifTht tvfla BMMi frnm T nomiA Toi.^.i . AUC lliiutuug T sight was seen from League Island, i dispatched In a ' [ and a messenger was dispatched boat to have the positions of the flag and pennant reversed. It Was data's •! i> "Do you—do you remember who killed Abel?" asked the old man in ths street car of the man on his right "Why, Cain, of course," was the re ply. "Who did you think It was?" "Waal, dura my hide, if I , - - haln't I made a fool of myself. It wasn't ten . mtnits ago that I bet a man $2 to f 1 that It was Gollah, and now I'll hev to go barefut all summer to make It up. Yes, sir, It was Cain, and Gollah wasn't In It, and Samson wasn't born and Q. V. Jones, which Is me, ought to be hit with the same club that Abel was I"-. Washington Poet Aftsr tbe Old Lady Agsla **I hear yonr mother-in-law has facia l paralysis What caused It?" j "She went to a photographer's «HI ■led to look nleaeanL"—Phil adelp hi a toiletta. ; ■ ___ JT . T -'. 1 .. . . r . PASSING OF GAS LIGHTERS; Increasing Use of Electric Lampe le Leaving Them Without Work. They are getting after the nimbi» I° un * man who trots around the street* ,n the gloaming with a torch on the end of alon K P° le > touching off the gas l am P s one by one and leaving a trait ot more or less light after him, says the Chicago Chronicle. The irresistible march of science and progress and tbe other things which are making) changes In the world is sweeping the lamp-lighter out of the .way. In 1887, before there were any munlc *Pal electric street lights in service in Chicago, about 400 young men, old men an( l barefoot boys trudged nightly through all the city streets lighting the g as lamps. In the chill dawn they mad* the rounds again, putting out the lights; a handful of employes In th» electrical department of the city throwf a few switches In the electric light sta* tlons every evening and instantly 3,50» electric arc lights spring to life along the streets which the boys formerly paced so laboriously, and in the morn* Ing the switches are thrown back ones more and the lights die out. It is all done by a simple turn of the wrist. But the lamp-lighter has not been en tirely superseded as yet, not withstand* Ing City Electrician Ellicott's anxiety to extend the electric lighting system until it includes the entire city, which Is to be done as soon as machinery ca» be installed to use the water power of the drainage channel nt Lockport. There are still tbout 18,500 gas lamp» In nightly operation, and, as each light er cares for an average of 100 of these, there are still nearly 200 lighters mak; |ng their rounds nightly. . Just how many boys and men are em ployed it Is difficult to learn accurately, , They all work' for the gas company, ns the city pays $20 a year for each gas lamp and the company "maintains" it -that is, pays for lighting, extlngulsh ing. cleaning and repairs. | But while the company allots an ev ! erage of 100 lamps to each lighter, and pays a fixed rate per lamp for their maintenance, the lighters sub let the contracts in some eases, hiring little ; lads for almost nothing to do part of the work, of which, of course, the com I, A M1* LIGHTER AT WOHK. pany has no record. Some old men who, for many years,, have been employed as lamp-lighters swear their sons Into the service and. make a family affair of it. Therefore,. ,---------- » _______... - It is probable that more than 200 peo pie are employed to care for the 18,50» fias lamps which are still In service, Although the electric lighting sys tern of Chicago was Inaugurated only thirteen years ago and has grown slow ly, few people realize that the city ha* the largest municipal street lighting system In the world, including 3,502 arc lamps, each of 2,000 candle power, In addition to the gas lamps, there at e approximately 10,000 gasolinelamps In service In outlying districts not touched by the mains of the gas com panies, and these are rented by the city from private corporations. These, too are being displaced gradually by thé extension of the electric lighting svs tern. * y Did Not Want the Horse. Willie Woodard tells the following Btory at the expense of one of the now well-known turfmen of the Middle West racing circuit: "A few year* said Willie, "our friend came flown from Central Kentucky with a few bome - bre, l horses to the Louisville * rack H,s first «tarter was put In a * e l' in K race, whleh he won. After the race was run the horse was led up In front of the stand. The track auc tloneer went through the routine with tbe owner's bid The trainer and owner rushed un excitedlv yoHoh • T --- ---- -—«v» uuu owner rushed up excitedly and yelled: [ Here . hold on. I didn't bid on that "hoss." Just give me the purse and keep the horse, 'cause I don't want him about the barn." Servants in China. In China a rich man gets as many servants as be wants, and yet he pays them no wages, while the common peo ple have to pay them well. Even then they are hard to get for the reason that the employe of the rich man can make more than triple the ordinary wages In perquisites, Pennsylvania Railway Employee. Hereafter no new employe will be taken op the Pennsylvania railway who has passed the age of 35. The com pany's new pension system makes «u» precaution necessary. Bearing Under Snow. People buried to an avalanche he ar distinctly every word ottered by those who are seeking them, while the bailed ones* most strenuous shouts fall to ones- most strenuous snouts rail