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A H(>me*Mnde Barrow. A wheellwrrow with iwx is u handy tool to have ou I tie (arm. tint harrows of the style uu-iiUotifd are quite expen sive. However, one eau be constructed at sninll cost If one lias a lot of old ma terial at hand. The harrow shown is a two-wlieel affair and these 'wheels were the grain wheels from an old' binder, part of the wood from the old machine also heim; used in its construc tion. The dimensions of the harrow are: Sides. 3 feet 10 Inches lone and 18 inches hieh; handles, six feet from end to eud; leneth of the bottom of the barrow. 4 feet sod 4 inches. The end board Is run into a slot with a cleat on each side of each end. the same as a tailboard on a wagon box, and can be removed at will to permit of the con tents of the harrow beine easily dumped. The small illustration in the apper corner shows the construction a it â i "A HOMO SAUK WHEELBARROW. •f the endhoard. 'Trie wheels are fas tened by a five-eighths inch iron rod and run on the same hub as when they were on the hinder. It will take but little time to construct the harrow shown, and if one has the material mentioned tin* expense for blacksmitb lng will lie small. Griu liiii: Food for Stock. While there are differences of opin ion as to whether or not food for stock ought to be ground, there is uo doubt but what young stock of all kinds thrive best oil the ground food. This is but natural, for the immature stomach is much better able to digest ttie ground faod than the whole grain. That grouud food is also beneficial for mature stock ao one will deny, and yet how benefi cial depends both ou the food used and upon the animal. Wheat fed to hogs must of course be ground or the hard portions will pass througli tlie animal undigested; so with other foods fed to different animals, and the feeder should use common seuse in determining whether it will or will not pay to grind the food he has to give. Many cows of considerable age would slid lie profitable if more care was taken in the preparation of the food given them. While the sub ject is one that must he largely worked out by the feeder, it will pay every time to follow the suggestion that food for young stock lie ground. to Hernia of Dairy Cattle. The head of a Jersey cow presents the perfect type of bovine beauty. The Holstein cow is somewhat larger in the head, with a heavier face. In the illus tration tlie Jersey head appears to be the broader. By actual measurement this is not generally tlie case, but the shorter head of the Jersey, with the greater dish lo the face, causes this ap pearance. Tlie development of the eye hr JERSEY. HOLSTEIN. and brain should he especially empha sized. T.hiie in Insecticides. While lime is generally used in the preparation of bordeaux mixture, in the best known and most reliable of the Insecticides or remedies for fungus diseases, other neutralizers may be used with the copper sulphate, such as concentrated lyes. For the beginner in the use of the spraying tools tlie lime la, however, the best to use, although there Is much complaint regarding it because of the injury to sprayers. This Is due. without doubbt. to tbe fact that poor lime is used; that it is used too soon after slaking, and that it is not prop erly strained. The lime should lie of the first quality, such as is used by builders, ati-l it should lie slaked for tw® or three weeks before being used, s® that all possible of the gritty ma terial that is apt to clog or injure the nozzle of the sprayer may he dissolved. Then the lime should be straJncP through cheesecloth, to keep out the grit that was not dissolved. The Shipping of Eggs. It Is a common practice among fan ciers to ship eggs by express, but the average farmer is afraid to trust tbe can, and contents himself with ex changing with his neighbor, or with those that he can reach by a day's jour ney there and back. But if he would only try he would soon learn that it is perfectly safe to ship eggs by express, and that they will batch as well after galop a thousand miles as if picked up •at ®f his own bays loft or manger. » Hare a roomy toop, where you can place the sick fowl for doctoring. It is beat not to doctor much, but very often a fowl will get out of condition and then the others Impose on It and keep it away from Its feed. It Is In cases of this kind that the coop is needed, because a few days of rest and careful attention away from the others will often be all the doctoring necessary. noya on the Farm. The boy who is in love with machin ery ought not to lie compelled to givo up that love to remain on the farm. So. too. there may lie the hoy whose whole soul is full of music and who ought to tliiiik of no other profession, or the one to whom questions of law appeal with supreme force, or the one to whom the practice of medieiueseems especially enticing. So. too, there may lie the man especially adapted for suc cess in business. The boy who lacks energy, who is willing to he led. who finds it too hard work to think, who is willing to he directed may pass a life of more composure working under the direetiou of another in some city call ing. The young men who ought to consid er whether they may uot better remain on the farm also fall into two classes. In the first class comes the boy who loves the farm. There are such boys; there would he far more but for the parents. It is surprising how many young men the teacher meets whose parents urge, if not insist, that they shall follow some other calling than farming. The second type of young men who may well consider farm opportunities is the bright, all round boy who may easily become interested in anything. at This embraces the largest class of all. ; I wish 1 might Impress upon tbe young men belonging to these two classes the fact that the farm offers opportunities second to those extended by uo other calliug. The chances for the majority are better in agriculture than in other lines. These chances do not include the opportunity to amass fortune, but one need only consider the large percentage of business fail ures to realize that the chances in such lines are not so great as they seem. After all. money is not the measure of success, though this is a hard lesson for humanity to learn. I can imagine a hoy becoming so absorbed in digging bait that he would forget to go a fish ing, but I never saw such a boy. A boy has more sense; a man tins not. The man keeps on digging long after it Is too late for fish to bite.—Prof. W. F. Card, in New England Farmer. Grnftina: a Grape Vine. A year from the graft will transform a wild, sterile grape vine into a fruitful member of the farm community. The work is simple and easy and it ia s u r p r i sing that farmers do not more generally at tend to it. It does not differ from common cleft tree grafting, e x c e pt that the stock Is sawed off close to the roots, removing the earth adjoining. The straight dotted line shows the surface level, and the stock Is sawed slightly below. In cutting the scion, the idea is to make an even wedge. No wax is used, the gummy sap of the stock being sufficient. Finally the earth is hanked around stock and graft, as shown by the curved dotted Hue.—Farm and Home. \ Gryen Food for Swine. Those who have had experience In feeding swine during the early days ef spring before there is any pasture tit to eat realize that tlie expense for grain is very heavy without any correspond ing increase In the weight of the ani mals. Such results are discouraging, but the remedies are to provide such crops as clover, alfalfa and nn abuiul mice of root crops to feed at intervals during the winter, but mainly at this time, between seasons. Then if it is still possible to get in an early pasture composed of wheat or rye sown early, following this with rape at tlie proper season, and as the ground becomes warm using sweet corn or sorghum sown so as to cut when ueeded, the want will be sup plied. 1 here is some objection to feeding I heavily of grain food early in the | spring, but this comes mainly because a supply of salt aqd ashes is not sup plied as an aid to digestion and to off set any tendency to dysentery. This question is worth looking into by those who raise swiue in large numbers. Horses for Draft. Any horse the purpose of which is to draw large loads, whether at the walk or trot, may lie spoken of as a "horije for draft." Common usage has fixed the term "draft" on horses of specified weight aud size, but there are other classes on the market whose confor mation is what has come to lie known as the "draft form," but which differ from the drafter in the mutter of size and weight and the mnnuer of per forming their work. The drafter prop er works always at a walk, while other classes of horses of draft type do their work mainly at the trot.—Bulletin United States Bureau of Animal In dustry. Plant Potatoes Early and Spray. Many farmers plant potatoes late in the season in order to avoid in part the ravages of the potato bug, and there Is no question about there being some advantages In this respect. But If con tinued experiments demonstrate that early planting and thorough spraying will Increase tbe crop from fifty to a hundred bushels per acre over late planting aud little or no spraying It would seem a wise policy to plant early and protect the plants by spray ing, says an exchange. EARNED »1,000 EASILY. Story of Lewis Nixon, the 'New Head * of Tammany Hall. Lewis Nixon, the successor to Rich ard Croker as chairman of the Finança Committee of Tammany Hall, earned a fee of $1,000 several years ago.. In a manner that attracted the attention of shipbuilders on the lakes. A company at Detroit had built a large passenger and freight steamer on somewhat new jr â 0% m I LEWIS* NIXON. and untried lines, and some marine critics declared that she was uusea wortby. The shipbuilders grew rather nervous as the criticism increased, and the prospective owners of the boat re fused to accept the craft until she was thoroughly tested; so Mr. Nixon was sent for. On arriving at the wharf he ordered a thousand barrels of hardware placed on one side of the boat. Then tlie vessel was started, and was soon under full speed. "Put the helm to starboard!" said Mr. Nixon. The vessel . ... . , . . 1 ! an ma . '■> - MRS LEWIS NIXON. went around with a violent swing, but soon righted herself. "Now put the helm port!" said he. The vessel ca reened the other way without swamp ing. "Now shift all those barrels over to the other side of the boat." said Mr. Nixon. This was done, aud the steer ing tactics were repeated. Mr. Nixon was on board the boat all the while di recting things, and when he brought the boat back to the pier tbe builders and prospective buyers were perfectly satisfied that she was seaworthy. The test occupied about five hours' time, aud for his services Mr. Nixon received $ 1 , 000 . A Gentlewoman in Service. Lady Louisa Stuart, an English wo man, writing in the first part of the lapt qeutury, gives a description of a maid in her service who evidently endowed her station with a grace not inferior to that of a higher lot. The descrip My friend rather than servant, Cross, is soon to retire from my service, in which she has been, for eight aud twen ty years, one of the chief blessings and comforts of my life. JHer superior sense, clear judgment aud quick decision, her elevated mind, her steadiness of principle, her deli cacy of feeling would have been ad mired in a princess; I hardly know one of my acquaintances for whom 1 have so perfect an esteem. Instead of feeling that 1 can rely on I integrity of the servant, l respect | the honor of the gentlewoman; and be Is a It cause she Is thus- high-minded, she is far humbler and more easily contented than any other person 1 evèr saw in her situation. "O madam, what does it signify?" Is her constant saying about things that would make others stand on their dig nity. No quarrels, no Mfllculties ever come to my ears. The servants below her are guided with a firm yet gentle hand. j She has a contempt for gossiping aud I tattling, and she has a disinterested spirit; Indeed, she has such a head and heart as 1 do not find met togetber even among my equals. Pauperism in London. On Dec. 31. 1901, there were in Lon don. England. 107,71« paupers who were id receipt of relief. This total, which includes 08,297 indoor and 39.471 outdoor paupers, compares with re turns of 104,305 and 104,7-14 and 103, 091 for the corresponding weeks of the three preceding years. There were also 1,003 vagrants, consisting of 825 men, 167 women, and 11 children, who on that same day received temporary relief. Work by Japanese Women. The women of Japan are now largely employed In telephone and postoffices, and they are said to be excellent book keepers. _ If you call a woman "a poor little thing," It has the same effect as send ing her a dozen roses, and comes cheaper. CONTROL WEATHER. MANY taEN ARE WORKING TO ATTAIN THAT END. rome Attempts Recently Made at In fluencing the Element» Have Been bncceae.nl — Large Consumption of Coal May Produce More Showers. lu voluntary Influence exists without dohbt; it Is exercised, for lustauce, by deforestation and by the resulting al teration of conditions of soil, which modifies the Sowing of streams and In creases inundations; and also by the development of industrial activity, as Russel has shown in the case of Lon don, fogs, which uugmeut considerably with increased consumption of coal. The considerable Increase of the num ber of thunderstorms, which has dou bled since 1870, leads ub to believe that in thia case also there Is ah effect due, in part, at least, to industrial activity; for it is difficult to attribute an Increase so considerable to the sole action of sun spots. An attempt has been made to explain the increase in the number of storms by the abundant production of steam by industrial engines. Dr. Trabert cannot accept this explanation, for he calculates that the quantity of steam , thus produced in the whole of Ovrinany would scarcely represent an evaporation of 0.0025 millimeter of water to the square kilometer (1-4000 inch, to the square mile). But it is quite different with particles of dust scatter ed in great abundance throughout the air by the incomplete combustion of a quantity of coal equal to 200 kilograms to the square kilometer (1,140 pounds to the square mile). This considerable In crease of atmospheric dust should exer cise an action on the production of rain. When moist air passes the state of saturation, condensation takes place on particles of dust. The more (here are of these, the more drops are form ed; thus, for a given quantity of vapor condensed, tlie drops are necessarily smaller. Now the tension of saturation on a convex surface increases with the curvature of the surface, that is to say, with tlie smallness of the drops. An Increase of the quantity of dust in the air will therefore tend to favor the snpersaturation of tlie air, and conse quently to produce thunderstorms and abundant rains. It is much more Interesting, however, to know whether we may voluntarily act upon the weather. To this kind of action belong the attempts made suc cessfully in France, on a large scale, to prevent nocturnal frosts by. the pro duction of artificial clouds. But when we come to the artificial production of rain, success is much more doubtful, as ail attemnts, so far, have proved. In the production of any phenomenon it is always a question of the equivalent transformation of one kind of energy into another, and we must inquire whether the necessary amount of ener gy is at our disposal. Now Trabert cal culates that to bring to saturation a cubic kilometer (one quarter cubic mile) of air at 40 per cent relative hu midity requires no less than 1.400 kilo grammeters of work (10,000 foot pounds). Tills scarcely allows us to think of the possibility of artificial con densation. Such a tiling would appear to be possible only If the conditions necessary to condensation already ex isted, and if we had only to put latent forces Into action. Finally, to this voluntary action on the weather be longs the method, used in the Austrian Alps since the time of the Emperor Joseph II., of making numerous explo sions to ward off a hailstorm, a process that, ns is well known, has been devel ! oped and systematized by M. Steger n t Wandiscb-Feistritz, in Southern Styria, wiih great success.—Cosmos (Paris). CARIBOU SWIFT OF FOOT. One of Them in Maine Distance! a Greyhound in a Kace. A man lately returned from the woods says that a caribou cau run faster than any other animul on legs. He says: "I have a friend who owns a grey j bound, and he always maintained that no animal could outrun the dog—at least, he thought so until lately, when he stood by and saw the fleet dog run off his feet by a herd of caribou that didn't seem to be in much of a hurry either. "One day this friend of mine was bragging about tbe dog to an old woods guide, when the latter said he could find an animal that would leave the hound so far behind that he would think he was anchored. This touched my friend in a sensitive spot, and a wager of $10 was made on a race be I tween tbe hound and the first curibou we came across, "Finally the guide succeeded in get ting the dog after some caribou, a herd of four, found standing like so many statues on the ice in the middle of one of the big ponds of the Penobscot west branch region. You know a caribou trots instead of running like most wild animals. There had been a good fall of snow, a light rain which formed a thick crust, and then about three Inches more of snow, it was the finest kind of surface for running, and when the greyhound was turned loose his owner confidently expected that he woul<} play tag with those caribou. ••The dog went after them like a wild locomotive, and tbe caribou start ed. At first they didn't appear to be going very fast, but as the hound drew up on them they let out a link. The hound was running his prettiest, and before the caribou had had time to think be was right up on them. Then they put on steam and It was a sight to see them go. Why, when they strnck their gait they pulled away from that dog as though he had been an Md Iff ttio time they bad reached the end of the,pond tbe hound wasn't half way across. "WWn the dog came back, he ww sadder and wiser and hla master looked dazed. To be sore, a greyhound Is fast, but when you come to stack grey hounds or any other kind of hounds against caribou you are In too fast a game—sure I"—New York Sun. AN AVALANCHE OF LAWS. The Only Person Who Knows the 5 «w According to the Liw. We, the people of the United States, are remarkable in our knowledge, un der a presumption of law. The law presumes that we know the law, and, though Mr. Bumble may be right in saying that the law la an ass in its pre sumption, its presumptions control us just the same. It Ib never an excuse to plead ignorance of the law, for the magistrate who does not know the law. judges who give opposing views of the law and courts that cautiot agree on what the law is will tell you that you do know the law, because the law says that you do. This Is very com pi i men tary to the layman. Just think what we know under this legal presumption. Besides the unwrit teu law vhat we have Inherited from the ages, we know millions of enact ments; those of fifty-six Congresses, o< our annual State Legislature—besides fifty other States aud Territories, If we happen to be In them—down to and In cluding the volumes of enactments of our board of aldermen and our health department regulations. You may go into the law llbtary in the Federal Building, wave your hands over the tens of thousands of volumes. aDd say, "I know all this," and can then prove your statement by the au thorities themselves. F. S. Wakefield, tally clerk of the House of Representatives, has pre pared a list of a little that we know, thnt emanated from the Fifty-sixth Congress. According to his figures, the House passed 2,204 bills and resolu tions. If that Is an average, think what It means when multiplied by fifty-six Then add to It the volumes of laws that have found birth in our Legislature, and the intermittent stream ever flow Ing from that source, with which are mingled municipal laws and régula Hons. Each Individual who has reached ths age of discretion Is told by the lav that he knows them all.—Chicago Ret ord-Herald. a Man 'J Survivor of a Famous Class. Perhaps the most famous class whlcl ever graduated from West Point war that of 1843, which included Genera Grant, and almas' every member oi which rose to the rank of a Briga dier General There are now but three liviuj survivors of th; class. One o' them, the Rev oen. kkknch. Father Deshon resigned from the army in 1851, and it now a member of tlie Paulist Fathers stationed in New York City. The sec ond, Gen. William B. Fr'nklin, is living in retirement, and the third, Gen. Sam uel G. French, lives at Pensacola, Fla. a hale and hearty old man, who stll takes an active interest in public ai falrs. Gen. French won ids spurs In tin Mexican war. Though a native of New Jersey, he cast In his lot with the South when the rebellion broke out, and ht was one of the few men of Northen birth to win high rnnk in the rebe' army, eventually becoming a Majoi General. It was Gen. French who com mnnded the Confederates on the niglii attack on the Army of the Potomac ai Harrison's Landing, wb**n the Federal} were thrown into much confusion. Ht planned and directed the constructor of the defenses around Petersburg, auc took part in many of the hardest fought battles of the war. His Aim in Life. People bother little boys so! All the tourists to his Island home used to ask this one: "What are you going to be. little boy? What are you going to be?' and the boy had patiently replied a' every Interruption of his important un dertakings: "I am going to be a sailoi and climb the masts." Last summer he took an ocean voyage and was very seasick, and the thin day his father asked: "What are yoi going to be, boy? what are you going to be?" "I am uot going to be a sailor and climb the masts " he replied. "I a ip going to be a soldier and shoot can non," A big uncle took the boy to see a fa mous cyelorama, where the smoke and carnage and realistic dead bodies In tlu foreground shattered another ot his am bltlons. To the teasing question. "What are you going to be, boy? wliat are you going to be?" came the answer In a burst of confidence: "I am not going to be a sailor aud climb the masts. I am not going to be a soldier aud shoot cannot. 1 am going to be a bachelor and marry mamma."— Youth's Companion. A Happy Condition. "So you don't mind the ins and outs of life?" "No, not my Mnd. At the present am in love and out of debt."—Philadel phia Bulletin. The Fruits of Perlions Effort. "Do these norttf pole explorers ever accomplish anything?" "Oh, yes, they often come back and start out again." * Your neighbors are the smartest peo pie in the world; they know by a guest Just bow much you can afford to spend REOENT INVEN TIONS. Many a serious railroad accident la vaused by the washing down on the roadbed of masses of earth or rock« from the blllaldoa above. While tbs Tallroad pompantes realize that tbe cut« /re liable to become filled from thia rause It Is hardly to be expected that they will keep patrols at every danger sus poli it. An apparatus has been late ly patented by John K. Haddinott ot Baltimore, Wd., and the claim Is mads that It will constantly guard the cut ot other section of track which It paral lels. It is simply a pair of contact rails so placed that a fall of rock ot earth acroas the roadbed will crush the shell which incloses them and throw the rails together to complete a circuit aud set the danger signal. As a hitching post Is not always con venient and Itr Is somewhat of a bother to carry around a heavy weight in the wagon with which to tether the horse when the dtlver wishes to leave the animal for a time, It Is likely that the horseman will appreciate tbe hitching fetter. The Invention takes advantage of the fact that a hone will not move as long as It cannot bend Its legs, the fetter being stiff erough to prevent this. The lnventon are William Rommel and Thomas R. Owen of Los Angelas, Cal. They state that It la adapted to afford cavalrymen a perfect means of pre venting the horses from escaping with out human aid, the claim being made that when an animal Is tethered with one of these devices he becomes tarns even In the presence of danger. An* other novelty of the tether Is that with the aid of the small padlock attached the animal can be locked up, so that he cannot be stole« without unlocking or destroying the fetter. A brush (s designed to lay the dust while sweeping Instead of raising It, sa as not to damage the stock In a store, the furniture In a room, or settle on ths floor again. This result Is accomplish ed by the use of kerosene oil to prevent the dust rising. The brush Is made of good bristles. Inserted In the center of which Is one row of a special liber which readily altsorbs and holds kero sene oil. The oil supply is carried In a metal reservoir in the top of the brush, which 1b so arranged as to keep ths fiber constantly moist when the brush Is In use, the feed being regulated by opening or closing the cap through which the r&ervolr la filled. The wood surrounding the reservoir is chemically treated to prevent It absorbing any of the oil. The dust is collected by means of the oil In small pellets, which can easily be taken iqj by a dust pan in the usual manner. The brush, the man ufacturers state, can be used on any kind of floor or carpet, as It Improve* and hardens floors and _ cleans and brightens carpets. The kerosene Is re ferred to as destroying the disease breeding germs carried by dust, and as' killing moths, fleas or other Insects on the floor or carpet. 8eton-Thompson's New Home. A more fitting environment for such a man could not be found than the new lome which Mr. and Mrs. Seton-Thomp «on—or Mr. and Mrs. Seton as they pre fer to bo known, having dropped Thompson" from their surname—have selected In Connecticut. A hundred acres of woodland, which they have aarned Wyndygoul, for one of the Seton estates In Scotland, offers the natural ist-urtlst-author-lecturer an Ideal op portunlty for Investigating aud study ing his animal friends, and a quiet re reat for writing and Illustrating. It Is difficult to realize that so wild a bit of forest Is within an hour of New York. The private road that leads from the gates to the house winds a quarter of a Mile between green walls of trees, flank ed by mossy boulders, and rising above ravines that tumble off at reckless an tes. The house stands on tbe highest point vf the tract. It Is Spanish In effect« the .ower story of rough-hewn, green-tipped locks, quarried on the place; the upper «tory of creamy pink stucco. The low, rod roof, wide verandas, low entrance ■loor ahd quaint arrangement ot windows are interesting and pictur esque. The Englishman's love of sol idity Is shown in the thick walls, mas sive cornices of natural wood, and In the heavy fleams of the studio ceiling.— Ladles' Home .Journal. Joachim, an Early Genius. Dr. Joachim, the great violinist, whs ias been honored by English musicians, lias been playing in public since 1843, when, after studying under Joseph Bohn at Leipzig, he appeared at a con cert and created a furore. He was then *nly 12 years of age. For seven years ue remained In an orchestra, studylnfl Hard meanwhile, and then he went to Paris and obtained tbe appointment ot director of concerta at Weimar. In 1853 he was master of the Chapel Royal It Hanover, and soon afterward began cis famous tour of Europe, being iverywhere received with the greatest enthusiasm. In that tour he laid the foundations of the reputation which has vow become world-wide. In August, 1882 , he was appointed conductor of the R. A. M. In Berlin, and ln 1889, on the fiftieth anniversary of his first pub lic appearance, he was presented with " magnificent violin by his admirers. Expenses of an Army omcer. An English army officer who has a close acquaintance with both the French and German armies has been endeavoring to arrive at the average amount per annum which it costa a subaltern in England, France and Ger many to live in the army. The figures he gives are: France, $400; Germany, $700; England, $1,200. Demand Dor Ventilators The demand for electric ventilators M India la ahead ef the supply.