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1 THE VALUE OF FRIENDSHIP. w; )HAT Is the friendship of the people whom we call our friends really worth? This is a question not easily answered," said a matron yesterday. "Are there any among our so-enlled intimates that real ly care for us? Any to whom our com panionship is necessary, or who would cling to us if the world turned to us its cold shoulder? That there are many conscientious souls who would make an effort to be loyal goes without saying, but Is their attachment a real one? Could they keep up the old familiar in tercourse for any length of time if we no longer lived in their world or had the same interest? I doubt it. No blame could attach to any one in such cases. There would probably be even a strug gle on the part of the prosperous friend to keep up the old terms of intimacy, but the rift widens inevitably, and the old-time music becomes mute. "Then there is no such thing as friendship," exclaimed a very young woman, consciously thinking of the girls for whom, on leaving school, she professed undying fraternity, and whom she has already found it so hard to write to. "Undoubtedly there is. but it is a very much overrated virtue. It means simply congenial acquaintance and comradeship, a cordial liking, a commu nity of interests, and should not be ex pected to imply more than that, the few cases where an ideal friendship has been shown being the exceptions that prove the rule. The society man who had been exploring in Africa for sev eral years, and who, upon strolling into his club, was greeted by one of his cronies with 'Hello, Brown! Where have you been all winter?' could hardly feel that he had a grievance, inasmuch as he on his part had quietly taken his departure without lenvetaklngs, but It goes to show how little any one is miss ed when he drops out of the ranks." Housework and Health. Why is it so many women look upon housework as drudgery when really their health and temper would be im proved by a moderate amount of man ual labor? It is a well-known fact that the poorer respectable class of people who do plenty of housework generally enjoy good health. Of course there is such a thing as overwork, but as a gen eral rule housework is excellent, be cause it affords a variety of exercise so needful to keep the body in healtli. Furthermore, plenty of fresh air is ob tained through the open windows and in the garden or Vard. The woman whb never does any work in the house lias to take some sort of exercise out of doors in order to retain health. But how often is'the daily walk neglected, and all the time listlessly passed in doors. while her working sister has been dusting, reaching, stooping, going up and down stairs, pushing, pulling, and taking exercise in a number of ways? There is also, as a rule, more comfort in a ltouse where the work is j done or mainly done by the mistress. The old maxim of "if you want a tiling | done well, do it yourself," may aptly 1 k> applied in this case; it is not to be expected that a stranger will or cap take the same pleasure in caring for and keeping clean a house as will the mistress who knows and loves each ar ticle of furniture in every room. Most young wives who are not blessed with abundant means, and who timl time hang a lit'tle heavily on their hands, would do well to save money by dis pensing with a servant and doing most of the work themselves. Their houses would be cleaner, they themselves would be healthier, and their husbands the richer for the change. The University Oirl. What most impresses the impartial observer is the extraordinary independ ence of the university girls, says "An Athenian" in the Atlantic. It is the rarest thing in the world for a father :»r mother to come with a daughter and see that she is suitably lodged and properly started in her university life. 1 am told that when these exceptional parents do come they are apt to think that the president of the university should iHTSonally superintend the selec tion of lodgings. Ordinarily the girl (ind# her own quarters and manages lier own affairs. Her goings and com ings, her hours, her companions, are all at her own disposal. * * • in the Eastern States, where women have only gained admission to the universi ties after a long struggle, they take their privileges seriously. They go to Kadcliffe or Barnard for study, and not for fun. The women students In a Western college or university are not a picked lot. Seriousness is not absent by any means, but frivolity is present. Girls even say they hafe to graduate, because they will have no more "good times." * • * The girls who come to the university for amusement rather than for study are without doubt great ly In the minority, but because they are here at all there should be some sys tem of guardianship. * * * To be sure, in every condition of life things happen that ought not to happen. At the same time, a girl wno Is guarded daring her years ot,irresponsibility may live a long life and go to her grave without a suspicion of what might have been her own capabilities in the way of folly If she had been left to herself at that time. Make the Most of Your Charnu. "There is no barm in making your aelves pretty, my dears," said a grand mamma the other day to her young j | friends. "1 do not like to see a girl who does not 'prink.' I am sure there must be something wanting In her. But, once dressed and in society, you should never show that you are thinking of your personal appearance. Stay as long as you like before your glass, consider the becomingness of every curl, .the set of every fold of lace; examine yourself critically with your hand glass—back, front and on each side—but when you lenve your room, whether you are satis fied or dissatisfied, forget all about your looks. No one who is conscious of herself can help showing It, and there is nothing that is so fatal to popu larity. If you look pretty yourself, for getfulness will prove an added attrac tion, if not, a frank unconsciousness will go far to atone for want of beauty Girls do not realize how they show the trend of their thoughts by their ges tures. The constant touches to their hair, the adjustment of belt or collar, the furtive look in every available mir ror, and, more than all, the preoccupied look and perfunctory smile that gener ally accompany such motions, all be tray the vanity of which the girls themselves are probably unaware." Lack of Tact. There are many very good people, people of irreproachable character, who are never liked, because of their want of tact. They are hospitable and like to entertain, but they ask known ene mies to a little family dinner. They expose ail their household economics to their guests. They never "spoil a story for relation's sake." If guests are of differing religions or politics, they in troduce the subjects and give most de cided views which do not convince and only irritate. A lady is told that her hat Is unbecoming, or a man that he rande a bad speech. They never have any appreciation of the fitness of things. Tact is of great Importance If one would be agreeable or retain friends. A man without tact can never exert a strong Influence. He can never become a great leader. Tact Is needed in every calling in life. Chum with the Children. There are many conscientious fathers and mothers who make themselves and their children miserable by taking youthful foibles too seriously. It is an innate propensity of a child possessed of the average good health and spirits to mnke older people laugh with him; not at him, but at the things that seem amusing to his own sense. And the mother who has the blithe and ready humor to entertain his fun becomes his most fascinating companion. He heeds lier rebukes and bends to her correction without ill feeling where sternness would arouse his pride and ire. for he is assured that she is ready to share all his innocent pranks, and that lier disapproval has no foundation in impatience or injustice. Knowledge Saves Money. The girl who knows how to applique, how to tuck, how to embroider, has flit* ball at her feet nowadays, and can make for herself the very daintiest shoulder collars, vests, neckbands and sashes any daughter of Eve cot/l.l de sire. Her sasli ends site decorates with ribbon embroidery, lier Louis Quinze coat rovers with gold thread and jew els. and as for lier old-world lawn capes and collars full of rarest stitch cry. they are the admiration of all be holders and make lier pin money go twice as far as it would if she were no expert in the arts of ueedlecraft.—New York Commerci.1l Advertiser. Tissue Paper for the Complexion. If instead of spending money on ex pensive remedies for the skin people were to try the simple things at band, the saving would be great and the re sult as good. The white tissue pape which conies from the milliner or dressmaker In the hat bo^es or Inside the sleeves of new dresses is excellent for tile complexion. Before using the paper the face slioul l be gently mas saged or rubbed with a little line cream, then to remove the cream use the fine white paper. This quickly banishes all the grease and leaves the skin delightfully brilliant. Painty New Nighties. Piquant is the word which best de scribes the pajamas shown in the iiu gerie departments of the shops. Of various color?, styles 'and stuffs are these garments, but nonaf^them has the slightest suggestion ^Jailor-made severity about them. They are the most feminine and coquettishvffsrments possible to imagine—moin^ than the frilliest petticoat ever mane by airy fingers.—Detroit Tribune. Remedy for Bhlnjr Clothes. When the elbows and shoulders of cloth frocks wear shiuy this may be remedied by gentle friction and emery cloth. The spot should be rubbed just enough to raise a little nap. In the case of cashmere or other smooth ma terials, go over them a few times with a warmed silk handkerchief. His Experience. "I wonder how they ever happened to call this Wall street?" queried the bull as he and the lamb turned into that great financial thoroughfare. "There isn't any wall In It." "Perhaps you don't see the wall," re plied the lamb, "but it's there just the same. I bumped up against it once." Buch a Compliment. "You look charming." "Oh. you flatterer." "Positively 1 didn't recognize you." RECENT JUDICIAL DECISIONS. An exchange of notes creates a good consideration for the undertaking of each. 69 N. Y. Supp. 652. Constitutional requirements of a written vote, and provisions for sorting and counting, are held In re house bill No. 1,291 (Mass), 54 L. R. A. 430, not to preclude the use of a voting machine. Where plaintiffs are innocent holders of a note fraudulently put In circula tion, they will be entitled to recover only the amount paid for it with inter est from the date of payment. 61 S. W. Rep. (Texas) 52ß. Where a client sued his attorney for negligence In falling to have an execu tion levied on the property of the Judg ment debtor before the judgment lien expired, the fact that no property be longed to the judgment debtor is a com plete defense to the action. 64 Pac. Rep. (Cal.) 410. A mutual agreement between bus band and wife to separate on friendly terms and to make no future demands upon each other's property, carried out until the wife's death, is held, in Foote vs. Nickerson (N. H.), 54 L. R. A. 554, not to prevent the husband from claim ing bis rights in her estate. Upon trial of an indictment for con spiring to commit murder the fact of defendant's intoxication at the time of tlie commission of the offense is held In Booher vs. State (Ind.), 54 L. R. A. 391, to be properly considered by the Jury as bearing upon the existence of the felonious intent necessary to render him guilty. An agreement by parties to form a pool of shares of certain stock owned by them, and to share equally all ben efits accruing under the pool, including all sales, was valid, without a transfer of the shares to any one person as trus tee, or a power of attorney to any one person to sell the stock. 61 S. W. Rep. (Mo.) 798. The fact that at the titne of signing a note the maker is voluntarily intoxi cated to the extent that he cannot give proper attention to It is held in Wright vs. Waller (Ala.), 54 L. R. A. 440, not to render the note void. The authorities us to the validity of a contract made with an intoxicated person are collated in a note to this case. 1 Where plaintiff, who had contracted to ship oranges to defendant not later than a specified date, shipped them at a later date, and they were accepted by defendant without protest, the price having fallen meantime, defendant did not , by such' acceptance, waive bis claim for damages for the breach of the contract, since the stipulation as to the time of shipment was a warranty. 61 S. W. Rep. (Mo.) 820. A check drawn by a wife and deliv ered to a creditor In payment of her husband's debt, before the bank on which it was drawn was served with garnishment in a suit against the hus band, operated as an equitable assign ment of community money of husband and wife in the bank, to the amount of the check, and such bank was au thorized to pay the check out of funds in its hands after service of such gar nishment. 01 S. W. Rep. (Texas) 559. THE PQWER OF WILL. It Was Well Illustrated in the Case of Gladstone* Once in his lateis life, says a writer referring to Gladstone, when a question of great delicacy and difficulty was coming on in the House of Commons, and everybody expected to see him watchful and alert and perhaps fidgety over it, he deliberately composed him self to sleep on the treasury bench, and enjoyed a refreshing nap till the time came for him to speak, when with no apparent effort be awoke, delivered a speech in which he said exactly w.iat was needed and not a word more, and sat down, leaving his opponents so puzzled by the safe and guarded gen eralities in which he had half expressed and half reserved his views that ,ae subject dropped in a short time, be cause no one could find in his words anything to lay hold of. It was often remarked that the greater the emer geucy, the most composed and the more completely equal to it did he seem. This was a result of the amazing strength of his will, which enabled him to hold his emotions in check and sum mon all his intellectual resources into tliO field whenever he desired to do so. People who noted this strength of will, and saw how much he towered over his colleagues, assumed that he must be self-willed In the ordinary sense of the word, thut is to say, obstinate and overbearing. This was by no means the case. He was very patient in listening to arguments from those who differed, and not more difficult to persuade than many people of far less powerful voli tion. Ambrose Bierce as a Pig. Ambrose Bierce, while out ln San Francisco recently, visited the new bouse of an old friend, a gentleman of Irish extraction. The hostess evidently took great pride in the house, the fur nishings of which were new and beau tiful and gave every evidence of taste and refinement Mr. Bierce, who has an eye for the beautiful, gave unstinted praise to everything he saw. "But" be said, "I am sorry to see that your house, beautiful as it is, lacks one ornament which no Irish house should be wtthout" "What Is that?" she asked, unsuspi ciously. "A pig," replied Mr. Bierce, with a satisfied chuckle. The hostess' eyes sparkled. "It did," she said, indignantly, "but you have supplied the want"—S'ew York Times. Beauty soon fades, but homeliness is ever with us. IN 'i'llt, uiL COUNTRY. "BRINGING IN" A GUSHER NEAR BEAUMONT, TEXAS. Tales of the Great Boom When For tunes Were Made In a Day—The In itial Discovery of Oil and the De velopment of the OH Industry. The chase of oil is almost as fascinat ing as the chase of gold.. An 1. In the main It is nearly, if not quite, as profit able. The greatest oil field in the coun try to-day is in Texas, with the town of Beaumont as its center. Other fields —notably those of Pennsylvania and' Ohio, are probably more remunerative at the present, but the Texan, in look ing Into the future, sees his own State far overshadowing all others in the oil Industry. The future of oil In Texas Is, beyond cavil, hound to be sensa tional. For that matter, it is sensation al already. Nowhere else on earth has so much ever been accomplished in so short a time; nowhere else have lands worth barely a few cents an acre ad vanced in value tar up into the thou sands as they have in the Beaumont district. Nowhere else, in fact, has de velopment been as rapid and remunera tive. And as yet, the Texas oil indus try Is in its infancy, though millions of dollars have changed hands since its start. The advance of any wonderful boom, whether in gold, oil or anything else, is always attended with marvelous sto ries of individual strikes and conse quent enormous profits. Beaumont is no exception to this rule. It is but lit tle more than a year since Beaumont's first car of oil was sent into the outside world. Since that time more than 2, 000,000 of barrels have been exported, there are now nearly 3,000,000 of bar rels in storage and probably 1,500,000 of barrels have been wasted before the gushers, could be capped or controlled. The Beaumont Fields. When the oil excitement was at its height in Beaumont, the influx of peo ple was so great that trains were daily run between that city and Houston, a distance of a hundred miles, so that people could obtain hotel accommoda tions. Some men with little more than the clothes they wore organized com panies with capital of millions—on pa mJ, 1 A TEXAS SrOUTEH AT THE FIRST GUSH OF OIL. per. Anything in the shape of a lease or land title was foundation enough for an airy structure to attract the at tention of the gullible. The lust for money was rampant. It was all a gam ble. If fortune smiled, you made a million; if not, you lost what you had. But everybody seemed willing to take the chance, to the full extent of his pile. Prices paid for land in the oil dis trict were fabulous. Two negroes, IIv- ! lng In tumble-down shacks, received j for them $10,000 each. Men who want ed to start a bank paid $10,000 for the privilege of using a little barber shop, : and the same amount was paid to a j small dry goods dealer whose lease was > wanted by speculators. A firm paid i $150 a month for the use of a platform ! 8x10, on which to con duct their opera tions. Land went from $1 to $106,000 an acre in a few days. "Old Man" Higgins. "Old Man" Higgins, who had been looked upon for some time as a crank, : is the man who is responsible for Beau mont's boom. For five or six years lie had been talking about the possibilities of striking oil at Spindle Top, hn talk at last becoming so incessant and wearisome that the people refused longer to listen to him. That there was oil in southwest Texas was con- j ceded, but that Spindle Top had great possibilities in that direction was look ed upon as absurd. At last, however, "Old Man" Higgins succeeded in interesting George \V. Carroll, president of a lumber company and a wealthy resident. Carroll pnt up tbe casb and Higgins began the search. The first well struck oil at about 560 feet, but quicksand stopped operations. This was repeated In a second well. Then Carroll drew out and the "folly" of Higgins and Carroll was the joke of the town. An observant man named Lucas did not believe the venture was an entire failure, however. He lease l a small patch near by and sunk a shaft 600 feet, finding oil and being stopped, as were the others, by quicksand. Be lieving that if this vein of quicksand could be pierced oil would be struck below It, Lucas went to Pittsburg, and after much hard work obtained enough capital to boll ft well deep enough so that his theory could be thoroughly tested. When the drill had passed through the quicksand, what is claimed iu the greatest reservoir in the world was struck, and iu a night Beaumont went crazy. Scores of Rjiouter». There are now In the district between 150 and 160 spouters. As one conse quence, coal, the lowest price for which had hitherto been $0 a ton, is now very rarely used In southeast Texas, oil having taken its place as fuel. Within four months, $2,000,000 was spent in advertising Beaumont oil com panies, some of the concerns having least merit advertising the most. A good share of these companies were THE FIRST BrotJT. swindles, pure and simple. Opportnni tis for bunko games were many and were all Improved. Most of the manufacturing plants In southern Texas have given up coal and are using oil as fuel. This at first costs considerable, but !he saving is great, after the first start is made. One firm which paid $1,200 for the necessary al terations in their furnaces, says that amount was saved iu the first six months. Several of the divisions of the Santa Fe and Southern Pacific rail roads have also given up coal for oil. Arrangements are being made for pip ! j : j > i ! : j ' | iug tlie fluid even as far away as New Orleans, where, it is asserted, it is to lie distributed to houses in the same way as gas. "Bringing in" a Well. Tlie two engravings accompanying this article were made from snapshot photographs taken at the "bringing" of a gusher at Beaumont. After tlie drill had been sent through tlie quicksand and the cap rock, the flinty substance which is the roof of the cavern in which tlie oil lias long been stored, it was known that success had crow usd the efforts of tlie drillers after just a year of labor. Tlie drilj was immedi ately hoisted out of the 1, 100-foot pipe which Incased it. and the bailer was brought into use. This is a bucket fastened to a contrivance which forces it down into tlie tube and thou pulls it back out full „of the mu I, water and grease which weighs down tlie oil at the bottom. With each dip of tlie bail or, gas rises higher in the pipe, and when tlie pressure lias been reduced to a point where it is less than that of the gas and oil underneath the flow com mences. Along toward the last tlie bucket came up with so much gas emulsified with tlie mixture of uiud and water that tlie contents of the bucket fairly boiled. Then came a time of great anxiety. Would she come in with a rush, shoot tlie bailer away up through the top of the derrick and send out a great shower of greasy rain in all di rections. or would she comte softly, with a heavy, smooth flow? It was an ex citing moment, when what was believ ed to lie the last trip of the bailer was commenced. Then, as the bucket came up there came with it a gush of brown foa m. Then slowly, majestically, arose a fountain of green fluid uetll there was a steady stream of oil reaching nearly to tlie top of the derrick. Suddenly there was a whlsh of gas, as the last Arestige of pressure over the oil reser voir was removed and with a roar the great jet arose far above the derrick. The drillers then congratulated one an other most joyfully, for, to all appear ances, the well was equal to a flow of 25.000 barrels a day, should its full ca pacity ever be accessary. I At this time the wind was blowing a gale and it was thought then* would be less (langer to tlie derrick and well if the stream were turned to one side* The gate valve was quickly shut, the Joint was placed and tbe pipe wu shifted. Again tbe gate was turned nnd out rushed a stream with a swish and a roar loud enough to be beard aX a great distance. And that is bow a great gusher I® brought in. It is a time of great ex citement, among both spectators and operators, and its consummation la marked by a great tooting of englua whistles and yelling of men. The large picture accompanying thl® article was taken at the Instant the great stream of oil shot out of the pip® after it had been turned to one side of the derrick. The small picture shows the same well when the first (low bad nearly reached its height. Oil In the United Slnteo. in the production of petroleum, the United States leads the world, though oil was used in Eastern countries, no tably China, long before the dawn of history. In Japan nnd Persia, it has been obtained from dug wells for cen turies. Springs of petroleum have long been known in tbe Caucasus mountains and tlie Russian oil fields are world famous. The first mention of oil In the Unit ed States was made by a Franciscan missionary who found It In Allegany County, N. Y., before 1632. This oil, which came to the surface in springs, -was used by the Indians for medicinal purposes. It was not until 1859 that the petroleum business of tlie United States reached any great height. Pre vious to that year, kerosene hud, to ■ limited extent, been manufactured ont of coal. Tbe first well was "brought in" at the place where Titusville, Pa„ now stands, on Aug. 30, 1859. Oil wu struck at a depth of but 69 feet Tbe scenes enacted there at that tim« have been duplicated at the opening of every new field since. Speculators flocked in from every part of the Unit ed States and Oil Creek became fam ous. Within a very few years, hun dreds of wells were drilled along tha tributaries of the Allegany river. From Pennsylvania, the oil excite ment extended westward until hun dreds of wells had been sunk east of the Mississippi river in any anil all places where for any reason the dis covery of oil might be expected. Most of these wells were failures, but th« excitement bad the result of opening up many new fields, notably in western Pennsylvania, in parts of Ohio and iu sections of West Virginia,\ Kentucky and Indiana. In Ohio nnd Indiana, natural gas came as a secondary dis covery and this product is now piped in great quantities to many cities, no tably Chicago and Buffalo. In the lat ter city, the use of natural gas for heating and cooking purposes is gen eral. In Chicago but a limited part of the city is serve:!, though tlie pipes of the company supplying the gas ar® being extended rapidly. The Pacific coast oil fields were first worked in 1865, though tlie early wells were improperly located and failed to produce oil in paying quantities. Be tween 1880 and 1887 these fields fell into the hands of Eastern oilmen of experience, who, after much experi menting and many unsuccessful at tempts, struck oil In several counties of California. Wells iu Ventura ami Los Angeles Counties, some of tlie lat ter being right in the city of Los An geles, have been profitable producers ever since. Other oil regions of com paratively large value were uncovered in Wyoming and Colorado. Commercial petroleum is found In Russia in large quantities, as well as in Austria. Oil fields in Peru produce the fluid to a linilttHl extent, but the output is steadily increasing uudor proper management Oil wells In the Pennsylvania fields are almost invariably "shot" with nl tro-glycerin, contrary to the bailing method of Texas. Tests for Petroleum. The tests of kerosone. tlie common burning fluid which is the most import ant product of (letroleutn, are made for tlie purpose of ascertaining at what temperature It will take tire and also to find wliat proportion or naphtha. Ir any, is held in the oil. At ordinary temperatures, kerosene should extin guish a match as readily as water; it should not produce an iullummaide va por under lit) degrees F„ and should not take lire below 125 degrees F. Iu making tes^. it is always remembered that even a very small pioportion of I naphtha is exceedingly dangerous. Tlie first, or Hashing test, is made for the purpose of determining the lowest tem perature at which an iiiflanuinble gas is given off: the second, or burning test, shows the lowest point at which the oil itself is inflammable. Wh t Makes Great Successes. It took me some time to learn, but I did learn, that tlie supremely great managers, such as you have those days, never do any work themselves worth speaking about; their point is to niaka others work while they think. I ap plied this lessou iu after life, so that business with me lias never been a care. My young partners did the work and 1 did the laughing, and I commend to yon the thought that there Is very little success where there is little laughter. The workman who rejoice® in his work and laughs away its dis comforts is the man sure to rise, for It is what we do easily, and what we ilk® to do, that we do well.—Andrew Carne gie. _ Work of Watch Wheels. The main wheel of a watch makes 1,460 revolutions a year, the cent) si wheel 8,760. tbe third wheel 70.0801 tlie fourth 525.600, and the «cap» wheel 4,731,860.