OLDEST WAGON IN AMERICA.
Picturesque among the relics of ancient Indian days, dating back to the
introduction of cattle in New Mexico, more thau 200 years ago, is the old carreta
or ox cart, showu in the illustration, which is probably the oldest vehicle ,of
native American origin in the world. This carreta was found in the possession
of a native Indian in the ancient pueblo village. Bio Tesuque, situated about
five miles from Santa Fe, the capital of New Mexico. The Indian, who was 8-»
years old, said it had been the property of his great-grandfather, and the tradi
tions of Uio Tesuque, when taken in correlation with known historical events,
clearly establish the date of its making in the latter half of the seventeenth
The ancient vehicle shows the primitive conditions of past modes of travel.
The great wheels are made of the cross sections of the sycamore tree. The hubs
are of ont* piece with the body of the wheels; they are secured by wooden pins
driven through the axle. No iron or metal figures in the make-up, wood and
rawhide alone being used in the construction. The body of the carreta is an
open rack of cottonwood eight feet long. Upright slats four feet high form lilts
rack. The frame rests upon the axle and the tongue.
The tongue, twelve feet long, is a twisted and gnarled trunk of a mesquite
tree. The oxen which drew this ancient cart pushed with their heads a sort
of yoke in the shape of a bow of wood bound upon the horns with rawhide,
which may be seen to-day in some parts of France and Germany.
CHICAGO WONDERS AT IT.
Remarkuble FeatofKnssineerimr Skill
Now About Completed.
Throe distinct and unusual features
tend to make the great subway system
now being constructed in Chicago one
of the most extraordinary triumphs of
engineering skill ever accomplished. It
is unique in design, mammoth in size
and the methods of construction and
ultimate use are decidedly novel.
Chicago Is a most peculiar city. While
it covers an area of 184 square miles, a
large portion of which is sparsely popu
lated. the business interests are cen
tered in a district about three-quarters
of a mile square. Within these narrow
limits are the great wholesale houses,
banks, department stores, office build
ings, theaters, railway depots and
The result is a bewildering confusion
of pedestrians on the sidewalks, while
the roadways are choked with street
cars, delivery wagons and heavy drays.
All this within a radius of six blocks
SECTION OF MAIN TUNNEL, JACKSON AND DEABBOUN STREETS.
from the corner of State and Madison
streets, the hub of ttie business section.
Outside of. this district there is com
parative ease of movement for both
pedestrian and wagon traffic. ,
To offer partial remedy for the ills
affecting the city a proposition was
made to the Council for an under
ground telephone service that would
rid Chicago ot' the Bell monopoly. It was
received kindly and a permit given to
construct the necessary conduits.
Then opposition began to show itself.
A clause was inserted in the franchise
forbidding the new concern to tear up
a bit of pavement, or to disturb the
surface of the roadways in any man
ner under pain of forfeiture of its en
This was about two years ago, and
since there lias been no sign of any
work being done. Not a foot of street
pavement had been torn up, and when
the word was given out not long ago
that seven miles of large-sized tunnels
had been built under the business sec
tion of Chicago and were ready for use,
everybody excepting the men directly
interested in the work was astounded.
As opposition was feared, the work
has beeu done quietly. Basements were
rented at convenient intervals along
the Hue and the work of excavation be
gun. Men were put to digging, and the
earth taken- out was hauled up and
carted away at night through the coai
boles in the sidewalks, so that it did
not attract attention. In the daytime
there waa not a sign to indicate to the
thousands of pedestrians that any un
usual work was In progress, but every
hur of the ^wenty-four, day and night,
hundreds of -men were digging away
like moles forty feet below the surface
of the street.
It was necessary to go this deep In or
der to avoid the sewer and gas pipes,
the conduit of the telephone and the
telegraph companies, the electric light
i and the great water main*. Now
the work is about completed. The main
tunnels are 14x12 feet and the branches
Although constructed ostensibly for
the accommodation of telephone Wires,
this will in reality be a small part of a
new enterprise. Its subways are of
such size that small cars can be run
through them, and on these it is pro
posed to transport the mails from the
general postotflee to the various rail
way depots and sub-stations; to deliver
newspapers to the raiway depots and
to the dealers instead of sending them
by wagons, as is now done, and to carrj
package freight from the down-town
stores to the outlying districts. No at
tempt will be made to do a passenger
An American woman who under
stands Italian, but has not learned to
comprehend Italianized English, had at
a hotel in Florence an experience which
she relates with glee.
She had asked that a carriage might
be ready for her at a certain hour. She
waited in the parlor for it to be an
nounced. and when the time had passed
she made complaint that her request
had not been regarded.
"But, madam. I send up a hoy where
you and the other madam were sitting,
ten minutes ago, and command him to
announce your equipage," said the
"A boy said something in the door
way," said the lady, doubtfully, "but as
he spoke in a language unknown to me,
und did not seem to be addressing me,
I paid no attention to him."
The boy, being summoned, gazed
with brown, reproachful eyes at the
"But I speak America," he said plain
tively. "I bow my head, and say, fast,
very fast, 'M'darm, m'darm, c'ridge,
c'ridge, redee, redee,' and make my de
At a French Hotel.
An American lady was traveling In
Europe. She stopped at a French inn
in Normandy, and being the best
French scholar in the party she was
deputed by the others to arrange for
lodgings, etc. In vain she aired her
best linguistic attainments. Not a w.ord
could the clerk understand, and for
aught she knew his replies were In
"heathen Chinee." In desperation she
sail with great directness:
He brightened at once, and replied:
"Land sakes! I guess I do. I was
brought up ten miles from Bangor,
Cadleigh—I thought 1 bad met you
before, Miss Browne.
Miss Browne—No; I guess It was my
Cadleigh—Perhaps so. The Miss
Browne I met was rather pretty."—
, . CAMP LIFE.
The Forester Learns Many Thing!
While in the Wood*.
The forester hàs opportunities to see
and to know the wild Ute of the forest
better than most men, says Paul Gris
wold Huston in the Atlantic. He hears
the whistle of the quail and the drum
ming'of the partridge, and frequently
he finds their nests and sees .their
broods of young; he learns the ways
of the wild ducks, stumbles Upon the
curious uosts of the ovenblrd« and be
comes acquainted with many-rare, shy
birds; he has the best of chauces to ob
serve the squirrels and deer, the two
most graceful animals In the woods,
in their native homes amid the trees,
and he comes across saplings against
which deer have scraped their horns
when in the velvet, follows their trails
to his work, surveys through ; their
feeding grounds- where they, have
browsed the tips of cedar, hemlock,
ash and basswood, picks up their cast
off antlers lying among the teftYW, and
finds their beds of matted grass and
ferns where they have lain. And, then,
too, few things are quite so palatable
as game-'cooked to a crisp over a wood
tire in the open air, and nothing tastes
so good as pure, fresh, cold water
drunk straight from n brook, without
the intervening aid of cup or glass.
These also are the forester's advan
tages. He may fry some brook trout
or pickerel for breakfast, roast a piece
of venison for lunch, and broil a rabbit
or squirrel for supper. The writer has
had bass, venison and partridge In one ;
day, and all taken within a mile of j
camp. This, it is true, is not the ordi- |
nary camp fare; hut a taste of game
is not at all uncommon, and guns and j
rifles are almost a necessary pnrt of 1
an outfit. .
PAINTING WITH SAND.
represent rock formations, glaciers and
landscapes. One of the jars has a bor
der of three different colors, and in the
W. S. O'Brien, of McGregor, Iowa,
has Invented a new form of decoration,
which he calls sand mixing or painting.
In the vicinity are different colored
sands, which lie lias collected and ar
ranged in jars, forming neutral pic
Some of the jars contain as many as
four different tints, which are placed in
layers, in curves and other forms, to
center is a realistic view of a prairie,
with a background of mountains, the
tops of which are covered with snow.
The sand is placed In the Jars in a
lose, dry state, anil the work of packing
packed in quart and pint jars, and one
of the photographs reproduced shows a
series of horderings which comprises.
twenty-five different designs ana a
score of different colors.
'e of the Jars occupied many hours ;
Mr. O'Brien's leisure. They are
Years ago at a great university in
Massachusetts there was a distinguish
ed professor whose loo..., uid not corre
spond to the sweetness and power of
his mind. Ills face was one of the sort
that suggests nicknames, and his way
of walking and talkng were easily
turned to caricature.
One of his students was a clever
mimic. He took off the drolleries of all
members of the faculty to the delight
of his fellow students, anil this profts
sor came in for his share of ridicule.
It happened that once when the mimic
was amusing some of his classmates
with imitations of Prof.-, one of the
audience was a tactless telltale, who
boarded at the professor's house. Of
course he told the good old gentleman
that he had beeu the object of irrever
The next day the professor called his
mimic to his desk after class, and said,
"Mr. Harrison. I understand that you
have beeu having some fun at my ex
pense. 1 realize that I lend myself to
caricature, and l do not mind your
amusing yourself and others by taking
off my peculiarities. All I suggest Is
that in the future you be careful to
choose for your audience men of tact
and good sense."
Lobsters Which Have Names.
"Yes, sir," said a Philadelphia fish
dealer to a pressman, "nearly every
lobstter has a name on him—his own
name, I suppose." Then he proceeded
to show the newspaper man what he
meant He took a live lobster from
heap on the marble slab. "This one's
name is Joe," he said, after he had in
spected one of the lobster's legs. "Now
you can find it for yourself."
The customer took the lobster ginger
ly by the body, where It could not reach
his hand with its nippers. Turning it
on its back, so that the brown legs
flopped backward, a smooth streak half
an inch long and nearly as wide was
disclosed. In this streak, like a mo
saic, were short lines, as If some one
had printed with indelible brown ink
the characters "JOE."
"Some lobsters are named Jim," the
dealer Bald, "and some Jack, others
John, and I once clearly made out the
A married man's Idea of home com
forts Is à shirt that Is not made at
Many a man who Is capable of giv
ing good advice isn't capable of earn
ing his salt
THE CHILD ETERNAL.
I heard their prayers and klaa*4 their
And tucked them in all warns from
feet to head.
To wake again with morning's glad sun
Then came where he lay dead.
On cold, still mouth I laid my lips. Asleep
Ho lay, to wake the other side God's
But this one mine no more.
Those other children long to men have
Strangle, hurried men, who give me
Then go their ways. No longer now my
Without me they have wrought.
So whea night comes, and seeking moth
Tired childish feet turn home at even
I fold him close—the child that's left to
My little lad who died.
I A Glcvcr Sell.
* H * 'l** M"H *'i "H '* i ** H , d*d»4**t** h * t " i * * > ■ ! ■♦♦»
r»j»E is ai
Jr, one oi
E is an East Ender and moves in
of those mutual admiration
eles out there, pleasantly flat
tering himself in the usual way on the
llattery of his confreres, and really de
serving most of it, too. In fact, he is
really a clever fellow in many waya
and often surprises his. friends with
the diversity of his talents.
They all bèlieve in him except his
wife. She's like the valet in the famil
iär aphorism—to her the man of her
choice is never a hero. So she laughs
4 t his nonsense, and punctures his wit,
tnd makes him feel as much as possi
He, to quote his own expression, ''like
(Veil, this East Ender has a great
, 1 klug for amateur entertainments, and
is quite a clever actor and mimic. Some
time ago he, in company with a friend,
began the preparation of a vaudeville
character act. Of course he told his
wife, and she, as usual, laughed at his
"Everybody will see through your
disguise," she said, "and you'll just be
a general laughing stock."
"i'll chance it," said George, and be
went on with his rehearsals.
One day last week Ills wife was busy
with her housecleaning, and had emp
tied half the contents of the attic into
the basement. George didn't like house
cleaning—strange to say—and so he
made as early a start for the office as
possible. His wife called a good-by to
him from the furnace cellar, and a mo
ment later she heard the front door
It might have been fifteen minutes
after this that a form darkened the out
side doorway of the basement. The
mistress of the house looked up and
saw it was an old clothes man. He
was a threadbare and shiny old clothes
; wagged his full gray beard
In a decidedly obsequious way as he ad
vanced with his rough bag.
"Any oldt garments'to-day, ma'am?
I pay der highest market brlce, so belb
me," said the stranger.
"Why, yes," said the lady. "1 have
tome old garments right here. What
do you pay?"
"It depends on vat it ees," said the
stranger. "Ve got to go py der rules of
"Have the old clothes men a trust?"
cried the astonished lady.
"To be gwlte sure they haf," said the
stranger, "and we've got to standt to
gedder. Vat you got?"
The lady brought forth several gar
ments, and the stranger shook them,
and stretched them, and smelled of
them, and finally offered a ridiculously
low price. The lady presently yielded
and the garments were placed in the
Ain'd you got somedlngs a leeter
petter, may be?" said the stranger as
he rubbed his grimy hands together.
I pay you veil ven you prlng me soffie
dlngs nice." 1
"Let me see," mused the lady of the
house. "There's George's summer suit
in the front room closet I don't think
he'll want it any more, and this will
be a capital cbance to get rid of it.
Wait a moment," she said to the stran
ger. "I'll see what I can find." And
she darted away.
When she came back she had the
gray suit over her arm. The stranger
seized the garments and ran his nose
along'them with his face screwed up
In a quizzical way.
"Veil," he said, "dot's all right. 1
vill puy them." And he forthwith be
gan to thrust the suit into hia bag.
"Walt, wait," cried the mlstresi.
"Yon haven't settled on the price."
The stranger paused.
"I gif you one tollar seventy-five,"
be said as be spread out his bands.
'"O, that isn't near enough. The
clothes are as good aa new," cried the
The stranger rolled his eyes toward
"Crashus me," he cried. "As goot as
new! Vy, dose clodlngs vas chust alive
"By mots, mots, mots! Don't yon
"Moths! Why, there Isn't a single
moth In the whole bouse," cried the In
"Maybe not," Mid the stranger. "All
dese mots vas married and haf pig
It was a moth-eaten joke, bat It went.
.'(Yon don't ofBer enough," said the
mistress decidedly. '^*" - -
"1 dell you vat 1 do," said the stran
ger In a burst ef benevolence; "I gif
vun dollar eighty and dance der Csar
das ter you."
"What's the esardas 7" Inquired tbs
, "Votl Ton't you know der cxsrdasT"
cried thé stranger in great astonish
ment 'Watch ma." >
And he danced the czardas an the
basement floor. I; was a wild dance,
and he threw in ta it an amaslng exhil
aration. He stamped, be leaped, he
whirled about his ancient garments
fluttering and his long hair flying. And
the mistress sat oh the basement stairs
and laughed until she cried.
Presently, with a final flourish of his
nimble legs, the stranger paused, count
ed out with great deliberation the re
quisite number ef silver pieces, and,
with a blessing aa the head of the mis
treat delivered with outspread hands
and rolled-up eyes and in some strange
tongue, departed with his bag through
the outside basement door.
When Geurge came home that night
he went upstairs and his wife heard
him rummaging around In the closet.
"Anna," he called from the upper
hallway, "have you seen that light gray
summer suit of mine?"
"Wh—what suit?" stammered Anna.
"Why, that light gray suit I wore for
a few weeks last summer," aaidl
George, "it was in the front closet last
night, but I can't tynd it anywhere
"What did you want of ltY* queried
Anna In a weak voice.
"Why, 1 wanted to have It pressed
and sponged up. It's almost as good
as new. Besides that, I was looking
for a safe hiding place for a few hun
dred dollars |n bills that I brought
home last night and fancied the inside
pocket of the gray vest was as safe a
place as I could find. Eh, what's tne
matter?" He had heard a hollow moan
from the lower regions, and downstairs
he came Hying. There was poor Anna,
limp and white, lying back in aa easy
"Here, Anna," he cried, ''what's the
matter with you?" He was genuinely
scared. He stood back a little. He
stretched out his hands with the palms
upward. He tipped bis head to one sida
with a comical leer.
"Vat's all dot foolishness apout?" he
cried. "Hose clothes vas no good no
more alretty. 1 toit you dey vas full of
"What!" screamed Anna, springing
up. "Was that you? Well, of all the
mean, contemptible tricks 1 ever heard
of that's the worst!"
"Yes," he jubilantly cried without
heeding her criticism, "I sneaked ont of
the front door without your hearing or
seeing me, and 1 sneaked back again.
And now," he added with an exuber
ant shout, "now will you say I can't
But she was so angry over her dis
comfiture that she lias scarcely forgiv
en him even yet.—Cleveland Plain
bCIENTIFlC NAM. S.
They Mesa the Same the World Over—
Noi Ho, Common Name«.
"Scientific names are universal
names," remarked a college professor
recently, iu explaining the preference
of educated people for them. It often
seems pedantic to use long and unfa
miliar names for common birds and
flowers, but such is not peeessarily the
case. Endless confusion results from
the varying meanings which our popu
lar terms have come to convey in dif
ferent parts of the country.
The bobolink of the New England
spring becomes the reed bird of New
Jersey, when in July aud August it
feeds among the reeds. In the Caro
linas, a little later, it is known as the
rice bird, and is there a great pest
Crossing over into the West Indies, it
becomes In Jamaica the butter-bird. Its
scientific name, the same in all coun
tries, is Dolichonyx oryzirorus, which
means a "long-clawed, rlee-eating
bird." While formidable to utter, there
is no mistaking its meaning.
Such Is the confusion of bird name»
that the government ornithologist says
it is often impossible to tell from a let
ter what kind of bird is referred to un
ices the writer also gives the place and
time of Its capture. Somebody has
made a list of the various names of
the "flicker," as it is most commonly
called, and finds that they number one
hundred and twenty-four. Fortunate
ly the scientific name of some birds is
as simple as the popular name, and
often the two are identical. The vireo
is an example.
Among flowers the story is the same.
The chrysanthemum, as named by Lin
naeus, Is the same in all countries and
languages. So la the fuchsia, with
slight variations in spelling, the ver
bena and the phlox. On the other bond
the bachelor's-button of this country
Is the national flower of Germany, but
there Is known as the Kornblume. In
England It Is tbe bluebottle, while In
France It has three names, the most
common of which is "le bluet des jar
dins." In every country, botanists
know it as Centaures cyan us.
Tbe use of one name for several dif
ferent plants Is very confusing. Dog
wood, for example, In some parts of
tbe country is a plant of the poison
ivy family; in other places It Is a small,
white-flowered tree, while In tbe
Southwest it applies to something al
together different. Such oases are com
So It Is with legal and medical terms
everywhere. Scientific names are pre
ferred by scholars because of tbe ac
curate notion wlÿlch they convey the
world over, and while no one wants
the beautiful and expressive names of
every-day life to give place wholly to
the "jaw-breakers" of science, It Is
well to remember that the latter have
distinct and Important uses. ;
Fini Boarder—What la the enact
meaning of "viands?"
Second Boarder—Oh! Things y on get
to eat when yon don't board.—Pock.
THE SODA FOUNTAIN CLERK.
He Hu His Troubles, Like the Seel ef
the World— er Worse.
■ Consider now the meek and humble
soda fountain clerk.
Who draweth oft the moistened air
with nimble turn and Jerk.
His' garb Is always spotless white
when first be puts It on.
But lo. before an hour hath passed
Its spotlessness bath gone.
For then he bath vanilla on the bos
om of his vest, and streaks of red rasp
berry make hie trousers seem a jest.
While chocolate and ginger give a
tiger-like effect to the balance of the
garments In .which he Is proudly decked.
Mis hair Is limp and languid, and Is
parted square and true
Above the very center of hia nose,
which turneth blue,
Because be hath to Unger In the acid
and the ice, to fix up funny mixtures
for tbe one that hath tbe price.
He maketh 6trange concoctions In the
line of fancy drinks, and all the while
he watcheth for persuasive aorta of
From early morn he twisteth at the
soda water N spout, and turneth the lea.
crusher till the Ice bath given out.
He dlggeth in tbe ice cream and be
ruslieth with the glass, while hls deadly
hated rival buys the soda for the lass.
Yea, verily, the soda clerk, he hath a
terry time, for he must know the way
to get nine cents out of each dime.
And he must be a hustler, that there
will not be a loss of tee or gas or water,
or he'll tremble at the boss.
How often, oh, how often, hath the
soda jerker grinned at the one who pay
eth nickels for a penny's worth of
How often, oh, how often, doth a calm
and penceful smile go flitting o'er hia
Gunge when a drink goes out of style.
But. ah, alas, my son, sometimes he
fceleth very bad, and then is when the
ladios come with garments rich and
The ladies fill the rockers and the
doorways and tbe stools, and Insist
upon a liquid that both elevates and
And one declareth that she'd like
some chocolate with cream, and, wben
he draweth it, straightway "Oh, no!"
the maid doth scream.
And then she voweth that she hath
already changed lier mind, and wanteth
just a phosphate with a piece of lemoc
And yet, again the other maids dé
clare they do not know Just what they
wish—and on and on their mild objet,
The weary soda fountain clerk sup
gesteth this and that, from plain old
lemon phosphate to a dose of anti-fat.
And finally the ladies fair with om
consent conclude that chocolate and
cream shall be their soda fountain food.
Now, when he draweth all the drink*
hls troulile« are not done—
Nay, verily, my trusting child, they
are but half begun:
For each and every maiden there doth
straightway rise and say:
"Now, girls. I'll think it's awful Ik
you do not let me pay!"
All all protest, aud all object, and aB
.'heir plans defend.
Ana not a one takes out her purse her
.ovely cash to spend.
Now, finally, the soda clerk suggest*
eth that each maid shall pay for what
she drank—and then beglnneth tbs
For all the ladles vow in wrath—yes,
yea, they almost sob—that they will bis
employer see, and take from him bis
And then they take their parasols and
sternly go away, and not a cent of all
that bill do they take steps to pay.
The gentle soda fountain clerk, ha
falleth in a daze, and leaneth on tha
vichy tube, and wicked things he say*
Is this not true, Just as we have com
posed it, with much work?
It surely Is—and if you doubt go ask
üe soda clerk.—Baltimore American.
Study of Delirium Tremens.
The familiar symptoms of delirium
tremens, know n as "snakes," have been
made the subject of study with some
interesting results. It appears, says
the New York Ledger, that what have
been supposed to be hallucinations
hare a certain sort of evidence In fact
Certain blood vessels in tbe eyes be
come congested and assume a dark
color. These, when they appear on the
retina, which is ordinarily transparent,
suggest to the nervous and over*
wrought patient the presence of som«
moving, living creature. Imagination,
of course, increases the nervousness,
and finally the mind becomes so disor
dered that the form of an offensive
creature is suggested. Aa these fan
cies grow by what they feed on, It la
easy to see how creeping and crawUng
things may fill the soul of the victim
with the most horrible sensations.
Sawmill Operated by Air. #
Tbe only sawmill in the world where
the machinery Is operated by compresa
ed air is located In Oronte, Me., and
tbe water wheel and the air compressot
are below tbe £oor i>f the mill, with
also large storage tanks. Pipes lead
tbe air to the various machines, which
technically are known as the carriage,
nigger, log loader, log flipper, band log
saw and two cut-off saws.
A Paper Church.
Bergen, Norway, boast» of a paper
church large enough to seat 1,000 per
sons. The building Is rendered water
proof by a eolation of quicklime, cop
filed in milk, and white of eggs.
The New York Medical Record says
a nap of half an hour or ao in the aft
ternoon after a meal is helpful, and fa
vors rather than hinders good sleep at
There ia no man eq deep bat that ha
tee at least one shadow speL
xml | txt