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An Automatic Tank Valve.
Regulating the flow of water Into troughs and tanks Is something which causes farmers more or less anxiety and trouble. In the plan as Illustrated, the water pipe enters near the top of the tank, Which places the valve out of water, thus relieving It of all danger from ruit or the collection of sediment. Such a valve may be bought at any hardware store. The pipe may enter nearer the bottom of the tank and It the valve Is kept clear the device will still serve Its purpose. Another point In Its favor is that. If desired, the valve can be closed just as effectually when the tank Is one-fourth full as when filled to the brim. The lower half of the long, Jointed lever connecting the valve and float 5R ria wire CAM jrLO ■■ 11-T MTC: 1 cs?c has a shorter one attached to it the upper end of the latter having a num ber of holes In It By having a hole In the upper half of the jointed lever apd using a pin, the angle at the joint can be changed at will. Making It as large as possible will necessitate the float being lifted near the top of the tank before the valve Is entirely closed, but by decreasing the angle the valve will be closes, while the float Is still near the bottom. A sealed can or bot tle makes a good float. A board or block of wood soon becomes soaked, and In consequence Its lifting power is greatly diminished.—A. L. Williams, In Farm and Home. Killing Peach Tree Borers. For the last eight years I have set peach trees every year, and I never fail to make a thorough application of the tar. With an old paint brush I put It upon the trunk of the trees before set ting, spreading the tar from the roots up the trunk from eight to twelve inch es. I am careful to remove any borers (bat may be In the trees, as they come Hum the nursery. I keep In mind this fact that the coal tar will not kill the borer, deeply burled under the bark but will prevent the moth from depos itlng Its eggs at the base of the tree. The application of the tar must be made annually thereafter, being sure to finish the work before the moth be gins to fly, which I believe Is from June 1 to 15, usually. In making these annual applications it Is necessary, to insure success, that the earth be re moved down to the roots. The bark from the roots up eight to twelve inch es must be completely covered with the tar. In case the tree Is suffering from the effects of the shot-hole borer or fruit bark beetle. I know of nothing that is equal to the coal tar ns a remedy. In case of mechanical Injury to a tree the tar is better than any pnlnt or wash we have ever tried.— O. J. Farmer. to Feed Trough for Young Pigs. One of the difficulties in feeding young pigs is seeing that each has fair share of the slop. At the ordinary trough the stronger pigs will drive the weaker ones off and they fail to get enough food to keep up their growth A trough designed to accommodate eight small pigs Is eight-cornered and la made of Inch lumber. The sides slant about as those of the ordinary trough. A spout is fastened In the mid -------- ■„ A TEED THOUGH FOB PIGS. die, Into which the slop la poured, which rufls down Into the trough, make tblB trough first construct a bot tom sixteen Inches In diameter. Nall two-by-four pieces around the bottom and use ten-inch boards for the sides, nailing them securely. No. 12 wire stapled around the top and also around the outside, about three inches down from the top. Nall stjrat braces from the center spout, about seven Inches from the bottom, up to every other cor ner of the trough, making four braces and giving between each room for two small pigs to feed.—Indianapolis News. To Prevent Boll Washing. Soil washing, to a greater or less ex tent, takes place on 75 per cent of roll ing farmB, according to one writer. Where It occurs the very best surface soil Is washed into the valleys, leaving the bare and much less productive clay ob higher land. As a certain portion of all farau must be kept under grass it Is advisable to allow Bteep Inclines to remain In blue grass or some form of meadow.' Such places furnish a good location for trees. These will not only to is prevent washing, but will-tend to mod* Ify the climate by affording protection to stock and checking the heavy winds at all keasons of the year. In any casa these slopes furnish excellent sheep pasture so that the land may be made quite'as profitable as any that Is under the plow. Where It is necessary to cul tivate hillsides It Is a good plan to plow under coarse manure, as this will pre vent washing. In some Instances It may be necessary to throw brush into the gullies and stake it down.—Iowa Homestead. Propagating Orape Vines. To layer a grapevine to obtain new vines to set of some choice variety, let a branch run until there cun be about six feet of It placed on the ground. Then pinch off the end. which will throw tb« growth Into the buds along the cans. When these are well under way place It in the soli about two or. three Inches deep in a trench about four Inches deep. In a few weeks ths trench may be filled level with the sur face. By fall there will be roots ftom every joint, and they may be separated from the parent stem and from one an other and transplanted where they are wanted. This Is less trouble and more sure than growing them from slips, which should be cut In the fall after the leaves drop, and heeled In. The tops Incline toward the north, at some place where they will be sheltered and not molested during the winter. If well ripened wood of this year's growth Is used, and one or two buds left above ground, with another below, most of them will be found to have rooted In the spring. If one has but a parent vine of good sort, or can get the branches that his neighbor cuts off when he cuts back In the fall, he can soon start vineyard at no cost but a little labor.— American Cultivator. Duat for Melon Vines. Make some dry arsenlte to dust on your melons and cucumber vines at first appearance of the vitora and oth er beetles, made In this way: Boll rne half pound of white arsenic, one pound of salsoda in one-third gallon of water, until the arsenic is all dissolved. Take some quicklime and slake it with ar senic solution-until the lime Is a pow der, and It will take about a gallon of lime, perhaps less, to take up the arsen ical water; then dilute this with more lime to make five gallons of dry lime and arsenic to dust on the buggy plants. Make dry Bordeaux for fungus by dis solving your bluestone in water, then, taking enough of the blue water to slake enough quicklime to make a dry, blue dust to shake on.- Fruit World. Keep the Cow's Tail Clean. The simple device here Illustrated can be used in nearly every cow stable to keep the tails clean and prevent the cows from switch ing during milking In fly time. A piece of heavy cord, with a loop In each end, is fastened above the cow at a and the other end slipped around her tail as shown. When she lies down, this will keep her tail out of the gutter and tilth. When about to milk, hang the cord over a beam or hook at b, which will pull the tail above harm's way.— New England Homestead. f Sheep in the Black Hills. Sheepmen are flocking to the Black IIllls section of South Dakota. It is estimated that the wool clip for this season will amount to nearly half a million pounds of wool for the south ern Black Hills districts. Nearly as many Angora goats are going In as sheep. These animals have thrived better than expected on the buffalo grass of the Hills ranges, and since Angora wool is worth twice as much as common wool there is much money in the Angora. When Horses Bolt Their Food. Horses that are greedy and Inclined to bolt their food should be fed grain In a wide bottomed manger, and even then it is well to place a few large pebbles In the bottom the size of a man's fist or larger. This compels slower eating and secures better mas tication. The Chinch Bns in Wheat. The progress of chinch bugs from field to field may be obstructed by making a V shaped trench with the corner of a hoe and filling It with coal tar, the tar to be renewed as soon as it becomes crusted over. Agricultural Notes. Muskmelon blight has become trou blesome in some localities. Falling to get all the buttermilk out, causes butter to become rancid soon. In cultivating onions care should be taken not to work the soil to the bulbs or to hill them. In seeding sour (add) land to tim othy lime'should be thoroughly worked into the soil before the seed Is sown. For late strawberry crops a northern exposure, clay soil and late varieties are recommended by the New Jersey station. Even seeds that are strong and large should be watered with care after sow ing them. Drenching is usually t»d for them. How long to keep a cow depends upon her work. Age should be given no consideration as long as the old cows are giving a profit. On the farm, to make the most out of the milk and butter, the cows should be bred so as to be coming in fresh throughout the whole year. All varieties of grapes may be propa gated by layering, and many, like Nor ton Cynthiana, Scuppernong and other hard wooded aestivalis varieties,»can not easily be propagated otherwise. ONE GREAT NOVELIST. VARYINC CAREER OF JAME8 FEN* NIMORE COOPER. UnpromlslnaYoutli of This Recognized Genius—Hie Long- Dormant Powers— Chance from Popularity to Unpopu larity-Foremost American Novelist. James Fennlmore Cooper, the dean of American novelists, holds a posi tion in our native literature at once unique and distinc tive. It matters but little now that ds literary genius should have re mained d o r m a nt .or so long a time is a diamond in ;he rough before ccideut chipped off ihe crude exterior, disclosing the bril g-. uuoP-a. liancy within. It is of small importunée that his early life, spent in aimless pursuits, was wholly without promise of future achieve ments, and soon but a regrettable mem ory will also be the fact that during the last few years of his life through misunderstandings and misrepresenta tions his breast was filled with feel ings 6f deep rancor toward men who shoulii have been his friends and who In turn denounced both him and the products of- hls pen. These circum stances, the Inevitable contradictory accompaniments of recognized ability, have waned Indistinctly into a hazy background, against which stands bold ly the undisputed truth that the author of "The Spy and The Pilot" is justly worthy of all praise that has been or may be accorded him. The life of this varying popular and unpopular author bad its beginning September 15, 1789, at Burlington, N. J. Hls parents were both of Quaker extraction. Soon after the close of the Revolutionary war the Cooper fam lly established a household within the borders of New York' State near the headwaters of the Susquehanna River. They encouraged the populating of this vicinity and subsequently laid out the site of Cooperstown. The Cooper fam ily decided to make their permanent home In the town founded by them and in 1799 completed the erection of a spacious manor house, known as Ot sego Hall, which was for many years the most commodious and stately pri vate residence in central New York, To every reader that has been charm ed with the spell of Cooper's Indian ro mances, the surroundings of his boy hood days are significant. During those years the foremost pioneers of emlgra tion had barely begun to push their way westward through the Mohawk Valley, the first available highway to the west. Out of the forest that bor dered Otsego Lake Indians came for barter, or possibly with hostile intent, and from these no doubt Cooper drew in ly a WHERE COOPER SLEEPS. (Hls tomb and that of hls wife ln Christ Church Cemetery, Cooperstown.) the portraits of the red men who live in his pages. Such wild surroundings could not but stimulate a naturally active Imagination and the influence of the wilderness, augmented afterwards by the somewhat similar Influence of the sea, pervaded bis entire life. From a private tutor he received his earliest education and at the age of 13 entered the freshman class of Yale Col lege. According to his own account, he learned but little at college. His love of out-of-doors freedom led him to neglect hls books and he roamed about and explored the rugged hills north ward of New Haven and the equally picturesque shores of Long Island Sound. Gradually he became wilder and more persistent In hls defiance of academic restraints and was finally ex pelled. Upon leaving hls studies the love of activity and adventure laid hold on the youth and he decided to take up the life of a seaman. In 1806 he made his first voyage as a sailor before the mast on the ship Sterling, sailing from New York with a cargo of flour for foreign markets. After this he served for a time aa midshipman on the Vesuvius and was later ordered to Oswego, N. Y., with a construction party to build a brig for service on Lake Ontario. Then he was given charge of the gun boat flotilla on Lake Champlain and was subsequently ordered to the Wasp. In 1811 be married a daughter of John Peter DeLancey, of Westchester Coun ty, N. Y., and resigned his position in the navy to settle int« a quiet domes tic life. In deference to hls wife's wishes he built his home In Westches ter County on what was known as the Angevine farm in the town of Scars dale, In which locality many stirring events of the Revolution had taken place. The impressions gained from the historic associations surrounding him here were of inestimable value to him In the descriptive coloring of "The Spy." There still remains standing near Scarsdale the ruins of a 'chim ney once within the Dlsbrow House, wherein the original of Cooper's Har vey Birch Is said to have successfully hid from his pursuers. At 30 years of age James Fennlmore Cooper was following a quiet, common place existence, and no thought of a literary- life had as yet entered his mind. One day while reading an En glish novel to his wife he balf-jestingly remarked: "I believe 1 could write • better story myself." Hls wife was sure that he could and so encouraged the' idea that he made the attempt. Hls initial work was "Precaution," a novel in two volumes, published anonymous ly in an inferior manner during the year 1820. This first novel was In no respects a sample of the author's tal ent It dealt with high life In En gland, a subject with which the writer was personally unfamiliar, save through the pages of fiction, and while the venture can hardly be said to have enabled him to taste of the sweets of authorship, It had the effect of stimu lating the desire to write. Its modest success caused hls friends to urge him upon some more familiar theme, and remembering an interesting tale of a spy that he had heard some years be fore from the lips of John Jay, he set a hont putting it Into a story. "The Spy" was the result and during the winter of 1821-22 the American public awoke to the fact that it possessed a novelist of its own, and the Immediate success of the book, which was un precedented at the time in the annals of American literature, determined Cooper's future career. The next five years witnessed t the RELIC THAT RECALLS COOPER. (Chimney of the Dlsbrow House In Mamnro neck, which was the hiding place of Har vey Birch, a character In Cooper's The Spy.) publication of some of his best works, among them being "The Pioneers," "The Pilot," and "Lionel Lincoln." In 1826 his popularity had attained Its zenith with the publication of "The Last of the Mohicans." But with fame came envy and uncharitableness from his contemporaries at home and abroad. English reviewers claimed him as a native, fixing his birthplace in the Isle of Man, and denounced him as a renegade. Naturally of a head-strong and combative disposition, he resented the accusations and insinuations thrust upon him and in so doing could not help but give offense to a large class. His self-assertive manner made him enemies among men who could not un derstand hls nature. He made fre quent visits to England, during which his company was sought by the most distinguished men of the time, and during one of these visits he was un willingly brought into a controversy over the economy and efficiency of the United States government. His utter ances on this subject were miscon strued and his published letters brought forth what now seems an al together unexplainable bitterness against their author. As one of the most successful of au thors, Cooper's fame Is assured. His libel suits and controversies are for gotten, his offensive criticisms are sel dom read, and he Is remembered only as the most brilliant and successful of American novelists. A Lineal Descendant. An Englishman applied to the her ald's college for a coat of arms. In such a case it Is pleasant to be able to borrow one from a celebrated ances tor. The man in question could not remember anything about his great grandparents, and therefore, of course, could not mention any achievement by them which could be used as tbe basis of a coat of arms. But tbe official to whom be applied was not easily dis couraged. "Have you not done something your self?" be asked. Nothing, I fear," said the man, add ing as e pathetic antithesis that once, having bee* locked a Ludgate Prison for debt, he had found means to es cape from an upper window. And how did yon get down?" I got a cord, fixed it around the neck of King Lud's statue, and let my self down." Just the thing! There you have it— honor enough. Lineally descended from King Lud. Hls coat of arms Is good enough for yon!" Cleans Ship at Sea. For cleaning ships an ingenious and simple device was recently invented, its object being to clean quickly and thoroughly tbe bottom or sides of a vessel. It consists of two separated brusbes, wbicb are supported by arms, and of a hollow body portion, which is connect ed with tbe arms. It has a bose coup ling and a jet nozzle, wbicb Is so fixed that It Is opposite to the front or clean ing face of tbe brushes. It is this noz zle wbicb spurs tbe brusbes on to work and enables them to move rapidly over tbe bottom, and, if desired, tbe sides of a sblp. This device can be operated by any one, and those who have seen it tested say that it does its work remarkably well. _ An unmarried man's opinion of pretty clothes for women is better than a mar ried man's, because be is not biased by bills. _ When a woman with "proper pride" takes in roomers, she says It Isn't for tbe money, but for tbe company. ! 1 1 "j m 4» » - ■Tras I « î&Jiit MRS. ROOSEVELT. cno 1 TT: HE position of President's wife and that of the mother of a large family of children are not alto gether compatible, and while Mrs. Roosevelt's hands have been more than full, it can be said, immensely to her credit, that she has never let the for mer duties usurp the latter. Both she and the President are exemplary par ents. In the White House, as in their other homes, their cliildren have been their first consideration. For them the great oval library over the blue parlor has been made the family sitting-room, and the large sunny red bed-room open ing out of it that of the nursery, while the empty space in the garret over the offices on the east side of the house has been converted into the boys' rainy-day play-room. For them also the breakfast at- the White House is served at eight /.w NS UBS. ROOSEVELT. o'clock, and no' matter how late the father and mother have been up the night before they are at the table to breakfast with the children, who must be at school at nine. Mrs. Roosevelt herself sees them off, and her forenoons are usually given to them and the duties of her household. The President's wife is most system atic. Each hour of the day has its in dividual duties. She makes her plans a week, sometimes a month, ahead, down to the smallest detail, and, as far as is possible, she works out her plans she has arranged them. For this reason she never wastes time. Confined to the house as Mrs. McKinley was, nothing pleased her more than to have the la dies of the cabinet or other intimate friends run In for a few moments' chat when they were out shopping; but soon after coming into the White House Mrs. Roosevelt addressed a note to the wife of each cabinet minister, saying that she should be at home on Tuesday mornings to them. This, of course, brought one or all of them to her on the Tuesday mornings, and made calling & other times unnecessary. She received It in them most informally, sometimes the sitting-room where she was sew ing or otherwise occupied, but they knew that the morning was reserved for them, and that at that time they were always welcome. Her Beauty Won a Verdict, Miss Emma Koplitz's good looks have won a far-reaching decision from the Minnesota Su preme Court. A verdict for $300 she has obtained against the city of St. Paul was con tested on the ground that tbe jury was influenc ed by her beauty. The case was tak en to tbe highest court, whose rul ing is that the girl's beauty Is not mss KOFLiTZ. to be counted against her, and that if a Jury is in fluenced by the comeliness of a plain tiff it is not for the courts to deprive her of her natural advantages. W a Have Needles Ready. The comfort of having everything at band for effecting a necessary stitcb can scarcely be overestimated. How often tbe glove button flies off or a bow or a fold gives way in a low bodice just as one 1 b all ready to go to tbe theater. Time and temper are apt to fly away together, unless everything is at hand to repair the injury. Two nee dles ready-threaded should always be placed In tbe cushion, one threaded with white cotton and one with black. The time occupied In sewing is very slight compared with the time which Is spent in hunting for the different work materials. Women Like Fiction, Women are much more fond of read ing than are men. Po9ibly a worn an's nature craves more for the roman tic element in life, and, not finding it In reality, they seek Jt between book cov ers. A writer In Harper's Weekly says that If Mr. Carnegie should be able to keep out of libraries, as he suggested. all fiction under three years old, It might safely be said that the women would be against him—which means that the thing could not be done. Wom en like new fiction; they want the book that la "just out" If It is a historical novel, they feel that they are gather ing information. Heaven bless them! If i< la a romance, pure and simple, they forget over ltB pages the domestic ! trials of the morning or the afternoon. It does them no more harm than has been done for countless generations. For women are nourished upon fiction from the days of their birth. Our girls are reared In an atmosphere rarefied and cleared from all impurities. Tb« world is shown them through a rose tinted glass. Fiction without discrimi nation is fed to the girl who looks with heaven-given trust into the eyes of her well-meaning teachers. And when sh« becomes a woman, the habit has sent its roots into her soul, and be she hap py or pensive, she reads fiction. With men it Is different They do not ex pect from life what women do. When they read novels it is to forget the rig ors of business, to enter deliberately a region which they know does not exist. But women can seldon quite believa that it does not exist. To them life Is romance. If it does not turn out well, so much the worse for life, and they turn to books, where the happy ending is fairly sure to be counted upon. In women's love for fiction there is some thing more than is superficially appar ent. Why Girls are Getting Braver. At Bryn Mawr we consider out-of door exercise, in connection with gym nasium work, very important. Our stu dents are encouraged to play basket ball, hockey, tennis, golf, and tether ball; also to swim, and to ride horse back and on bicycles. In the spring we have our match games in basket ball. Out out-of-door games tend, moreover, to develop a spirit of gener osity, endurance, and fortitude. These last three considerations are very strong ones in favor of the rough sports. For instance, a pupil came to me the other day with a very badly hurt thumb, which I noticed although she said nothing about it. She had hurt F playing hockey, but she did not seem to think it was anything at all. Ten years ago, a college woman w>ould have con sidered it a rather serious injury. Sure ly no one can consider incidents like that without realizing all they stand for, and what they will mean In the future lives of college women.—Louisa Smith in Success. a baby: In selecting the baby's wardrobe be careful to get a good cap. Not only will it add to the attractiveness of tbe boss of the household, but a well-fitting cha penu will protect the eyes and skin. One of the prettiest of the season Is of chiffon. The chiffon is laid on in shirred ruffles—all very narrow—over the entire cap. The front of the cap is finished j with a four-inch wide platted ruffle of the chiffon edged with ! pink satin baby ribbon, shirred Inside the ruffle, framing the face, Is thickly plaited the pink chiffon one inch wide. The cap is finished with a short cape of the chiffon, box-plaited, and edged with the shirred baby rib bon. Perched on the top of the cap is a chic bow of two-inch wide pink satin taffeta ribbon, and a rosette of the same tinted ribbon nestles among the fluffy folds of the ruffle at the left side of the cap in the front. A twist of the satin ribbon heads the ruffle around the face and the top of the cape, and forms the wide ties. to It An Old-Fashioned Women. No clever, brilliant thinker, she, With college record and degree; She has not known the paths or fame. The world has never heard her name; She walks in old, long-trodden ways, The valleys of the yesterdays. Home is her kingdom, love is her dower— She seeks no other wand of power To make home sweet, bring heaven near. To win a smile and wipe a tear, And do her duty day by day In her own quiet place and way. Around her childiah hearts are twined. As round some reverend saint enshrined. And following hers the childish feet Are led to Ideals true and sweet, And find all purity and good > In her divinest motherhood. She keeps her faith unshadowed still— God rules the world in good and ill; Men in her creed are brave and true. And women pure aa pearls of dew. And life for her is high and grand. By work and glad endeavor spanned, —L. M. Montgomery in the Oongrega* tionalist. An Ideal Woman's Character. A serene and gentle dignity; a tran quil wisdom to counsel and restrain; a fine delicacy of feeling, quick to rejoice, tender to suffer, yet patient to endure; a subtle sense of the values of small, unpurchasable things; a power of great confidence and of self-sacrifice almost limitless where love speaks the word and duty shows tbe task; an instinct of protection and a joyful pride in mother ing the weak; a brave loyalty to the rights of the heart against "the freez ing reason's colder part;" a noble hun ger and thirst for harmony; an impreg nable strength of personal reserve, and an axhaustless generosity of personal surrender—these are the native glories of womanhood. These are the things that life, If true and well ordered, should deepen, unfold, brighten and harmonize In the perfection of a mu's character.—Harpax' s Baux.