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V * « « Treatment of Corn Bmnt. The Illustration shows the effect of the corn smut on the growing ears, and tt is evident that the disease needs at tention each season If the corn fields of following years are to be free from this troublesome difficulty. Probably the only way of getting rid of the trou ble entirely is to gather the smut pus tules before they break and scatter the spores. This work should be done as soon as the trouble Is noticed, going over the field two or three times dur ing the summer and gathering the pus tules carefully, then burning them. In this manner the disease will be grad ually stamped out. It must be remem bered, however, that If the spores are scattered over the field the 'trop of smut next year will be corresponding ly greater. Spraying with Bordeaux mixture has not been fruitful of re OORN AFFECTED WITH SMUT. suits largely because the plants could not be sprayed at the proper time with out danger to the pollen fertilization of the plant. Go through the corn field •arly and follow the plan suggested during the season, getting neighboring corn growers to do the same thing, and It will be comparatively easy to stamp out the disease In a section.—Indian apolis News. Fattening Old Cow». There are those who think It does not pay to fatten old cows, but we do not agree with them. Given one fresh or farrow in the spring, a good pasture, and a regular grain feed every day during the summer, and they can be made to pay for their grain until fall, and they will continue to galn^ln flesh all the season. Then a little succulent food, as soft or .mmnture corn, waste vegetables, pumpkins and such stuff as seems to cost nothing on the farm, and they will be In condition to take on fat very rapid'- when the grain feed is Increased. We know this because we Lave tried It. Beef that is made in that way may not bring the highest price when sold to the slaugherer, but when put on the bench to be retailed out it will be as good ns much of the steer beef that the marketmen handle, and it will be sold at the same prices.— American Cultivator. Typical Dairy Cow. An Agricultural Department bulletin shows an illustration of a dairy cow, whose general features. It Is claimed, are almost perfect. She has a medium sized head and neck and a well defined shoulder and neck vein. The body or barrel is medium to long, but with a great depth through the digestive re gion and with a long, well developed hind quarter and a nicely shaped ud der. She is short legged, close to the ground, angular and free from fleshi ness. Her body shows symmetry. AN IDEAL DAIRT COW. quality, correlation of parts and there fore stamina and great digestive ca pacity, and she exhibits every Indica tion of the power to give a large quan tity of milk. It Is rare that any person purchasing a cow having such apparent constitution and conformation, and yet being a rangy, open Jointed animal, will be disappointed In her as a money maker. There are exceptions to all rules, however, and no type can be de scribed that will meet every contin gency and pass every swtrmish line un challenged. Watch Growing Chicks. If one is in the poultry business in earnest, with a view to making a profit from It? due attention must be pald*to the growing chicks; not only to keep them In the best possible condition, but to know which are the most promising for future work, and to treat them ac cordingly. If one has a number of chicks that are of better ancestry than the others, or chicks that are showing good growth, and bear the earmarks of good layers, they should be marked In some way to Identify them. Irrigating the Garden. The usual method of watering plants of any kind Is by surface watering and In normal seasons this seems to answer the purpose, although it Involves con -. ra ™ e can be quickly made and from 1 wlre can be unreeled as rapidly 88 a man cau walk, pulling the frame '' or * i a ^ er him. When his companion roa,ly t0 stnple the wire to a stake, the pin is put through the side of the frame, locking the -eel, when the wire can be pulled up as taut as desired.— new England H >mestead. siderable labor. In dry seasons or In any season where it Is possible to carry on the plan at moderate cost, a plan of irrigation which will carry the mois ture under the surface of the soil so that the plants may use It as desired will be found most advantageous. Such a plan can be carried out by a system of tiles, as it Is done In arid sections, but when small areas are to be watered a number of trenches will answer the purpose If the water can be pumped Into them at small expense Waste Products on the Farm. The work done on the farm just be fore the busy spring planting begins Is very Important If proper considera tion Is given the matter of saving that which Is usually lost by inattention to details. The great waste of unsalable farm products amounts to millions of dollars annually, for farmers do not seem to understand that it is not al ways necessary to send produce away from the farms In order to find mar kets. The farm is the best market, in fact, that a farmer can have, for if he keeps live stock he will be able to sell his raw products by converting them Into the forms of meat, milk, butter and wool. The difficulty is that the waste products on the farms are nA properly utilized. One product, that of corn fodder, has been wasted for years, though now it Is being put to use with the aid of the shred der, but It Is in the manipulation and handling of the manure and weeds that the lessening of expense occurs. Feeding Bran. With me stock always thrives when bran Is fed in conjunction with grain. I had a young mare that got out of con dition during summer, and I tried to fatten her on corn. I gave ten ears three times a day. She did not do well at all. I cut the corn down to six ears, with a quart of bran, three times a day, and I saw Improvement at once. I drove her to buggy right along, and In three months she was fat and in splen did condition. I am careful never to use stale feed. That is what does the mischief. Young stock do better on a mixed feeding in which bran plays a one-third part. I have known a great many extravagant feeders who are careless about watering stock.—Cor. Rural New Yorker. To 8tretch Barbed Wire. Barbed wire is uncomfortable stuff at the best. One of the easiest ways, perhaps, to handle it when placing it rpon posts is with the device shown In the accompanying illustration. This FOR STRETCHING BARBED WIRE Swindling the Farmer. Still another signature swindle Is re ported from Indiana. Sharpers from Chicago went through country dis tricts, representing themselves as hunters. They would approach a farm er, tell him they wished to hunt on his land, and cheerfully pay $5 for a per mit to do so. The farmer would sign a receipt for the money, and this turned up later as a promissory note for $500. It Is said that the swindlers secured $5,000 in one county by this process. It is noticeable that most of the swindling schemes now worked to the detriment of the farmers, begin with the payment of a small sum, which disarms the suspicions of the victim.—Rural New Yorker. Cover Crops in Orchards. Instead of the usual cover crops In orchards some farmers prefer to have the land cultivated In summer, thus killing weeds and permitting moisture and air to enter the soil, the stirring of the soil protecting the roots of trees. Late In the summer, about August or after danger of drought Is over, clover is seeded and left until spring, the scar let or crimson clover being preferred. If the land Is left In sod as a cover crop it Is claimed that the demands of tne grass crop for moisture and plant food in summer Injures the trees. Hast in Wheat. Rust In wheat may be prevented by destroying the spores In the seed. One plan Is to soak the seed In a solution made by dissolving a pound of sulphate of copper In ten gallons of hot water, allowing the seed to remain In the solu tion twenty-four hours, then drying the seed with fine land plaster and sowing or drilling as soon as dry. Wheat that showed indications of rust last year should be avoided, however, and new seed procured. It should also be plant ed on a different field from that on which wheat was grown last year. Feeding Lambs Beet Palp. During the past season the feeding of lambs on b'et pulp has been very satisfactory. At Lansing, Mich., soma 3,000 were fed. Although at first the pulp was not relished and several died from eating it, later they did well. It seems that the pulp gives the best sat isfaction when fermented a little. CHINESE BEGGAR8. Schemes by Which They Try to Lay Travelers Under Tribute. The beggars of China are very im portunate and all the large cities are full of them. In Pekin one of these beggars will often make a pretense ot rendering a service to the passing trav eler. He will dig a hole in the road way which tlie traveler must pass over and then wait ostentatiously, shovel In hand, until the stranger's cart comes near. Then he throws a spoonful or two or dirt into the hole which he had previously made, and Impudently demands backsheesh for the service rendered. If you regard the artifice as altogether too transparent, and refuse to satisfy his claims, the beggar will run after the car for a mile, shouting and swearing at the top of his voice. In the summer, when the mud is dried up and the dust affords an ex cuse for officious service, the same beg gar will stand with a little dish ot CHINESE BEGGAR. water at the beginning of a steep as cent, and as the traveler approaches, sprinkle a few square feet of the road way. His service may be entirely in effectual and inadequate. The trav eler may have to ride through clouds of dust for miles beyond, and the sparse drops of water may make little appreciable difference in the dust, even of the few Inches of ground which It touches. But it Is a service rendered, and according to all traditions must be paid for; and again the screaming, swearing coolie curses the hands and feet and eyes and ears of your grand mother and your great-grandmother's grandmother, unless you give him the largess that he demands. OLDEST PEOPLE IN AMERICA. California Indiana Who Have Long Since Passed Century Mark. There are three thousand Indians, divided into thirty bands or tribes, in the valley and mountain wonderlands of Southern - Cali fornia, where, with three hundred days of sunshine every year, with nutri tious roots, seeds, uuts and fruits growing abundant ly, with rivers teeming with fish and plenty of game in the woods, they live a life of ease, almost luxury. The ANTONIA WATA. time was when they were nearly all connected with tlie old Spanish mis sions, types of which endure to this day, but when those institutions were disestablished, they returned to their primitive methods of life and so re mained, some of them to the present day, and the rest to the time when the United States government came to their aid and with reservations and schools much Improved their general condi tion. Among these California Indians are found people who, it is believed, are the oldest living persons on the Amer ican continent. Some of these men and women are authoritatively known to be 130 to 145 years of age, still able to pot ter around at bascket making and the like. Of course there , are not many who have reached this great age, but there are a considerable number who have passed the 110 mark, and scores who are 90 to 100 years old. The Sabobas are perhaps the most In teresting of these Indians. They live In the mountains, among great cliffs upon which are seen great pictures painted by their ancestors, and live mostly by hunting. There are but 150 of the tribe remaining, but of these a number are centenarians. Including An tonia Wata, whose picture Is herewith shown, He is 118. Wata was the most trusted warrior and favorite counselor of Vlctoriana, the famous chief who died some years ago, and who, accord ing to the mission records, was 136 years cf age. Lonetta, the third wife ôf Vlctoriana, is still living at the age of 108. Her chosen companion Is Con ception Rombassa, who Is 113. The Sabobas have a large reservation, with good grazing land and fine hunting ranges and have a church and school building. The people are amiably dis posed toward all whites and are ex tremely hospitable. Leo Lueo, their chief, Is 90 years of age, but sits on his pony with the grace and agility of a man of 30. Thbe Southern California Indians live in every stage of progress. There are the Cocopahs, who still hunt with bows and arrows, go entirely naked, live in dens almost like wild beasts, and roast 'heir game undressed, and there are the Patrero On bulling, who have become highly civilized. The chief of the latter tribe lias a great adobe house, embow ered in a beautiful garden of fruits and flowers. His table is set with the choic est productions of cultivated fields and his wife, mother, sons and daughters are well-dressed, well-educated, well mannered and refined. WEST INDIAN SUPERSTITIONS. Belief in the Vampire and in the "Rolling Calf.»» The French islands have two super stitions which are not found in some others of the West Indies. These are a belief in a sort of werewolf or vam pire, which lives on the blood of way farers, upon whom it leaps when they are abroad in the nighttime, or of sleepers whom it finds in lonely huts; and a second believe in what Is known as the British islands as the "rolling calf," a monster with blazing eyes, which prowls at night, clanking a chain which hangs about Its neck, and at whose touch men die. The follow ing description is given of the typical obeah-man: "There is something so Indescribably sinister about an obeah-man's appear ance that he can always be picked out by anybody who has had much to do with negroes. Dirty, ragged, unkempt, diseased, deformed, there is yet about him an air of cunning authority. His small, cruel, piercing eyes peer vicious ly at the witnesses arrayed against him in court, for ail the world like those of a cornered rat. Black men may be seen to turn as gray as ashes under the terror of that baleful gaze, and often it Is only with the greatest difficulty that incriminating evidence can be dragged out of them. The wiz ard's awesome presence, however, does not appal an unsentimental British Judge. He orders him "twelve months' hard" and a sound flogging. Frequent ly the obeah-man appeals against his sentence to the higher court, and in Jamaica It is not at all unusual for him to get off on some technical point, owing to the defective drafting of the law. Of course, he tells the Ignorant negroes that he procured freedom by his magical powers, and thus their su perstition is strengthened." British law punishes obeah with flogging and imprisonment. Neverthe less, obeah is practiced by the white planters almost as S matter of neces sity in order to frighten the negroes and prevent them from stealing the produce of the plantations. • You may walk through your friend's "coco-piece" or banana plantation and notice a skull stuck on the top of a stick, a small bottle full of dead cock roaches tied to a branch, or a minia ture black coffin placed on a little mound. "Hullo, old man!" you say; "working obeah—eh? I'll come and see you flogged at the jail." He tries to laugh It off shamefacedly, saying there is really no other way to make "those wretched niggers" keep their thieving hands off the crops. That is true. It is needless, however, to go to the trouble of placing these things about the plantation. If some night prowler has stolen your best yams or bananas, all you need do is to say next morning in the hearing of the negroes, "It's all right; I don't care. I've got the foot print." You will see them whisper among themselves in an awe stricken way, and presently one will come up to you, nearly weeping with terror, and confess himself the thief. The superstition is that if you dig out the earth upon which the robber has Impressed his foot and throw it into the fire he will waste away and die unless he gives himself up and takes his punishment.—New York Commer cial Advertiser. Ripening of Cheese. A hitherto unknown element in milk, a new ferment, has been discovered, called galactose, which is proving of value in the ripening of cheese. The properties of this ferment are similar to tlie secretion of the pancreatic organ in the human body. Old cheese is a pre-digested food, and the digestion is wrought by the galactose. It was found that the galactose would go on working at very low temperatures, temperatures at which bacteria were practically Inert. Cheese was put into refrigera tors and kept frozen for months. Other cheese was kept just above the freezing point. It was found that the finest cheese is cured at from 40 to 50 degrees Fahrenheit. Practical cheese manufac turers had maintained that 50 degrees was the lowest temperature at which cheese could be worked without be coming bitter and worthless. The new discovery will, it is believed, revolu tionize cheese manufacture, doing away with all curing-rooms, the cheese being sent directly to the refrigerator.—Scrib ner's. Substitute for Sleep. A London paper says that the health of people in fashionable society is be ing dangerously threatened by a new drug which is popularly regarded as a substitute for sleep. Very discreetly It declines to name this dangerous sub stance. When tea was first Introduced Into Europe It was commended for the same virtue, and It was believed that It would no longer be necessary to waste seven or eight hours iu sleep. But extended experience has shown the disastrous results of cutting short the period of natural rest and keeping awake by the help of tea, and there Is no reason to suppose that chemists will ever be able to devise any substitute for sleep which will not in the long run bring nervous breakdown.—Spring field (Mass.) Republican. Switzerland's Big Export Record. Switzerland is, population considered, the greatest exporting country in the world, not even England being except ed, and its exports are almost exclu sively manufactured articles. ; Ji1T doings orwoncN WOMAN'S MOST ATTRACTIVE AGE )AKING Into consideration the fact that more women are mar ried between the age of 18 to 25 than at any other period of their lives, Ti it would certainly appear that it is at such a time that the female sex reach the zenith of their charms. Such an assumption, however, Is by no means so correct as many readers might at first suppose. For these early mar-1 riages are easily accounted for by the ____ _____ fact that the mind of the average young man at the age of 22 or 23 light ly turns to thoughts of love, and he in variably chooses a girl of the same age as himself, or perhaps younger, but rarely older, as one likely to make him a suitable wife. At the age of 22 or 23 the majority of women are undoubtedly more at tractive as regards personal beauty than at any other time of their lives. But while they have that buoyancy and youth which captivate and make men so susceptible to their charms for the time being; yet a deeper study of their powers of fascination will quickly show that their attractiveness Is very shallow as compared with that of an older woman. A pretty face only constitutes one of the characteristics which go toward making a woman attractive, and it is absurd to suppose that her charms de crease as time adds a wrinkle to her face. As a matter of fact, many wom en are far more attractive between the ages of 30 and 35 than those who are ten years younger. The latter, per haps, appear more charming and fas cinating to the average young man, on account of their personal beauty, vivac ity, youth, etc. But although the attractiveness of a woman between 30 and 35 years of age may not be so apparent at first sight, It Is really far greater than that of a younger woman. Her character has been formed, and, well knowing that she can no longer be regarded as a young woman, she makes the most of the good qualities she possesses, and tries to please the man whose favor she seeks, as well as those with whom she comes in contact. A pair of large, sympathetic eyes, a low, sweet voice, and an equanimity of temperament, more than counterbal ance any lack of youthful beauty and vivacity; and it is when a woman strives to please a man that her pow ers of fascination increase. She learns to take an interest In his dally pur suits, be they business or pleasure, and nothing appeals to the masculine heart more than the thought that one of the opposite sex is ready to praise when he triumphs and sympathize with him in his trials. Many young women, of course, pos sess these characteristics and, besides being pretty, have a truly lovable and sympathetic nature, which makes them doubly attractive in the eyes of a man. But, as a rule. It will be found that a young woman who possesses good looks is somewhat lacking in those en dearing qualities which are to be found in a woman of 30 or thereabouts.— Nashville American. Cnn Really Throw a Ball. Miss Bertha Ber gett, a senior at Elmira, N. Y„ Col lege, has thrown a baseball 181 feet. She is the cham plon girl ball thrower of the na tion. Aside from her remark able feat, Miss Bergett is a wonder to the athletic world, for she is just what an athlete is sup posed not to be. The young woman is 5 feet 5 Inches In height and very slight Miss Bergett's feat breaks the college girls' record for ball throwing, as she threw the ball 18 feet further than the previous record of 163 feet Change In Lamp Styles. Dame Fashion when she changes her modes usually goes from one extreme to the other. This has been the case In the lamps that are now most fashion able. A season or two ago the ex tremely low, squatty shape was the vogue, and nothing seemed too broad or too low to be la mode. Now the pendulum has swung to the other side, and exceeding tall, slender shapes are prescribed by the most artistic decora tors. Hard Linea in Japan. According to Western ideas the mar ried woman In Japan is not to be en vied. A Japanese girl's marriage dow ry consists of nothing beyond her dresses, a little writing desk, a box of cosmetics and other toilet necessaries, » couple of little dining tables and a few lacquer plates. Japanese women do not inherit fortunes and in famille» where there Is no son one is adopted as an heir. Women of the poorer class es are most to be pitied. A husband 1» as free as a bachelor and can do ex actly what he chooses. A man marries whorl VT."' *"7 " ; w1f h . " €D e t'f 6 ® of hl * t . . uss 88 tradespe °P ,e ' eh ' ara m08t fr *' i . - . , e P °° r ' U * are com " paratively rare among the upper classes. Fashions a Hundred Years Ago. Here you see reproduced what fash ionable women were wearing a cen tury since. First there Is a morning dress of pink, with a white satin cap ornamented with a pink flower, a white veil pinned across the head to fall over the face. The figure in the right-hand top corner has a velvet mantle bordered with green leaves, and a white satin bonnet with whit» flowers. No. 8 (bottom left-hand cor ner) has a white robe embroidered down the sides and bottom. The hair Is fashionably dressed, and a veil I» pinned so as to fall over the shoulders. No. 4 has a dress of white sarsnet, with lace let In down the front and round the sleeves. The turban Is of blue crape mixed with beads. The gloves are white kid. No. 5 has the hair fashionably dressed with a steel band. The gown Is described as low in the back, and the short sleeves are worked to correspond with the back of the train. Pictnrea in the Home. When we enter a home, among the first things to attract our attention are the pictures, and from them we can read the taste—or lack of It—of the lady of the house, for they give us the keynote to her character. If we find gaudy chromos, and cheap oil paintings made by "lightning artists," we know at once that refinement is lacking in that home. Pictures should be select ed always with an eye to the surround ings in which they will be placed. - If the house is very large and handsome, and money of no consideration, then, of course, oil paintings by the best ar tists are preferable. People of moder ate incomes who wish tasteful homes should choose water colors, engravings or etchings If they can be afforded. Artists' signed proofs are most desir able, but no better than good copies, with the exception of the signature, which is supposed to add value.—Maude C. Murray-Mlller. To Keep Flowers Fresh. It is very provoking after spending two or three shillings in buying cut flowers for some special occasion to see them wither in a day. There are some flowers which cannot be kept alive more than a few hours after they have been cut; others with care will last quite a week. One of the best methods to make them last is to half fill the vase In which the flowers are placed with freshly-powdered charcoal and add water to It until It is thor oughly saturated. Put the stalks of the flowers into the charcoal, add a lit tle more water, and keep the charcoal moist by adding fresh water dally. Before placing the stalks in the water strip off any leaves from the part which Is to stand In the water and cut the ends quite straight. The flowers will keep better If the stalks have the ends cut once or twice during the week. Women Lawyers Not Wanted. Of the 37,000,000 women Inhabiting the United States on the continent of North America, several thousands of whom are lawyers, only twenty-one have achieved the distinction of being admitted to practice before the bar of the Supreme Court, the most dignified body In the world. Men lawyers have been introduced at every sitting of the court since Its organization, more than a century ago, but the prejudice against women In the professions was for many years so strong that not until 1879, and after years of fighting for the right of recognition, did the court open its bar to its sisters in law. The most extensive mines are those of Saxony; the galleries have 128 miles of length.