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Uncle Sam's Puget Sound
Navy Yard and Dry Docks iMB'it » mnrrm<3n»-iriri< * «■ NCLE SAM had no need to erect formidable fortifica tions and extensive naval and military works, in order to make sure of protection for the waters and commercial interests of the Pacific Northwest, but when our Uncle Sam located the Puget Sound Naval Station lie assured such protection for all time to come under all possible events, do mestic or foreign. At the same time he located these works in a position absolutely impregnable, a very Gibral ter of security against attack or inter ference, as an examination of location and surroundings will show. In the first place, the location of Port Orchard bay, on which the station is built, is 100 miles interior from the Pa cific, reached only through the straits of San Juan de Fuca, that wonderful body of water through which pours the present enormous streams of North western commerce. This water is sus ceptible of fortifications and of defense beyond the ability of the combined war fleets of all earth to force an entrance. Forts at Port Townsend and other points eastward from the en trance of the straits already protect the passage, while beyond, as the course H°s further in toward the naval station, the channel narrows into abut ting natural defenses. Should the naval powers of earth ever force these, there would remain torner'o. bomb, dynamite mines, chains, and like means of destruction of the advancing engines of war, strung and hung In the narrower channels nearer the station, beyond any conceivable ability of present or future naval pow ers to pass. On such situation is based the claim that the location, for safety and strength, is the finest that the world knows today. Other features are quite as favorable, including depth of water, character of anchorage grounds, shore for docks and wharfs, surrounding lands and conditions, in cluding climatic conditions and protec tion from all winds by an absolutely land-locked harbor, set within densely timbered hills. Views of the Station, Its works and surroundings herewith given, disclose but a small part of the interesting and instructive features to be learned by a v 5 «!t. to Premprton. as the little c'tv surrounding the Station, has been nam ed. Carved out of the virgin forest the works occunv.an enclosure of some eighty acres of level land, that comes down to the water on .hist the level needed for works and docks, while far we* mi INTERIOR VIEW OF DRYDOCK UNOCCUPIED. ther back the ground rises by ridge and terrace, givinv attractive natural locations for the administrative build ings, offices and quarters. Central to all lies the great dry dock, now the largest possessed by the government with dockage and wharfs in front, and shops and repair and equipment build ings adjoining. Notwithstanding the completeness of the works all is stil! bustle and animation in extension* constantly on foot, the largest of the present works under construction he ing an immense equipment building o brick, that win be completed this sea son. Brick and steel structure is main tained throughout, and every specie* of construction, brick, steel, stone and timber, is of the superior quality fo which Uncle Samuel is noted. A point of great significance as bearing on th^ local adaptability and economy of tbe site, is that nearly a totality of all ma terials comes from the Puget Sound and Pacific region, excepting barely structural steel and iron. Stone, brick, timber and coal, are all at Uncle Sam's finger tips. Details of these great works, are to be found in the reports, but a few items will suffice, emphasizing in the main, as they do. the local importance of the Station, and comparison with the sister stations of Mare Island and Brooklyn. Puget Sound is already larger than either of the other two, and with contemplated improvements al ready under the protecting aegis of government appropriation, will shortlv be among the largest in the world. It present dry dock has such rank, hav ing a capacity of containing the larp est battle ship in the world, and yet th* extensions now contemplated, to bp covered In the next appropriation call ing for $4,000.000, already approved by the department, call for another dry dock double the size of the present one deemed necessary by our naval exten sion on the Pacific side of our domain, and our interests In the far east. Other extensions covered In the re cent appropriations of $ 1 , 200,000 are coal bunkers of 25,000 tons capacity. Bremerton being one of five such coal ing stations ordered, the other four be ing San Diego, San Francisco, Sitka and Dutch Harbor for the Pacific and Behring Sea. This coaling provision Is now a necessity, but the future sys tem for the Station Is said by govern ment officials to be to utilizze the Lake Washington fresh water canal now un der construction, ships running through that body of water directly up to the coal bunkers near the mines, and in going and coming clean their bottoms of barnacles, saving tbe scrap ing process in dry dock. Tbe rolls of employes at present exceed 800 men, with the certainty of constant large in creases as the works are extended. The present works comprise the fol lowing: Drydock, the largest government dock In the Uited States. Wharf and docks, largest and most commodious on the Pacific Coast. Brick and steel fire-proof construc tion and repair buildings. « e * l BIG FIGHTING MACHINE IN DRYDOCK. Steam engineering equipment. Brick warehouse and store house. Administrative building and naval of fices. Marine barracks with modern appli ances and conveniences. Officers' quarters, five fine resi dences for naval officials Buildings in process: Equipment, ordnance and other shops. Considering the magnitude of the Station as it exists today, it seems al building, with most impossible that it has all been accomplisned in ten short years. The location was made in 1891 , the first work commenced the year following. The very land enclosed in the station yards, was part of an original home stead entry made in October 1875, al though the land, which had been "lum-, beied," had been enteied upon for that purpose as early as 1858 . This home stead was patented to one Williams who sold to William Bremer, from whom the government purchased the station tract of 86 acres, which was up on recommendation of two commis - sions, one of naval officers and one of ref safe* m OFFICERS' QUARTERS AT PUGET SOUND STATION. civilians. Congress acting upon the re- ! port of those commissions. Bremerton 1 City takes its name from its original ; °wl er ' f00t °i f the ,and ! the station is was cleared unul the government commenced it in the year stated. Mr. Bremer had built a small dock, for the bay boats, which still stands a pioneer finger mark com pared with the extensive docks of modern equipment and construction where now float the mightiest fighting machines of modern times. While the government authorities have proceeded with increasing confi f denen, ever since the eatabllament of 'the Puget Sound Station 10 years ago, there'has been no practical test on a large scale, until since the close of tbe Spanish war, and our sequestered find scarred battleships of the first class have reached the Station. First to come was the Iowa, followed by the Wisconsin and latterly the great Ore gon after Santiago and her double chase around the continent, with, the Philadelphia as the latest comer.. All these ships steamed in from the Paci fic, up through the straltB, and by the interior fastnesses, with probably no small misgivings. Arrived at the Sta tion each and all have now been through the paces of test of the facil ities for repair and overhauling, with the most complete satisfaction to all concerned. In maneuvering, docking, or what not, each and every feature has been a success. As to tbe Oregon, her broken plates wrenched asunder when the ship was on the rocks In Asia. hav*> been Venlaced with the ease that, a Skiff would be handled by tbe ships carpenter. The dry dock thus first tested by these greatest of battle ships, proved adequate for even much larger vessels. All macninery and ap paratus worked to a charm, so that this evidence, if needed, closes the chapter of approval for the Puget Sound Sta tion. Besides the mechanical test, re sults have been equally satisfactory with respect to health of men, and at tractive surroundings, in fact as to all other elements entering into the case. Bremerton, the City of the Station, lo-be, has its foundation of course in the labor employed, and the traffic of the Station and of its officers and managers. Suddenly rising to several thousand of population, the little city iä struggling to keep pace with its own unexpected importance and growth, and fortunately is in the hands of en terprising men of high character, who are seized with the spirit and charac ter of the enterprise that has come to them, and who evince a disposition to co-operate with the government pur cose and to make their city a credit. This is shown in the character of im provements, in street construction and all the municipal improvements as fast cs undertaken. There is a water sys tem already installed, by utilization of fine streams of pure water, with suf ficient head for fire protection, and on a scale for all future requirements. The young city government keeps pace with the federal requirements and in terests. in short there is that harmony and co-operation so desirable under the circumstances. Among other steps in this direction, the town is at present organizing a Sailor's and Marine Club, after the manner of those clubs at Mare Island and Brooklyn, in the in ! terest of improvement, and advantages for the sea-faring employes when at ♦ he Station. Schools, churches, and society of the rising order are features of the young city of Port Orchard Bay, which also has that modern necessity tIle newspaper, the Weekly News, con | ducted by the Gale Brothers. This was 1 established one year ago. j Kitsap is the inexpressive name of ! the interior, sound-encircled county that has received this great improve j ment and development. A region densely timbered, sparsely settled, and with its chief business shore and bay ' traffic hitherto, finds its solitudes transformed into noise and bustle, ; with hints of the mighty world out 1 side, by comparisons of the hulls and j machinery of the world's hitherto to ! them unknown fighting monsters, with 1 the pigmy bottoms so long their pride ; and admiration. The wilderness is be ! ginning to blossom as the rose, and numerous small towns are springing up, testifying to the immense expend itures by the government, and that all sections are getting some share. The county seat is across the bay from the Naval Station, with no doubt an amhi tion on the part of the Bremerton peo ple, that some time in the near future Bremerton will be the capital of the county, as it has already become tho commercial center. ►♦♦♦♦ »♦♦♦♦♦♦♦ > » $ » ♦ > » ♦< !: PROGRESS OF MODERN DENTISTRY. It Maks* Plump TIiom Lean of Face and Is Invaluable to la crease Power of Singers and Cornetists. The use of porcelain crowns for teeth has enabled modern dentistry to do a great deal for art. It has made it possible to Improve the voices of cer tain singers by giving their artificial teeth crowns with an outer curve, their natural teeth did not bave. Thé re sult Is to Increase the accoustlc effects of the mouth's bony structure. The mouth of Trilby was like the dome of the Salt Lake tabernacle. Some sing ers have this mouth, but their front teeth. Instead of being a continuation of the curve of the roof of the mouth, bend Inwardly. They break the flow of the sound. By sawing off these nat ural teeth and mounting them with porcelain or crowns with an outward curve, a great Improvement is made in tone. Porcelain crowns are used in making great cornet players as well as in mak ing singers, and in the same way. The out-curving front teeth are best for the cornetist, because the tongue can be used in triple-tonguing tbe mouthpiece in the fancy work. One of the little devices of modern dentistry is tbe plumper. This is a combination of gold and hard rubber for making the face take on a rounded appearance. Elderly ladles, whose skin lias begun to set loosely, sometimes have plumpers put in. In cases like this they are permanently fixed to the side teeth by gold crowns. Plumpers are also made for actresses and actors for use in making up the face for the character they wish to portray. They PLUMPERS ATTACHED TO FALSE TEETH, AND TO TRUE ONES. are taken out when the greased paint is washed off. When used as perrna nent beantlflers plumpers sometimes turn back the eloek twenty years. A great deal of care has to be taken in making teeth for public speakers, actors and singers. It is necessary to have them filled in so there can be no escape of air between them. The clear enunciation can only be had when there is no air space nor chance for hissing. Electricity has made dentistry ad vance as it has advanced. There is an electric oven for baking porcelain that is capable of a heat of 4,500 degrees. An electric lathe and an electric en gine are used for all the work In the mouth. It works so much quicker that oue-third of the time is employed that <vas formerly required, and so two thirds of the pain und nervous strain is eliminated. Formerly it took half a day to make a filling. Now an expert, working with electricity, may till a tooth in ten minutes. An electric root dryer heats up the cavity after it is cleaned and dries it out almost in stantly. That is a modern invention and time-saver. An English modeling wax has taken tbe place of plaster of paris, which was a heat-producer, be sides being Ill-tasting. Very few first-class dentists now ad minister chloroform or ether, and raerly is nitrous-oxide gas 1 given. Any thing that reduces to unconsciousness has a bad effect. Local anesthetics are down to a tine point now. Probably the most popular Is ethol chloride. This is sprayed on the part to be treated for sensitive dentlflcs and aching teeth. Among the local anesthetics, injected hypodermically, is cocaine, odontunder, nlvatuuder and the many formulas of tunder. The most common disease that the dentist has to treat is pyorrhea alveo laris, or gradual absorption of tbe pro cess below tbe gums. The gums re cede and the teeth become loose and drop out. This disease is due to neg lect of the teeth. It can be arrested If taken in time. There are specialties in dentistry. Two St. Louis men get $100 for straightening children's teeth. TROPICS ARE AT OUR DOOR. Americana Are Large Consumers of Products of Warmer Climes. Americans live better, perhaps, than the people of any other part of the world. They are not content with the products of their own country, but draw largely upon the tropics for con diments and delicacies that add to the pleasures of the table. The Increase In the contributions of the tropics to the daily life of man has been general throughout the countries where pros perity or an activity in manufacturing and commerce is the rule, but it seems to be especially marked in the United States, which now imports more than $ 1 , 000,000 worth of tropical and sub tropical foodstuffs and raw materials every day in the year. The increased reliance upon the tropics is probably greater, proportionately, In tbe United States than in most other countries, since a much larger share of our sugar is drawn from the tropics than Is the case with other, and especially the Eu ropean countries, which In most cases now produce their own sugar from beets. The United States has during recent years consumed nearly one-half of the tone sugar of the world which enters Into International commerce, and more than one-balf of the coffee of the world. In the year 1001 the Importations of goods usnally considered aa of tropical or subtropical production amounted to $400.600,000, or considerably more than $1,000,000 for every day In the year, including Sundays and holidays, while thirty years ago they amounted to but $143,000,000, or less than $400, 000 per day. Humor tbe Peacemaker. If the old-time duels were always dis graceful and sometimes fatal, they had the merit, like all other human thinga full of human error, of being fruitful in good jokes. Michael MacDonaugh, in his book on "Irish Life and Charac ter," gives some eases in which humor, from within or from without, came to the rescue of would-be-duelists. A witty Dublin barrister was con sulted by a physician ns to calling out a man who had insulted him. "Take my advice," said the lawyer, "and instead of calling him out, get him to call you in. and have your re venge that way. It will be more se cure and certain." An upstart squire went to an old squire for advice as to sending a chal lenge. "Healy of Longhlinstown." said he, "has threatened to pull me by the nose whenever he ineefs me. What would you advise me to do?" "Has he really used that threat?" asked the squire. "He has." "Well," said the squire, "I'll tell you what to do. Soap your nose well, and it will slip through his fingers." Perhaps the most contemptuous de clination of a challenge was that of an Irish gentleman of the old school. "Fight with him!" he exclaimed. "1 would rather go to my grave without a tight!" Cattle Are Not Natives In an introduction to a recent bulle tin on American breeds of beef cattle tbe broad statement is made that prior to the discovery of America there were no cattle In the western hemisphere. On one of his voyages Columbus is said to have brought n number of do mestic animals with him. The escape from captivity of some of the early importations of cattle was the means of establishing the famous native cat tle herds of the West Indies and Mex ico and the long horned herds of Texas. Th j wild horses of the plains were sim ilarly founded. Hen-Pecked Sparrows. Female sparrows are especially tyr annical toward their partners, especial ly at nest-building time, wheu they frequently attack their husbands fierce ly on account of their laziness. At such times the female voice enn always be detected, both louder and shriller than that of her mate, as she pecks and tousles him, until he beats an Ig nominious retreat Hen blackbirds and thrushes are often very overbear ing and even spiteful toward their mates when their bouses are in course of construction. Intoxicating Beans. Among the peasants of Southern Italy. Sicily and Sardinia a curious malady has been noticed by physicians, which is caused by eating beans. One of the most remarkable effects of the malady is a species of intoxication re sembling that produced by alcoholic drluk. In some cases persons predis posed to the malady are seized with symptoms of intoxication if they pass a field where the bean plant is in flow er, the odor alone sufficing to affect them. Some Exports to Germany. A parcel post package mailed In Brooklyn to Hamburg, Germany, re cently, Interested the postal clerks. The customs declaration of its con tents written on the outside was as fol lows: One mustard plaster............ 3 cents One box corn salve............ 9 cents Mixed candy .................5 cents Potash tablets................ 5 cents Total ...................... 24 cents When Brass Becomes Brittle. It is a curious fact that common brass which is subjected for some time to constant tension occasionally undergoes a remarkable change. It loses Its te nacity and in a short time becomes al most as brittle as glass. A Historic Tree. There still flourishes at Dundee, Scotland, a tree which was dedicated as a "tree of liberty" more than a cen tury ago during the ferment caused by the French revolution. Her Reason.—"But why did yon en courage him if you didn't want him to propose?" "Because just at that time there wasn't any one else to encour age."—Chicago Evening Poet. LOST IN THE WOODS. Practical Advice from a World Pa« mous Traveler. Every summer brings tragic tales of campers, banters and summer tour ists who are lost In the woods. . A considerable number are never found. Others go Insane from terror, hunger or cold. Even In tbe more fortunate cases the persons who are lost undergo Intense nervons strain. George Ken nan, the great traveller, , gives somo practical advice on this subject in s recent number of the Otulook. When you discover that you have lost your way sit down Instantly. You have probably strayed but a abort distance from the trail, because otherwise the branches of undergrowth would sooner have attracted your attention. Then with all your strength of will remind yourself that If you allow yourself to become panic-stricken and rush off aimlessly, you will only get'deeper and deeper Into the woods. In the tbous and- 8 quare-mlle forest tracts of Mich igan or the Adirondacks or Maine you might never be heard of again. The first act Is to break the top of a bush and bend It over. The under side of the leaves shows such differ ent tints from the upper ns to bo quickly noticeable. To this first bush tie your handkerchief for a base. Walk slowly away, breaking and bending over bush tops every ten or twelve feet for a trail, and never lose sight of your handkerchief. After a while re turn to your base and try another direc tion. always leaving a trail of bent bushes behind you. Shout whenever you return to your base. In this manner one can usually find his way to the beaten path in a few minutes, or be found by search-parties. Even children can and should bo taught this simple lesson before they are allowed near large tracts of forest. Persons going deliberately Into the woods to fish or hunt should always wear a small compaas suspended by a chain about the neck. In a pocket it is subject to too many chances of loss. If to the compass be added a tiny chamois bag containing a tightly cork ed bottle of matches, twenty feet of silk cord, a fish-hook and a few tablets of compressed food, the tourist's life Is practically safe even though he is lost for days. n ®KJ jn r While one's advertising ought to be considered In the nature of a continued story, each advertisement ought to be complete In itself. The crying weakness of modern ad vertising, says Joel Benton, is its puerility in name-making. He wants an "advertising philologist" or "ar biter of nomenclature." The citizens of Los Angeles, Cal., have expended nearly $350,000 within the past ten years In advertising, ex hibitions, etc., for thp purpose of at tracting settlers and otherwise adver tising their city. It might be pertinent to add that Los Angeles showed the largest percentage of gain in popula tion during those teu years of any city in America. Hundreds of novel advertising schemes that are hatched every day are so evenly meritless thal it is almost safe to apply Punch's advice to all of them, "Don't!" Some one tries them all, however, and vast sums of money are sunk in them. There are doubtless cases where they pay, but It would not be hard to show thut legitimate adver tising would have paid better. The great public holds its open court daily In the newspaper and will hear what any man has to say In behalf of his business provided he cau say it well.— Printers' Ink. The Philadelphia Record tellB an in terestlng story about the success of the largest general store in Tacoma, Wash. The proprietors began business in a small way, lived economically and saved every dollar to buy space in the newspapers. Now their advertising contracts call for an aggregate space of 107 pages a year. The manager of the concern says they would as soon think of going out of business as of re ducing their advertising space. The ex periment of that firm is the common experience of all extensive advertisers. A man might as well take down his business signs as to stop advertising, as might a firm. Stopped fur Once. A citizen from the frontier, who nev. er had been in Washington before, was visiting a friend in the nation's capi tal, and was taken one day to tbe gal lery of the Senate while an Important measure was under discussion. A senator was delivering a long, prosy and apparently aimless speech, and the visitor soon grew tired of It. "Why doesn't he say somethin' worth listening to?" he whispered to his friend. "Oh, he's merely talking against time." "What's the good of that?" asked the other, aghast "Time goes on just the same, doesn't It?" "I suppose It does," replied his friend, looking at his watch and yawn ing; "but it doesn't seem to." A man can't be said to be thoroughly domestic ln bis tastes unless be can get an article out of tbe refrigerator without spilling something.