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m MS % :' ' 4S m m *#s? üäi IM t mä Mai COAL MINERS ARE UNDERPAID. By Her. Rufus 4. mtJto. of Chicago. The demand for better wages is just. Coal mining in the anthracite region is not only hard, but it is unusually dan gerous. The bureau of mine inspection reports 4,370 men and boys killed in the iast ten years. In 1901 437 were killed and 1,256 injured. These fatalities left 230 widows and 525 orphans. For every 119,000 tons of coal mined in the anthra cite coal fields one man or boy is killed. Two are killed a day on the average for he working days of the miners and five njured. The killed and injured annually in the anthracite cdal mines are said to be eight times as many as were killed Uu.v. k. a. sun.. an( j wounded during our war with Spain. It is more dangerous to mine coal than to shoot Spaniards. What are the miners paid for this kind of work? On an average about $300 per yeay—the poorest paid labor, it is said, In the Northern States. It has been figured that at $30 a month a family of five would have, after rent, medical bills and cloth ing were paid for, $14 a month for food—less than 50 cents a day and not quite 10 cents a day for each person. How much meat at present prices will 10 cents a day buy i My sympathies are with the miners because before the atrike was called President Mitchell agreed to submit the mat ter In dispute to an arbitration board. The reply of the opera tors was terse to the point of insult: "There is nothing to arbi träte." Mr. Baer condescended to inform the public as well as the miners that. "The rights and interests of the laboring men would be protected and cared for, not by labor agitators, but by the Christian men to whom God, in his infinite wisdom, had given the control of the property interests of the country. ' President Baer tears a leaf from the mediaeval ages and reads it to the free Americans of the twentieth century. He talks like some resurrected baron of a mediaeval Rhenish castle To name the Lord as a partner in the railroad and coal monopolies of Pennsylvania is a blasphemy which should not go unrebuked. TUBERCULOSIS IS CURABLE. By Dr- H M. Biggs. New York's Health Ottlcer. Tuberculosis is infectious and communicable, but a tuberculosis patient may live in the same room, for days or years, with a healthy person without danger to the lutter, if proper precautions are taken. The chief danger is from bacilli thrown out from the respiratory tract. In advanced cases as many as three thousand millions are thrown out in a single day. They are inhaled as dust, and lodge in differ ent tracts in the system. If conditions are favor __ able to growth they multiply there. But the gen eral insusceptibility to tuberculosis is very great. It is only at certaiu times and under certain conditions that a large pro portion of persons are susceptible. Tuberculosis is absolutely preventable and its preventa bllity is simply putting into effect simple rules of conduct. It la a question solely of scrupulous cleanliness in regard to ex pectoration and disinfection of surroundings which have once housed the disease. It is not only preventable, but curable. It is the most insidi ous of all diseases. A specialist may declare no indications of It whatever and in a few weeks it may be manifest to any one. When there is any question one examination is not enough. Where a cough continues for more than six or eight weeks, In a large majority of cases, there is back of that cough a tuberculosis focus. When any one talks to you about chronic bronchitis and continued colds make up your mind that in a majority of cases a tuberculosis focus is bnck of it. Then is the time to establish this fact, for then it is easily curable; later It may not be. DEGENERACY OF NEW YORK'S FOUR HUNDRED. By Henry Watterson, Editor Louisville Courier-Journal The term "smart set" was adopted by society to save itself from a more odious description. The distinguishing trait of the "smart set" is its moral abandon. It makes a business of defying and overleap ing conventional restraints upon its pleas ures and amusements. Being titled after a rule, and either rich in fact or getting money how it may, it sets itself above the lnw, both human and divine. Its women are equally depraved with its men. They know all the dirt the men know. They talk freely with the men of things forbidden the decent. The H. w a rxKBsoN. women of this smart set no longer pretend to recognize virtue, even as a female accomplishment. Inno cence is a badge of delinquency, a sign of the crude and raw, B deformity, which, if. tolerated at all, must carry some prom ise of amedment. In London and in Paris, and at Monte Carlo in IRELAND'S NEW VICEROY. The Earl ot Dudley Owns 36,000 Acres of Rich Land in England. The new viceroy of Ireland, the Earl 4>f Dudley, is 3ii years old and wealthy. He owns 30,000 acres In England, in cluding tracts of rich mineral-bear ing land, and he also has estates In Jamaica and is the master of im mense Iron works. The social graces which are his as the son of Geor gina, Countess of Dudley, who has not yet lost her earl or Dudley. f amous beauty, Slave been developed by travel all over the world. Best of all, in the present -]Lady Dudley, the earl has a countess •whose good looks are nearly as renown ad as those of her handsome mother in-law, and who may be trusted to «bine as mistress of the viceregal lodge at Dublin. Like most healthy young Englishmen of rank, Lord Dudley Is fond of both •port and war. He Is president of the ultra-fashionable Ranelagh Club—over the representatives of which the Ameri can polo players who went over this year won their first victory—and, as major of the Worcestershire Yeomanry, he saw hard service in the South Afri can campaign. The earl's duties in Dublin will be «nostly of a social nature, and It Is well that he Is wealthy, for his outlay In t hi. regard will be enormous, reaching probably $300,000 a year. London Dines at Noon. Except In certain circles, from the upper middle class or the lower upper ■ rT—— upward, among whom the cus tom of evening dinner prevails, the re spectable English custom Is to serve sinnw at noon, the evening meal rang ing all the way from the workman's mpast of tea with winkles, bloaters, cr jam, to the heavy supper of game and pastry for the rich. To this- cus tom the restaurants cater, but to the EARTHQUAKE'S STRANGE FREAK. * Daring an earthquake which recently wrought havoc in the Eastern Caucasus, causing a commotion that was felt from Tiflis to the Caspian Sea and from the Caucasus to the north of Persia, the town of Schemacha was practically ruined, every prominent building being either wholly or partly 'destroyed, including the Russian church, the roof and cupola of which were turned topsy turvy in a singular manner. Photographs were taken of the various ruined buildings, among which were seven mosques, soon after the disaster, and the accompany picture was found to be the most curious and the most Interesting of all. Why 'the upper part of the church was less able to bear the shock of the earthquake than ths lower part is a problem which has not yet been solved. large floating colonies of foreigners to whom an evening dinner Is a necessity they pay no heed, says the Outlook. They continue complacently to serve "dinners from 12 to 3," after which hour one may whistle In vain, for no dinner will he get As a natural re sult an army of French and Italian restaurants are doing a brisk business and amassing fortunes, not only In ca tering for their own people, but In bringing comfort to many an English bachelor emancipated from tea and jam. Not only in the matter of ser vice, but also In the menu, does the village restaurant cling faithfully to old customs. wtr in the winter and at Trouville and Alx In the summer, they make life one unending debauch. The Four Hundred in America take their cue from the smart set in Europe. Behold them at the horse show in New York. Behold them at swell resorts. Their talk—that is, what can be heard—is of bonds, puts and calls, horses, scandals and dogs. The best society? Good Lord! It is true that we have come to a beautiful pass if simpering Johnnies and tough girls are to be accepted even by inference as the best society, while the good and virtuous of the lund, even though quite able to pay their way at home and abroad, must be relegated to the middle class - and dismissed as simple bourgeoisie. The "400" are rotten through and through. They have not one redeeming feature. All their ends are achieved by money, and largely by the unholy use of money. If one of them proposes to go into politics he expects to buy his way, and the rogues who have seats in Congress or foreigu ap pointments to sell see that he pays the price. If one of them wants to marry a lord she expects to buy him, and the titled rascals who wish to recoup their broken fortunes see that she pays the price. Their influence is to the last degree corrup tive. Their hangers-on and retainers are only such as money will buy. Nine out of every ten of th.e fortunes behind them will not bear scrutiny. Must these unclean birds, of gaudy and therefore of con spicuous plumage, fly from gilded boughs, fouling the very air as they twitter their affectations of moral supremacy, and no one to shy a brick at them and say, "Scat, you devils 1" DANGER OF INSTITUTIONALISM. By Ht. Rer. Bishop Henry C. Potter, of New York. There is danger in the tendency to Inr stitutionalism. Our danger lies not in physical deeds, but in social degradation and corruption, out of which comes ruin, which lies behind these physical matters. I would speak of institutional charity in this regard. On an island not half an hour's journey from New York are 4,000 Insane persons under the care of the State, and these people have not been visited by any one but the State commis sioner for the last four years. The force of the appalling fact is made plain When I say that alienists and in sanity experts say that one of the most bishop potteb. important matters in the treatment of the insane is that of environment. The menace of modern life is in the growth of the surrender of the care of the sick, the maimed, the imbecile, to institutional vigilance. When men come to be the care of the State in such vast numbers, it is Impossible that there can be that note of personality considered the best medicine for the sick man and the insane man. SHOULD WOMEN WORK? THEY MUST. By Mrs. C- Alex-Tweedle. Chairman Int. Con. of Women. Most women work simply because they must. In using the term "work," I of course mean working for wages, for occupation and work fall at every girl's feet almost before she is out of the nursery. The house belongs to the woman, there she should reign supreme; but, alas, there are cases where there is no home, and then it is no use trying to shut the door on women's work. They are starving in thou sands with it; they would starve in tens of thousands without. Whose fault is this? Certainly not theirs. It Is no use to cry out against women "filling men's posts," "women working for low wages," "unskilled labor," and all the rest of it. We must go back farther than that, and discover the cause. It is not far to seek, and it originates with men. Fathers must learn to provide for their daughters, however modestly, a^ßd then this stream bf women seeking employment withont quali fication will cease to exist. Do we not all know families in every walk of life, large families where the mother's health is impaired by the constant struggle to keep children tidy, to make them behave themselves, to feed them, and keep them well? Poor wornout mothers, literally overpowered with the size of their families. Poor mothers whose health is torn to shreds in the endeavor to drag up their children. The boys are educated as well as means will allow—the daughters have more or less to go without. The father has never realized his responsibility until too late. He has not seen the accumulation of expenses gathering ahead. He has not begun little banking accounts for the daughters as they arrived and only when too late he realizes the situation. He dies, perhaps the mother dies, too. There is nothing left. The boys can shift for themselves; there is always something for them to do; but the girls—what is to become of them? Girls from 10 to 25 years of age are left dally alone, unbefriended, incompe tent, and obliged to seek positions of unskilled labor. It is not the women's fault that they are unskilled. The fault lies with the father. It is not thre girls' fault that they are ill-paid; it is the employer who trades on their helplei position. No, no; do not abuse women workers; abuse the men who leave them in such a position, with neither money, borne nor education. He Wanted Action. A well-dressed man went into the tel egraph office of a southern Michigan town and wrote a message home for money. He then laid down a quarter and asked that It be sent as soon as possible. "Three cents more," said the agent "Haven't got It," replied the man. "Can't send the message, then." "Well, said the fellow, "send It as far as you can for a quarter. 1 am a gam bler, and I want action on my money, If It is only 25 cents." After saying all she wants Is JustlA, a woman proceeds to kick if ber photo graph is a good likeness. Mor is to is Remarkable Financier Who ie aan'i Right Bower. When J. Plerpont Morgan returned recently from Europe and was besieged by the reporters who plied him with all manner of questions, be waved them aside with the command, "See Perkins." The two words from the lips of the financial giant made Perkins famous and turned || the eyes of the public toward him. It per ceives In him a young man remarkable for a. w. Perkins, b 1 s knowledge o f finance and his power In the circle of the money kings. As the right bower of Morgan, be is of much Importance In the flnanclnl world and his personal ity posseses general Interest. Perkins Is 40 years old. When he was 15 he went to work In the office of one of the great life Insurance companies In Chicago. As soon as he demonstrat ed fitness for the position he was made a bookkeeper, then cashier, next solici tor and finally director of various Im portant agencies. The president of the company was so Impressed with his ability that he had created for him the position of third vice president of his company. The attention of financiers was attracted to him when he negoti ated a loan of $10,000,000 for the Rus sian government. It was the first loan the Czar's financiers had ever been able to obtain in this country, and the confi dence which men of means had In Per kins enabled him to get the money. It was some time after this that he enter ed Morgan's firm and Is now the confi dant of the man whom the rulers of Europe have lately studied. His income Is said to be $300,000 annually. GEORGE W. PERKINS. ORONHYATEKHA, CHIEF RANGER. « Fall-Blooded Mohawk. Heads Inde pendent Order of Foresters. At the session of the High Court of Ohio Independent Order of Foresters In Cincinnati Oronhyatekha, M. D„ Su preme Chief Ranger of the order, was a conspicuous figure. Dr. Oronhyatekha Is a full-blooded Mo hawk Indian, and Is considered the most remarkable member of his race In the world. He has been the head of the For esters for twenty one years, and Is be sides a Mason ol high degree. An orator of note, and possessed of fine Intelligence, Oron hyatekha, when a Mohawk chieftain, living with his tribe, gained distinc tion. ORONHYATEKHA. tion. He made the address of welcome for the six allied Indian nations to the Prince of Wales at Brantford, Canada, In 18(50. S6 impressed was England s present King with the eloquence ot the young Mohawk chief that upon his re turn to England he was accompanied by Oronhyatekha, whose expense in the study of medicine he paid. Oronhyatekha Is probably the only American tor whose education Eng land's monarch paid. A HOUSE BALLOON. B Newest of the Ideas in airships is that patented by a Chicago man— Peter Sa-' morskl. It Is a sort of house balloon, the upper part being occupied by a gasbay, while the lower portion pro vides comfortable accommodation for a family. In the rear is a great rudder and also a propeller, while the top is a railed enclosure for observation pur pose In pleasant weather. On top, too, there Is a sail, but the machine de pends for propulsion upon a large gas machine, which Is concealed In the In terior. Where the Leap Came In. They were fresh from the city and had enlisted the services of a yokel to show them all the spots of interest. Yokel—This here spot is known as "Lovers' Leap." The Fair Arrival (astounded)—Such an unplcturesque old spot beneath nightmare of a willow! How In the world did you come to give it such a romantic name? Yokel—'Cause ye can't sit here five minutes before a caterpiller drops down yer neck!—London Answers. Signs of Prosperity. "How do you get the reputation of being so much richer than you are?" asked the Intimate friend. "Very easily. I wear my old clothes aa long as possible and never admit that I have any money that I could lend. People take It for granted that I must be prosperous.''.— Washington Post Eyes of an Ostrich. An ostrich can see all around him without moving his bead. A person standing behind an ostrich can see the pupils of tbe fowl's eyes, and, of course, he Is seen by the fowl. In the eyes of those who don't like you, you are always toe old to act play ful GEJRM LIFE STUDIED. DISEASE-PRODUCING BACILLI UN DER THE MICROSCOPE. Raised In us Incubator—Very. Par t cular In Rciard to Food—Millions of tbs Little Creature, in Air. Food and Water. As b result of patient research and experimentation on the part of such men as Koch, Pasteur, Frankel, Ab bott, Eshner, and many other scien tists In this country and Europe, tho physician of to-day Is enabled to go di rect to the primary causes of disease and by the aid of perfected micro scopes and apparatus determine to a certainty the proper treatment to be pursued. In the larger cities labora tories have been established where the practicing physician, who otherwise on account of the heavy expense of equipping a private laboratory would be unnble to take advantage of this valuable adjunefto his profession, can have specimens, taken from his pa tients, Investigated under tbe skilled eye of the trained pathologist A newspaper correspondent was re cently permitted to see the inside workings of a modern "bug plant," where the ubiquitous germ Is grown, raised, nourished, and finally studied / tuberculosis bacilli. In all the varied phases of Its short destructive life. Entering the main room, filled with bottles of chemicals and uncanny-look lng apparatus, the first object to strike the visitor's eye Is a strange-looklng metal box under which burns a tiny gas flame. Readers who attended the Pan-American Exposition will remem ber the incubator on the Midway in which babies were nourished and rals ed. Here was another Incubator, but in place of bright-eyed little children, colonies of Infinitesimal disease-deal ing germs we?e being brought to life, Before the suspected germ specimen Is placed In this Incubator It must be thoroughly prepared and placed on a proper culture médium, or breeding ground. Different germs thrive on dif ferent foods, so It Is necessary, In or der to successfully raise a family of this particular branch of the bug fam ily, to select a suitable food. The aver age germ Is a great lover of beef boui llon for the main course of his dinner, while others skip the substnntlals, go ing direct to dessert and making the to to Is OK ted f to DIPHTHERIA BACILLI. entire meal of gelatin. Then there are germs with Celtic proclivities who re fuse to be nourished on any food but that mealy vegetable known as the Irish potato. A small portion of the suspected specimen is placed on one of these different mediums and trans ferred to the Incubator. In a short time the operator is able to determine by the growth on the medium whether disease germs lurk In the patient from whom the specimen came. If the cul ture tube Indicates that germ growth has taken place, a thorough ldentlflea tlon Is made under tbe powerful lense of a microscope. So exact and search ing have the Investigations of the many noted scientists been that the bacteri ologist is able to tell at a glance just what bacilli are present, and the at tending physician has a final and con clusive confirmation or rejection of bis first diagnosis. At the time of the newspaper man's visit the incubator contained a full assortment of tubes filled with colonies of deadly little germs. One small tube contained •V TETANUS BACILLI. enough diphtheria bacilli to Inoculate every Inhabitant of a large city, In an other lived a happy family of anthrax producers, while a third was the glass bouse In which a colony of typhoid fever suspects had been quarantined. After the germa have been cultured In the Incubator they are ready for ex amination under the microscope. A slender platinum needle, which has previously been passed through a flame In order to destroy existing animal life, la thrust Into the culture, and the smallest possible particle plaoed on a glass slide. Then, in order to render tbe field of germs visible under tho microscope, certain chemical stains aro used. Each species of germ life re sponds to the action of Its particular stain. Take for Instance the culture from a person suspected of being a consumptive. After the specimen had been prepared as described above, It la treated with a crimson aniline stain, and, should the bacilli of tuberculosis exist they are plainly brought out and easily Identified. The camera is a valuable adjunct to bacteriological work, as wlH be seen a t TYPHOID XEVEB BACILLI. by the accompanying drawings of four common species of bacilli taken from photographs made In tbe local labora tory. An attachment, not unlike the ordinary plate camera, is fastened to the microscope, the powerful lens ot tbe 'scope answering the same purpose as the lens of the camera used lu other photographic work. Water and milk analyses Are also made In the laboratory. Every drop of water we drink •contains germ life, but tbe germ species with few excep tions are harmless. They are not dis ease-producing, but simply act as scav engers, converting organic matter Into harmless compounds. Tbe following table compiled by leading American authorities on the subject gives an Idea of the number of these wiggling little creatures the average person drinks In a day: Exceptionally pure water contains 10 germs to each 15 drops. Very pure water contains 100 germs to each 15 drops. Pure when 1,000 germs are present Poor with 10,000 germs present, And when water contains 1,000,000 to 50,000,000 germs to each 15 drops, It Is considered very bad, and unsafe to drink. i NOTED NEGRO AUTHORESS. Mrs. Dunbar Gaining, Renown in ths World of Fiction. Among tbe negro women of the Uni ted States Mrs. Paul Laurence Dunbar bolds a leading place. Not only Is she the wife of a writer j— and poet of note.L - : f» but she herself Is an j authoress, whose works have come in ! for a good share ot j f a v o r a ble notice. Her first book w«t j published in 189.' under tbe title "Vlo-J lets and Other Tales," and In 189i>' another work, "The MBS * DUNBAB - Goodness of St. Roque," met a kind re ception. She Is a remarkably successful writer of short stories and a regular contributor to some of the leading mag azines of the country. At one time she was engaged in newspaper work In Chi cago, and in 1898, at the time of her marriage, was a teacher in one of the public schools of Brooklyn. Since 1898 she has lived in Washington and acts as private secretary and general helpmate to ber husband. CHAMPION BEAR HUNTER. MaJ, Bobo, of Mississippi, Haa Killed 364 Beara in Ten Yeara. The greatest bear hunting region and the champion bear hunter are both to be found In Mississippi, and Maj. Bobo Is the champion of the country in that line of sport In 1895 the major killed 68 bears and his two sous killed over 30. He lives the greater part of the year in the very heart of the bear belt, of which „■ he knows every u.tjoii iK>i>o. foot. His own plantation embraces 1,300 acres. To reach his mansion It is necessary to ride twenty miles on horseback or buckboard. Within the last ten years he has killed 364 bears. He keeps thirty bear dogs and forty-two deer bounds. Gave It to the Wrong Girl. A beautiful young lady, a member of the smart set, went into a Newport drug store and asked the druggist If It was possible to disguise castor olL "It's horrid stuff to take, you know. Ugh!" bald the young lady with a shud der. "Why, certainly," said the drngglst, and Just then, as another young lady was taking some soda water, he asked her if she wouldn't have some, too. Af ter drinking It the young lady lingered a moment and finally observed: "Now tell me how yon would disguise castor oil?" "Why, madam, I Just gave you some-" "My gracious me!" exclaimed the young lady; "why, I wanted It for my sister I"—Ell Perkins' Lectures. American Railways. Railway mileage lu the United States has passed the 200,000 mark, which Is considerably more than two-fifths of the entire railway mileage of the world. Acted Like a Professional. She—Did you ever kiss a girl be fore? He—Am I doing this like a beginner? —Detroit Free Press.