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CD FARM DAIRY CHEESE. Department of Asrricnltnre In Trying to Develop ltd Mannfactnro • on Larger Scale. ' There is a popular Impression that ' the Manufacture of cheese in this country has been so completely trans ferred to the factory system during . the- laet half century, as practically to abolish cheese-making on dairy farms. But tho agricultural returns of the ''twelfth United States census show that in the year 1899 there were still 'iij,G70 farms upon which dairy cheese 'was made. The quantity produced on these farms during that year was 1G, 372,330 pounos, an average of 1,045 pounds per farm. This product con stituted almost five and one-half per : t > «v?" 1,1 ......... IIP 'J p . V _ —- - _ FA KM DAIRY C11KKSE l'RESS. the cent, of all the cheese made in United Stales. it i the purpose of farmers' bulle- | tin No. ICG, "Cheese Making on the ; Farm," to furnish for the farm house hold a brief description of the most aptiro'ed methods used in the manu f: -are of several varieties of cheese. Dei tils of management, which are br.eliy and plainly described, include aeration and cooling, coloring, the use of re-met, curdling, cutting, cool ing, molding, pressing, dressing, salting and curing. The operation of press ing is explained as follows: The press may be a simple lever and weight, de scribed as follows: The lever should be about 12 feet long. A broken wagon tongue answers the purpose vory well. Set a strong box on which the mold may be placed, about three feet from a wall, post or tree. On the latter nail a slat and under it put one end of the lever. Put a circular board about, six inches in diameter upon the mold, and on this rest the stick or lever. A pail containing a few cobblestones will answer for the weight. Do not apply full pressure at first, but let the weight hang about half-way between the mold and the outer end of the stick. Let the cheese remain a few hours in the press, then take out and dress. The ordinary process by which our American cheese is made in factories is not applicable to the farm dairy, because it takes too much time and is so complicated that it requires years of practice to become familial with the varying conditions in which milk comes to the vat. The various changes t liât take place in milk, and which are troublesome in making cheese, nearly all develop in the night's milk, kept over until the fol lowing morning. So, if milk is made into cheese immediately after it is drawn, no difficulty need be experi enced, liy employing a simple anc short method of manufacture, anyone at all accustomed to handing milk can, with the appliances found in any well-regulated farmhouse, make uni formly a good cheese. er is of ; : : ' * CALVES FOR MARKET. Follow llie Directions Here Given und You Will Get a Fair l*rfce for Y «»nr Veal. Calves from three to six weeks old, and weighing about 100 pounds, or say from 80 to 120 pounds, are the most desirable weights for shipment. The head should be eut out, so as to leave the hide ol the head on the skin. The legs shun ,i be cut off at the knee joint. The entrails should he all removed, ex cepting the kidneys, the liver, lightsand heart should be ta! on out. Cut the car cass open from the neck through the entire length—from head to tail. Ii this is done they are not so apt to sour and spoil tint ing hot weather. Many a fine carcass lias spoiled in hot weather because oi its not being cut open. Don't wash the carcass out with water, hut wipe out with a dry cloth. Don't ship until the animal heat is entirely out oi the body, and never tie the carcass up in a hag, as this keeps the air from eir jylatins and makes the meat more lia ble to oeCOiae tainted. Mark for ship pent by fastening a shipping tag to the hind leg. Calves under 50 pounds «hould not be shipped, and are liable to be condemned by the health officers as being unfit for food. Merchants, too, are liable to be fined it found selling these "slunks"' for violation of the law. Very heavy calves, such as hate been fed on buttermilk, never sell well In our market—they are neither .veal nor beef. —Chicago Trade Bulletin. * JEW DAIRY POINTERS, .^V __ l * •I You cannot clean dirty millf. " ' 'f^Clean milk never com,«s from « dirty can. You cannot get milk 1 rom a starred 'tOW. v Care of milk and create has muçh to Wealth price received -for buttem TTniesB your cows turn their feed Into «ÏÏ instead of beef, they have do place *On*y d the y Hch®* n can afford to keep Jir cows; the poorer the *mar, th. tatter bla law cows sttotgä THE OLD-TIME DAIRY. Hncli Fan Wnd Poked at n, lint ltd Owner Usually Aciiiiireil » Dank Account. | ; Only under certain conditions, the iairy means wealth to tue farmer, and fertility to his larni. if these condi tions be not seemed, and maintained, dairying wui exhaust the farm and im pover.sn tue tarmer more speedily and more hope.essly than almost any oth er form of Laming. Vv uen the milk is sold off the farm, it carries with it the leriility of the soil, and generally the net price of the mine is too low to pay tor making it and to replace the fertility removed with it. '4his hard fact underlies ail the comp.aints of dairy farmers about the prolitlessness of dairy farming. Old-time dairy farming sent from the farm only the butter, and the old time farmers made money and were the most independent men on arth. VVhn farmers once more take up home churning, dairy larming will once more become steadily and satisfac torily profitable, ahd dairy farms will once more increase, instead of de crease, in fertility. The most forlorn thing in the farming region is the large dairy farm, once fertile and op erated profitably by its owner, who maue butter, now worn-out and starv ing apd w or. v in g to death the tenant who occupies and operates it. It pro duces only fractional crops of grass, corn, rye, wheat and other crops, and the milk it makes is poor in quality, small in quantity, and high in cost. It goes away in cans while the churn rots in the shed or garret, it nets the tenant 75 cents for each dollar he puts into it, He can't pay his rent. The owner says he is no good. The tenant says the farm is no good—and both ; are right. The churn, substituted for : the can, would change such farms de cidedly and profitably for both owner : and tenant. When will farmers open their eyes to the business folly im plied in the senseless work that is mis called "dairy farming?" Butter is the basis of farm wealth and fertility, hut farmers in these days seem to think that butter-making is hard work in comparison with milk shipping. On this fundamental error they have built and are maintaining the losing ship ping business, throwing away the soil of their farms along with their own strength, health, work, comfort and lives.—Midland Farmer. CLEANING FARM WELLS. How to Bull«! n Derrick Which Facti« itfitett the Work and la Simple In Conn! ruction. Every farmer should have his well good and clean for the winter months. Here is a design for a handy well der rick. The scantlings are 12 feet long, two by four inches thick, made of elm. The three pieces at each end and the middle are four by four inches, also of hardwood, spiked to the scantling. I DERRICK FOR CLEANING WELL, A one and one-fourth inch hole is bored at the top, about 14 inches from the end. Another hole, the same size, is bored at the bottom, about one and one-half feet from the end. The cut shows the derrick set up for use. The legs are 11 feet long, four Inches thick, and of good, solid tim ber. A one and one-fourth inch hole is bored through the top for the bolt to go through. The inside part of the leg where the hole is bored should be made line a wedge, so as to fit closely against the scantlings. The pulleys are 12 inches in diameter, and are made of wood. The rope should be put over the top pulley, and under the bottom pulley. The legs should be sunk in the ground, so they will not slide and let the derrick fall. A good strong hook should be securely fastened on the rope. A steady horse ean operate this all right., once it is understood.— Harry H. Postle, in Farm and Home. Renovated Butter Business. Although renovated butter is an im provement over its ancestors, the thought of eating the rancid putrid grease which has only been well laun dered. is not a pleasant one. Removing the smell and taste from "stock" which la found in most country groceries, in a j&rrel in tho rear, puts a premium upon bad farm butter. In one respect, it seems to be a good thing, as it affords an outlet for the rank, cheesy, mottled, çreasy stuff sent to town by the care less, ignorant and uncleanly farmer. But that very farmer is the main loser. He cannot get enough for his poor prod uct to pay him for producing it. It costs as much to feed cows and make bad but ter as it does to feed cows and make good butter.—Rural World. I Sanitary Cow Stable* Needed. It seems to be a difficult thing in dairy management to secure cleanly condi tions tu a cow stable. About 99 out of 100 are far from sweet and clean; the offensive odors contaminate the breath, blood and tissue of the animal ; and con sequently a first-class article of milk :annot be produced. The barns should 3 « dusted often and whitewashed at least once a year; not only to give them a good appearance and make the stable lighter, but to purify them and kill any germs of disease that may have collect id on valla or ceilings.—Midland ''Parmer, _____■ !0 T7T y STRAWBERRY BARREL. A Novelty In Gardening Which Af fords Rare Pleasure, and a Good Income Besides. Here is a horticultural - curiosity, a strawberry bed containing a hundred plants flourishing in the small compass of an ordinary flour barrel. Next season when you set out your plants and feel that you have not a 150-foot run by two feet wide of garden space to devote to strawberries, just take a copy from the accompanying illustration, from the New York Herald. Burn out a flour barrel, paint It any color you please on the outside, then • ». it . F • -' • Vy FLOUR BARREL GARDEN. screw four rollers to the bottom. Next bore a hole through the bottom to take an inch iron bar just long enough to keep the cask in position. Let the roll ers rest on a flagstone or cement floor, so that the barrel may be partly turned around' every day to face the sun. Two handles should he affixed to the top. Bore two-inch holes in a zigzag around the cask, and at each of these apertures insert the crown, or heal, of the plants in some fine mold. A wire netting one foot in diameter is rlaced in the center of the cask which should be filled with rich manure. When the barrel is full place nine or ten plants around the top, keep well watered and you will have a fine crop of berries and a decided novelty in gardening at the same time. THE PEACH ORCHARD. Soil on Which It I» Located Must Be Neither Too Rich Nor Alto gether Poor. In spite of the disasters experienced In spite of the disasters experienced by peach growers during the last five years, peach orchards are being planted in considerable numbers and on large areas. This is a wise th : ng to do, as a big crop now and then helps to average up the lean years and the years when freezes destroy large areas of peach orchards. Grad ually localities are being found in most of our states where the disasters come rarely and where crops of peach es are common. Soil for peach ordchards may be of almost any character, except swampy. Wherever situated it should contain enough sand to permit of a sort of natural drainage about the roots. Where there is a hard, com pact clay beneath, peach trees should not be planted, as the roots of the trees find It difficult or impossible to penetrate it and are compelled to feed only in the surface soil. When the water in the surface soil is gone, the roots are exposed to the drought. When they go into winter in this con dition they are most easily affected by the cold. It is now believed that moisture in the soil has a very im portant influence in bringing trees through severe winters unharmed. In addition, where there is a hard pan that will hold water, some of the trees will most likely be set in basins that will keep their roots immersed for weeks during the wet weather. This often results in the destruction of the tree, as the roots of peach trees must have air as well as water to en able them to grow. The texture of the subsoil has much to do with the luccess of the peach orchard. It must not be so impervious to water as to hold (t for long periods and it must not be so porous as to permit it to leach away too readily. The soil ihould be loose enough to permit the passage of water, out must be close enough to keep the law of capillary attraction in operation. A good peach 5oil is neither too rich nor too poor. A too rich soil gives wood growth at :he expense el fruit.—Farmers' Re view. of Harvesting a Bran Crop. The easiest way to handle a crop ol try shell beans for winter use is to illow the pods to ripen on the plants. If dry, clear weather, pull the plants ind allow them to dry on the ground for one or two days. Then store the •ntlre plant In & dry, cool place to be threshed when convenient. Treated in .his way the pods do not have to be picked from the plant. The threshed teed is roughly cleaned in a fanning nill and the straw fed to sheep, hogs or tattle. In wet weather or with pole varieties, the pods will have to be gath ered by hand as fast as they ripen, and ipread thinly tn a cool, dry place, ao that the beans will not become discol »red.—Superintendent E. D. Darling ton, Fordhook Seed Farms, Pa. If you have no Ice thie summer, buy » eeparator. It can be bought cheaper tvan lea can be bandied, anyway, SPRAYING OF PLANTS. Circumstances ITnve Made Copions lie of Insecticides mid Fungi cides Imperative. In an address on sprayirg, Prof. F. VI. Webster said: The canker worm, .he tent caterp:.lar, Icafrollers and jther native leaf-eating insects, find nstead of an occasional wild cherry tree, wild cr.abappio tree or wild plum tree, whole acres cf improved varieties Df these, acres upon acres of rasp berry, blackberry, strawberry and grape. Grass feeding insects find hundreds and thousands of acres of grassy plants more tender and juicy than the natural grasses. Is it any wonder that native insects, before confined to a le :s number cf less fruitful trees, with an occasional year that permitted almost no fruit at all to grow, thus almost exterminating them, should, under such favorable conditions as are offered by our pres ent system of fruit, vegetable and grain culture, thrive and increase in numbers far beyond what they would under less artificial and les3 favor able surroundings? We first create an environment, unnatural and vastly more favorable than the original for the development of insect enemies of our crops, and bring about the very conditions that these insects are in tended to prevent, and then wonder why it is that they do what is the most natural thing in the world for them— feed and breed in the midst of plenty. It has always seemc-d to me that the fruit grower who planted out his or chards, vineyards and berry fields, and gave them no protection from their natural enemies, was doing what a commanding general would do if he were to send a division of his army into the enemy's country and not support it with other troops. It is as plain as can possibly be that the fruit grower must use artificial meas ures to fight the enemies of his crops, if he expects to succeed. The present condit'ons are now what they are, and we cannot now change them. This being true, it is manifestly the proper course to pursue, in seeking by artificial means to counteract, so far as possible, the adverse effect of these present conditions. Thus, the spraying of plants with insecticides and fungicides becomes imperative.— Farmers' Review. A ere aad out, HOW TO KEEP ROOTS. Every Farmer Who Keeps Stock Should Build n Substantial Cellar for Them. a of to to at Roots are one of the common feeding crops of Canada and the northern states. They are a crop it pays to winter prop erly. My root cellar is 24x30 feet and ten feet high, having stone sides. The roof is first covered with three-inch cedar plank, then with a covering of sawdust six inches thick, and a shingled roof with space between to keep out the frost. There is an alleyway at entrance of cellar six feet long. Doors close tight mi Ä* the by t of C. SUBSTANTIAL ROOT CELLAR, to both cellar and alley. There are three windows, one at each side and one at end. These are well banked in winter. Roots are aired from doorway dur ing severe weather. There is also a loose stone wall, built four feet high around the cellar about four feet from wall of cellar. The space between is filled with clay six feet high. There is no danger of roots freezing even in cold est winters. In such a cellar they winter perfect ly. I winter over 1,500 bushels Swedes; 2,000 bushels could be put in, but if toe many are together they are liable to heat and spoil. I keep turnips until there is green feed ready to cut in the fields for my show sheep and lambs. The cel lar shown was built about 35 years ago. Material was cheaper then, but such a cellar would cost here now from $200 tc $250. Min" are well built and will last many wm^rs yet.—Henry Arkell, in Farm and Homs. ol to the be in be or and ao buy Cabbasve Worm Remedies. The only sure and abiding remedy for cabbage worm, says an authority, is a small handful of fine sawdust. It is cheap, sure, harmless and effectual. Probably the best and cheapest way tc combat worms on cabbages is simply to sprinkle salt on the infested heads. From the moment the salt is applied the worms cease to feed, and in an hour or two they drop from the heads to the ground. Get five cents' worth of cayenne pepper, put it in the teakettle and make a strong tea. When cool put it in a bottle and squirt some on each head or sprinkle out of a pan with a whisk broom. __ The Art of Transplanting. Set plants into freshly turned soil so that moist earth will come into contact with the fine roots. A rainy, or at least a cloudy, day late in the afternoon Is a favorable time. Make the hole about the depth of the root. Insert plant and press the earth closely and firmly to the roots. In dry weather press the soil with the toot, and then go over lightly with a rake to stir the surface and to hold in the molBture. Keep the plants wet during aettlng. Ten minutes of wilting either before or after setting would often set tle the fate of the plant.—American Gul tivator. a '• -».aft! v iLil üdjL'jS il STARTING LARGE STONES. A Task That la Quite Simple, Al though It Iceini to Paule Many Hard Workers. Half-buried stones of medium size ere hard to get out, as the soil is packed .round them and r.o gcod hold can be aad with the hands. For starting them out, nothing is so good as a cant-hook, * ...... ' £ . STRONG STONE HOOK, like the one shown. It is much like those used for logs, but should have an extra strong handle with pin or ring at the top. To save wear the lower end should be faced with iron plates screwed on. The hroh iron can easily be made by anyone used to working at a forge, t catch the hook at some corner or cook of the stone, and rcll it out upon the stone boat without any hard lifting/ C. H. Gowdy, in Farm and Home. PROGRESS IN FLORIDA. Laws Passed by Legislature Devot' Ins Large Sams to the Build ing of Hoads. is a is is a tc in It tc to a or so a the the the in no state of the union Is there greater enthusiasm among the people tor building good roads than in Florida and in no state has more good legisla tion favorable to road improvement been enacted during the past year. The leg islature which recently adjourned en acted several general road laws. Their general purport can be gathered from the following brief statement by Senator A. S. Mann, who is state organizer for the Florida Good Roads association; ''The general public at first glance will not ho pre parce- 1 o grasp the import anc of the present good roads laws. The act giving the internal improvement fund to good roads alone in its entirety in lands and money bequeaths to the cause not less than ten or fifteen million of do! lars. In Florida, where material abundant and cheap with little or no expensive cuts or fills to make and sand as a foundation insuring perfect drain age or readbed, an immense amount of work can be done on this fund alone but couple with this the convict money one-half of which goes into the general revenue fund of each county, and may be used on roads if the county commission ers so wish, snd the levy of a three-mi ax on all values for same purpose, ar.d all will see that the power to make good roads bas been given without stint. Another act of the highest Importance sets aside for purposes of road improve ment the Indian war claims, the paymen of which has been authorized by con gross. From this alone the state will realize over half a million dollars. It is an interesting fitet that the aver age swamp land fund and the Indian war claims fund both come to the state from the national government; and now that the legislature has decided to use 'hem for road building they are virtually rational aid to road improvement. The -warap lands were granted to the state hv congress about the middle of the last century. A large part of the lands have -ince been sold or donated to promote railroads ard other internal improve ments, but there are still many million of acres of valuable land from which an immense fund can be derived, all which is to be u^d for road building The roads are not tobe built by the state but by the counties, each of which will 'raw from these funds in proportion to the total assessed value of its property This is not all the road legislation the good roads advocates of Florida want. A large and enthusiastic state good roads convention was held at Gainesville in July. Resolutions were adopted de manding the employment of convicts in road building; urging joint action of counties in building through lines of roads across the state In all directions pledging support to candidates for of flee who will work for good roads; de daring for cooperation with the Na tional Good Roads association in the work of organization; and demanding that the rational government aid the states in the great work of building good roads throughout the country. Is Keepius Boys on the Farm, A prominent breeder of Short-horns claims to have found a way to keep the boys on the farm. As each boy reaches a certain age he gives him a few good pedigreed females, bargaining that hr is to have all the males while the be: receives all the females. The father claims that It pays him well, while the son soon finds himself with a small Herd of Improved animals on his hands md baa no desire to leave the farm. Ciena Milking la Important. Pains should be taken to extract the last drop, if possible, at every milli ng. Not only should this be done be -ause the milk last drawn is the richest, >ut that cows may be made to main .ain their flow much longer when pains ire taken at each milking. This is a matter of great importance to the dairy man. as It determines the preflt or lose >f bis business. A poor man cannot of lord to keep a poor cow. in of of A NATIONAL PROBLEM.'* Solation of tHe Bond Question Should Encase the Attention of » Oar Best Men, ** It Is claimed by some that the build ing of roads la strictly a local matter, that the benefits are entirely, local, and that the whole expeuso should be borne by the local committees. This ia not the view taken by the most pro gressive countries of Europe. There the building and maintenance of roadc Is one of the important functions of government Franco, Germany and Switzerland are covered by a network of the finest roads in the world. As a result, the western half of Europe ia the pleasure ground of the world. Tha revenue derived from tourists is. one of the principal sources of income for people of nearly ail classes. But with out these good roads this revenue could never ba secured The aim of the people In those coun tries is to make their grand moun tains, their beautiful lakes, their love ly valleys, their castles and monu ments easily accessible by means g t fine, hard, smooth roads. ~rj What a contrast appears when we turn to our own country. We have the finest scenery in thé world in tho great mountains of the west, but it id practically inaccessible. Except ad they get glimpses of it from car win dows, the grandeur of our mountains and canyons, and the beauty of our mountain lakes, streams and valleys are a sealed book to the général trav eling public. And this will always ba the case so long as steep, stony moun tain trails are the only means o£ travel beyond the railway lines, < In deed, much of our finest scenery can not be reached, even by such trails. If the United Si.at.c3 government, in cooperation with the states and local communities, would build great,smooth highways, making the wonders and beauties of our great west easily ac cessible to tourists, in a few years tha tide of travel would be turned west ward. Not only would' millions of dol lars spent annually by Americans in Europe be kept at home, but other, millions would be brought to our shores by tourists from foreign lands. But the natural attractions of oun country are not the only things which are made inaccessible by the lack oC good roads. Our places of historio interest are mosrly in the same cate gory. Take, for instance, Montieelloj home and tomb of the immortal Jef ferson. Few Americans even know where it is, much less visit it Mon ticello is only three miles from the city of Charlottesville, Va., which ia on two great trunk lines. Why, then, is it so little known? Because threa miles of about as bad road as can ba imagined lie between it and the rail way station. One cannot travel over that narrow, steep, rough, muddy country road without a feeling of shame. At present an effort is being made by a small band of Patriotin, men and women to build what ia known as the Jefferson Memorial road, to make Monticello accessible to tha public, but only a beginning bas been made, and they are finding it up-hill work to raise funds to complete tha task. But, after all, the encouragement travel is not the most important rea son for the building of good roads; They are absolutely necessary for tha prosperity and happiness of the peo ple. The era of railroad building on a large scale is practically at an end; In the course of commercial and In dustrial development we have reached a point where the great problem ol improving the common roads must ba faced. We can no longer treat it as a local question. We have tried that tot three-quarters of a century, and in nearly every section of tho country the miserable results are apparent The good roads problem will never ba solved locally. It is too vast It can be solved only by the genius, tho wealth, the labor and the patriotism of the whole people. A great national movement is necessary. In coopéra* tion of the nation, the states, the coun ties and the local communities lies tha solution of the problem. n CEMENT YOUR CELLAR; 1$ Costs Bat m Pen Dollars and t|t Work Will Pay tor Itself 4m m Few Weeks. A damp cellar is an abomination anf a menace to health. Cement it yourself; It need cost you only a few dollars foi cement, OfiC9 ÇXfierkîLCçd, yqu wouldn't a 5 Æ * w TÎ THE BEST CELLAR FLOOR, part with this great comfort and coté venience. Smooth the cellar floor, 1 q dining It slightly toward one side an! one end. It the cellar drain Is at* on corner. Along this side and end make a shallow rounded trench. Lay froik an inch to an inch and a halt of cement over the floor, making the open draia at side and end as shown in the cut Any water that now gets into the cellai Is at once carried by the open drain ta the outlet drain, and there is go mu$} the cellar.—Farm Journal. >3^' - * __ Keep an account with each of yoflj cows, and learn if they ere helping tg support you or not Get returns for yoi care and trouble.—-Epltomlst, It your cow dotant pay for iff let aome çne else board her.