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KOTES ON DRAINAGE. What Mast Be Done In Places Where ^__ Artificial ttnderil rainage la ■ _ Kecessury. There are different conditions of soil where insufficient natural underdrain age is likely to result on land having a god slope to its surface. One is where the roil is very fine clay, with pores so small that water can pass through them but slowly. In removing the surplus wa ter from such soils the natural pores are capable only of acting as laterals for a short distance. Artificial outlets or chan r.els must be supplied at frequent inter vais, into which they may empty. On similar slopes where the soil is more porous, the same amount of surplus wa ter might be able to pass on through the ric.t r v FIG. 2 PECULIAR STOIL CONDITIONS, porrs of the soil to some natural outlet without causing any undue accumula tion at anj point. Another condition requirin', the application of an artificial outfit is where a fine clay soil is over laid by a more porous one as in Pig. 1. Tile water jvissirc mere readily through the upper soil will, in seeking its level, be carried into tlip finer soil much fast er than it can get away. To produce this condition there need not be a very gr< t difference in the porosity of the two soils, neither is it essential that the lower soil lie an extremely fine grained one. It i= simply a problem of tr.'ii g to force the stream from a large pipe into a smaller one. Such a condition may occur where the slope is steep, or where it is very gradual. The result may vary from a slight interfer ence with cultivation in vet j j ■ j ! ! ! J ' 1 j j j ■ ! I j i j j I • j et times I lo a constant boggy condition of a por tion of the more im ■ r"ions 1 oil area. Si ill another cot- iticn that can he relieved only by artifieia! means is where a stratum of sand crops out at some place on a slope as in Fig. 2. The char acter of the soil overlying the layer of sand is immaterial. Whether closed or orten, it will drain into the sand, which, being so very open, allows the water to flow readily to the nearest out et. If the sand Is coarse enough, the volume of water carried large enough, and the outlet is confined to one point, a flowin' spring is the result. Other wise a more or less wet condition ex ists on the slope below the outcrop, asat a. This condition is likely to extend for a lorrr distance in a horizontal line around the slope. This water may be concentrated into a running spring and the wet condition of the hillside rem edied by running a line of tile along the outerop of Hip same stratum, A very common error in attpmnMfg to drain such a wet place on a hillside is to place the tile ton far down the slope, as at a, where here is perhaps the most water in the surface soil. It will be readily seen from the fi-ure that with such an ar rangenvmt the soil between the tile and the sand Inver«- sfifl ho wet. nstho water would he ' thorough it to reach tfi, Mle. The proper place for the line of tile is along Ihe bottom of the sand stratum (at b> to catch the water before it entes the surface soil of the lower slope.—Prairie Farmer. PRETTY FARM HOMES. They Snagcst a Happy Bird's Xest and Speaks of Fontrni meut nnd Hl»li IM* III«» lit. I wish I could more forcibly im press on the mind of the farmer the value of attractive surroundings. Ev ery farm home should be attractive. It is not necessary to have a fine house or fancy cottage, or expensive lawn fence to make t! e farm home pret ty. To be sure, a neat fence, a few or nament - on the house and the fret* use of paint help mightily, but the chief ait: lions can he made of trees and shrubs. A shady lawn and a shady cliiveway are always attractive. Groups oi t •(> s, shrubs or (lowers nev er fail to e "tii. The lawn may not be kept perfectly smooth, all the trees may not be cleanly pruned, yet the home place ornamented with them does not fail to convey the impression that peace and contentment dwell there. As a lady from the eiiy .said, "A pretty farm house suggests a hap py bird's nest. We do not notice tho dwelling so much as we do the sur roundings. If the surroundings aro pretty we know the interior of the house is ail right and that it is the abode ol love and contentment and all that makes life worth living. We look to the city for fine mansions, but to the country for pretty homes."—Home and Firezide. !" Chanjïln» Stock In Pasture. 1 It is not best when it can be avoided to keep all kinds of stock in the same pasture, or keep one kind of stock in the same pasture too long at one time. The idea in changing is, that one kind of stock may like the kind of grass that another may not eat, and in order to lessen the waste as much as possible It is best to change. Usually sheep can fol low cattle to good advantage, as they JflU eat much -t cattle will refuse, BREAK UP THE CRUST. In Working the Soil Most Farmers Too Often Forget the Great kam of ( a|il Uurlt y. a so a When rain falls on heavy soils, the waier penetrates it only slowly, as the spaces between the soil particles are very small. Alter the rain, the sun and the wind begin their work, and the evaporation from the soil causes it to form a crust. This crust, whie preventing the air from reaching the roots of the plants, serves as a medium through which the water in the soil may the more readily pass of, without going through the plants. The lauer, therefore, often seem at a standstill in their growth. The wa This generally occurs after a heavy rain. On t; i- must not be permitted to pass out | of the soil except through the plants, if we are able to prevent it, and we can to a large extent prevent this by break ing up the crusts as soon as they form. The heavier the rain the firmer the crust is likely to be. We too often forget the great law if capillarity that is working in our j soils. Those who have not given at j tention to this matter imagine that ■ plants drink water in bulle. This is j not true, at least for any length of ! time. When there is a down-pour a ! plant may take up water, if it be ! thirsty for it. but it is probable that it J tv »s up water only in a certain pro ' Portion to its food. It cannot gorge i's cells with water minus food. Most 1 of the water it tal es is drawn un from j the lower porf-'n-s of ihe soil by j capillary attraction, and the film j of water is surrounded by a larger bulk ■ of air ami by these two the plant ! food in the soil is made available for I the plant. Now, the hard-packed soil is a soil with great power of drawing up water. Some one has described j the sun and the wind as the prir-s of i the Lord to draw moisture out of the j 0 '"'lh. The sayirg is largely true, j Tînt these pumps should be made by I man to draw moisture out of the • leaves of our plants, that growth may j he accelerated.—Farmers'Review. GRINDING MADE EASY. Attachments Which Hnh the Work of SburpeitinK Tools of Its Old Time Terrors. The kind-hearted mother who stipu lated that her fond son should be in haying season be allowed to daily "turn the grindstone an hour to rest," I has passed from this world's troublous scenes and 1 now provide for her great grandson. It is much more comfortable and a much better edge can be given to an implement if one can sit on the grind stone frame and see the edge as it be gins to turn. In the cut, a b, is a seat, the upright board enabling one to get very near to his work without becoming wet. The height of the frame should be sufficient for the tallest person. The foot treadle can be adjusted to suit a short per son by changing the bolt on leg and -HF r .X GUI N DSTONE ATTACHMENTS. piston rod. A strip of bent iron will keep the treadle in position. An old lead keg, with a faucet, hung over the stone, will regulate the water supply better than a trough placed un der the stone. Grindstones, too, be come soft and uneven by standing in water. The gum or dirt adhering to a stone can be removed by grinding a soft brick or placing fine sand on the wet stone. A ten-inch board should be suspended by a wire so as to prevent the operator's pants and shoes from becom ing wet. If the grindstone has become mmll, raise it by putting a piece of joist between the frame and the mounting.— G. R. Drake, in Farm and Home. Domina Straw I» a Waste. It would almost seem impossible that there are still to be found farm ers in tlie central west who adopt tho practice of burning (he straw. It is not surprising that this plan of get ting rid of the straw was practiced in the early days, for the reason that soils in tliis belt were highly charged with vegetable matter, and indeed were in no sense improved by tlie ap^ plication of humus. But tlie cropping of soils for a period of thirty or forty years works a dee ded change in the methods that are to be employed in their cultivation. The time has cer tainly arrived in the central west when it will not pay to burn straw.— Midland Farmer. The Sheep ns a Civilizer. A speaker at a recent local grow ers' meeting eulogized the little ani mal with the g '.den hoof in the fol» lowing interesting strain: "Sheep are always the advance ; iard to attack new and undevelope l territory. Thd first sheep and the t that placed foot on ' United Statei of A n r from the same fleet September 5. 1505, From that day to t been the most univ the settlers in sub and maintaining i. and whenever thr; them sterility exist Cq thelt folly." negro slaves at is now the i were landed St. Augustine > years ago. the sheep ha^ ive agent of the country : oduetiveness; .vc neglected j a monument o the as the a in a NEAT POULTRY MARKER. ' / _ _____ i It I. Easily Put On and Does Not Mu dilute or Inconvenience ! the Chicken. __ A marker that is easily put on and does not injure or mutilate the chicken is made from a two-inch strip of zinc or tin, as shown in the cut. The waste | cuttings from any tin shop will include plenty of strips that will answer with out much cutting. A hole is to be punched in the large end, through which the point is to be inserted and bent over after wind ing around the shank of the bird. To ■ ID/* _ * "'** ! is a it HOME-MADE LEG BAND. put on the numbers neatly, cover the end of the tag with grease, in which write the figures carefully with a nail. Then apply a ilttle muriatic acid, which will cut into the surface of the metal where the nail has laid it bare.—I. A. Fiske, in Farm and Home. BAD FLAVORS IN EGGS. - They Are Caused by tlie Food the liens Eat and Change of Ra tion Cures the Evil. Farmers have known for years (hat when onions were fed to hens they im parted their flavor to the eggs. Now, an experiment station has very carefully iro.tc it by a thorough trial, but they • mini that it required some 15 cays be fore they could detect the flavor. Their ans or garlic must have been very . . .. mud iiavore Ü, or the hens were not very — m bv ........- '' t ' ., : hen learned it b e.pt, -ence throwing some par.ly de a. cd ornons into the henyaru. it took he to detect the flavor in stror'-r tPvrMh ^ ha<i * stronger flavor than a raw onion, says the American Cultivator. Rut then we ' Sd n0t Kar ;\ Pd t0 f /e th f heES sreen tae winter, only as we had hung iocd durir it from tli vble waste, which wa , nr „. 0 . ..... .... „ . . . scota large amour.i, just cabbage leaves, par ings of roots and such material from a small family. It does not take a week to give a fishy flavor to eggs if hens are fed freely on fish when hungry for ani mal food, and it is manifest all the sooner if the fish is a little stale, and de caying meat, not sweet enough for table use, will flavor eggs just as quickly as it docs milk when fed to cows, and we only wonder that the experiment sta tion should have thought it was neces if », , th6y °? ly need another experiment to prove what oth ers have proved long ago, that decay ing meat or fish, if fed to liens in suffi cient quantity, will cause rapid decay of eggs, or of the flesh of the fowl, if they are slaughtered within from one to three days after it has been fed. And yet the fowl while alive may seem none he worse for it. and perhaps be none the worse for it a week later if its use is discontinued, as the bacteria that cause rapid decay cannot work in the living body, and will perish there in about a week in a healthy animal. This is our reason for objecting to the raw cut bone and meat, so much advocated now. If fresh it Is all right except in the point of cost, but decay has usually be gun in it before the poultry keeper can buy it, or he will buy enough to last several days, and it has had time to acquire a bad odor and flavor and the germs of decay. POULTRY YARD NOTES. A clay of neglect in the poultry yard often leads to a month of care. Remember that filth and lice cause about all the diseases poultry is afflicted with. Get ready for the show season and let the other fellows see what kind of a breeder you are. Early maturity is what makes winter laying pullçts. Force the pullets along as rapidly as possible. Lawn clippings stored where they will dry in the shade are an excellent substitute for vegetables in the winter. if you have milk do not be afraid of giving the hens too much of it. Butter milk or sour milk are as good as sweet. liens like to scratch for their feed, but if they must scratch for all they get they will not have much time for lay ing. Some people prefer to keep flocks of mixed blood. They talk nicely about their flocks, but they will learn better later. The time to fure disease is just be fore it appears. This can be done by using plenty of that best of mcdicirte_ prevention.—Commercial Poultry. in How Stock Helps Laud. An Instance was related to me the other day of the value of stock raising and its incidental clover rotation in 7 building up the productive capacity of the land. Before the perfection of the of Chicago cold storage beef industry large herds of cattle were driven to the Vash ington market from northern Virginia ! e8e ip? rmS WCre thcn n,odel9 I o rer ibty. The rotation was wheat, corn and clover, and little if any com mercial fertilizer was used. The beef proi ui e was of the finest. When Chi whPr« b thL^T aD t0 b . e . . shlpped ^'ery- is nrnfltshu tl f , m " s did Eot flnd It so as 1 Tu tee ? aEd drh e them I,«,,* . i. . * Ie * Tears UHzer these farm IndTT/^ 31 ^ " steadily deceased In productive' cV " pacity, until now most of them are worn out and will not produce l"buîh! « els of wheat to the acre.-wL h ,ngto n .Correspondence .* --ican Cultivator, CARE OF COMB HONEY.** It Hast Be Handled Carefully to In ■ nr * a Profit and Establlak a Reputation. As soon as the comb honey is sealed, remove it from the hive, scrape all / sections clean of propolis then put it _ directly into shipping cases and close tight. Keep it in a warm room till i time to sell, never allowing it to freeze, " treezing it cracks the comb, says The ! Farmer . and when warmed again it be Kms to * eak out » making a nasty, dauby mess. ,.® e sure 7° ur shipping case is tight so *hat anbs > millers, or flies cannot get * n ' Bo n °t Put honey in a cellar, as i *-he dampness busts the cappings, the ! honey grows thin, loses its flavor and j ! ea!<s out, while if stored in a dry room | ** will improve and thicken, Never pack two colors of honey to gether or mix it in the shipping cases, Keep the white honey by itself for a better price. ! Be very careful not to pack any sec tion of honey having a single cell of °„ Eey pollen in it, for it surely will have an egg from a moth miller in it, which will hatch out a big ugly worn to spoil the If you haven't shipping o-.ccs ready to pack the honey in as seen as ta' cn off the hives, then store it in the supers in a dry, warm room, tiering them up as high as you can reach. After two weeks fumigate with sulphur to kill any moth worms that may be hatching. Also repeat the fumigation once in two weeks till cold weather. Ship all honey to market before freezing weather, if possible. SYSTEMATIC SELECTION.'' The Only Way In Which the Vsefiil ness of Ponltry Cnn Be Increased with Certainty. Everyone would like to have the ideal hen that begins laying in November keeps it up a]1 winj S November, ----x— -- .. and raises a flock ot - nice plump cockerels and good laying pnlle;s in the summer when e ggs are ch€ap . To secure EUch a olass "J™ trv> we woukl say get sonlo purebref i f °tindation stock and then select for desir 'd end try> but also in all farm stock . Dccem . bf r layin „ Etrains f]o the Selection is the ground work of improvement, not only in poul not come by chance. To get this trait, the pullets are hatched early, fed well, and when there is a marked tendency shown by a few individuals to get down to earn est work, the eggs of these few are used the following year for hatching, and so the work for improvement goes on. The same course is followed in producing table fowl. Everyone can practice this improvement if the trouble is taken, and when the work is undertaken intel ligently and with determination the trouble is considerably decreased. The B an, long-legged hen, and the over-fat, idle individual, should go to the kitchen early in their existence; then when spring comes and the time for hatch ing begins, the eggs from the most de sirable types need only be used. This systematic selection is the only way in which we can increase the usefulness of our poultry and the proflts of ul . try-raising.-Commcrcial Poultry. --- 1 FARM POULTRY EOUSE. - ~ * The P' cture shows a very convenient P° ultr y house. The scratching shed, S, 8hould llave at least one window, which should he large enough so as to throw a very strol, S light in the inside. The hol,sc Proper should have a door and a By Vary Ins Its Lenctlt It Can Bo Made Large Enough for a Big; Flock. window the same as the scratching shed. This is a convenient plan for a poultry house, and by varying its length it can GOOD POULTRY HOUSE. eno ''Sh for a good many the cut, P shows the perches, F, the floor; R, scratching room under poultry house; A, the partition between the house and shed.—Orange Judd Farmer. Alfalfa an a llon«»y Plant. Alfalfa is the greatest honey plant known to modern agriculture, says F. D. Coburn. It is superior to any white clover, sweet clover or buckwheat, and under favorable conditions gives a honey flow from June till October. The farmers in the alfalfa-growing dis tricts are only beginning to appreciate their opportunities for honey produc tion. There were 57,722 stands of bees in Kansas in 1903. The average honey product per stand was given as a little over 13 pounds for the whole state. Eighteen eastern counties, where al taIfa is scarcely known, produces only 7 - 6 pounds of honey per stand. These 18 counti es contained about 38 per cent of the bees of the state> 21 - 9 °8 stands, and Produced only 22 per cent of the hone y' _ Essentials in Hen Foods. There is no single food which is per feet, or which contains all the desirable elements necessary for production, for which reason corn as an exclusive diet will not give satisfactory results. There is but little lime in wheat and corn, and as lime is essential in the production of bon ® U is evid ent that young chicks will "ï 6 "v i ""'rj h portion of their food consists of corn " d " rn mea1 ' " cl ° y er, either gree^ " ""T*' f' k i8fed wIth corn ' i* derlved from th * « 3 " b, "' ioa than £ om the only, mSLSÏJSïS* *° * and Fireside. of of Is to or the it i ! j | RT APIT WFPK-irn rniTc HLAUk-NECKED GOATS. y A Breed That I. indl.pataiiy One of the Strongest and Healthiest , in Existence. _ * The black-necked Valaisan goat Is es pecially attractive because of Its pecul iar coloring, says American Sheep Breeder. The head and fore parts are black, while the rear parts are snow white. These two colors come together at the girt behind the shoulders, form ing a sharply vertical line. In harmony with these colors the claws of the fore feet are also black, while the rear ones are white. j Seen from a distance this bfeed re minds one somewhat of the Angora \ 1/ u. Ik i f. m % m I A VALAISAN DOE, r ( ( goat, but on closer observation this seeming resemblance is not so appar ent. The black-necked Valaisan of of me dium size, her height at the withers being 70 or 80 centimeters. She attains her full maturity only at the age of four or five years. The weight of a male at that age, however, is then consider ably above the average. Both the male and female animal carry a dense cover ing of hair, which enables them to re sist the cold admirably. The hair on the back of a full-grown buck grows to the length of 06 centimeters, and a large tuft tails down over forehead and eyes. The beard is exceptionally long and strong, reaching often down to the claws. The goat is compact and well built; her head is short, forehead and mout h are broad, her ears light, her eyes lively and intelligent. In the buck they even seem to suggest a certain degree of pride. The loins are broad, back straight, the croup gently sloping and well de veloped, while the thighs are very mus cular and the position of the legs good. The neck is short and well coupled with the shoulders. The udders are of me dium size, but well built and provided with even teats. Created for life in the high Alps, this breed is indisputably one of the strong est and healthiest, on which account its great power of endurance has won it the name of "glacier goat." They will go a distance of several leagues to seek iheir food and return in the evening to their stables, but ordinarily they spend their nights in the free air. CAUSE OF LUMPY JAW. Disease Always Is Due to a Poisonous FunRus That Occurs Cpon Pasture Vegetation. Lumpy jaw more often affects cattle than other animals. It is due to a fun- ! gus sometimes called the ray fungus i of actinomycosis. The fungus occurs upon grass and other vegetation and it is only when it becomes introduced into the tissues that it causes trouble. ^ The disease comes from eating outsidi r.r^L^r»r ag s»iL*» h r ä ,rr 2 all being exposed alike. Some years the number of cases is greater than i others, owing to the greater develop ment of this fungus. The disease af- !f fects the jaw more than other parts, ; due to the fact that the tissues are sometimes broken in the act of chew ing, and thus permitting infection. * Any part of the body may be attacked! 1 The disease is comparatively easy to treat. A drachm of iodide of potash s is given twice a day for two weeks or . 20 days. For cattle weighing 1,200 pounds or more the dose is somewhat increased and lessened for calves. If pus be present in the lump it should be let out by incision. In a few re fractory cases a second period of treatment may be required after rest- Tid ing for ten days. About 80 per cent. 8°. of recoveries may be expected. Affect ed animals should be kept away from the healthy and off the pasture and field. In the case of milch cows the f milk should not be used. The state does not pay for such when it is found necessary to destroy them.—Midland * Farmer. * —--ner, Atth?wir,v r OU " dCOP, V as At the West Virginia station hogs fed four weeks on ground corn gained about more T( t b an similar hogs fed B is explained that the Is hogs had been previously getting ground tree corn, and the change to whole corn was fall ot relished. The results of 12 exper ", en f at £ 1Sht dtfferent stations along will 8how ana 'Y age of 505 pounds of whole corn, or 472.9 pounds of ground cornfor 100 pounds of gain—th at is, it re- lar qulred about six per cent. less ground corn to make a pound of gain than whole be corn. It is generally concluded from these experiments that uhless a farmer Ing Is located near a mill it will not pay to have the corn ground, the extra cost the or grinding more than counterbalancing the extra feed value of the corn; | J HOW TO HANDLE HCGS. ■fach of the Farmer's Success Is Duo to Proper Drlvlss und Load ins in Summer. In hot weather a fat hog cannot make much progress, so it is best to take ad rantage of the cool evenings and morn ings for driving. The one who has a drove of such to drive say four ° r five y miles to load will And it to his interest of £ drive . «>em near! y half the distance , ^ before, even if he .3 put to the troub,e of hauling their feed. The killing of one hog will lose you more es- mone y than the worth of several days' work - and !t ls the tattest ones, usually, that dle in this way - Then there is a sreat advantage in getting to the pens in time to ,et the hogs rest and cool be tore loading. It is dangerous to dash water on a very hot hog, better pour it on the ground around and under it. Al * ow acce ss to a pool or pond often, so that they can wallow and cool them j selves. A fat hog cannot live long in l be boiling kun without water or shade even where it has had no exercise. An acquaintance penned his hogs at 8:30 in the morning to prevent rooting. At 11 o'clock, when he went back, six were dead and the rest were panting so loud they were almost barking. A man can not be too careful about fat hogs, for they are very easily killed by overheat and exertion. Do not overdo the busi ness by starting them off too brisk, thereby breaking them down on the start. I like to load when the hogs are at their usual temperature. The car should be well bedded, if the railroad company has not done this it will pay you to do it. Sawdust makes the best bedding. Where this cannot be had handy, dirt and sod makes a good sub stitute. It would be well to thoroughly soak this bedding with water, for with this to keep them cool they ought» to ride comfortably. When my hogs have a long distance to ride in hot weather I have tlie railroad company water them by running the car back and forth un der a water tank. This not only cools the hogs but the car and bedding. They then have cool bedding to lie on the rest of the way. I learned from an ex perienced shipper how to load proper ly. Most people load by packing the hogs in by piece meal, which takes much more time and causes more worry to the hogs than is necessary. But this man loaded by driving the whole drove in one continuous stream and with a grand rush. In this way the shy ones are forced along whether or no. Sim ply one straight drive, little worry lit tle time. The same principle applies equally well to mules, cattle or sheep. —Epitomist. DRAWING FODDER CORN. Hoxv to Moke a Truck for This Pur pose from the Front of an Ordinary Wagon, The low truck for drawing fodder corn from the field is made from the front part of an ordinary farm wagon. A strong oak reach about one foot long replaces the longer one. To the rear end of this is bolted an iron clevis that holds a crosspiece as shown in the cut. For the platform, two poles 15 feet long HANDY TRUCK FOR CORNFIELD. are used. At two feet from the upper end, holes are Imred and they are pinned to the crossffece mentioned above, the ends restin e on the bolster about ! two Inches from the standards. Tho i rear whepls are 15 Inches in diameter, put on an iron axle, the whole taken from old farm machinery. Being so near the S rou nd it is best to board up ^ be lower end of the poles for five or six — Far m and Home. bimis ~ f <>« shepherds, "i *•— • ni ^ f * d GWe8 are lnclined to twin i } ® Iv ® tbe ! we Wlth the young !f mb feed that Wl11 beat or overload ; her blood - when a sheep dies the carcass should be homed, or buried so deeply * ba * do£S cann °t find it. 1 A flock wil1 never thrive when in feste d with ticks. A dipping tank s . houId be ready for use at any and all . times. Provide a field of rape for your she ep, and put it alongside of a pas ture, so that the sheep may mingle the rape and the grass. This will prevent scouring. To make the early lambs grow pro Tid e a pen into which the lambs can 8°. but which restrains the ewes from entering. In the pen place a pan of ground oats and let the lambs help themselves. The ewes should be well f ed on ground oats.—Midland Farmer. . .7 ~— ------ rr ho <0 , r Fa,,en A ni*»es. * .u IalIeI1 a PPms should be utilized * or t be Pigs, or disposed of in some man in order to destroy as many insects as possible. It is claimed that where cows are allowed in the apple orchard they fall off in milk flow. Experienced dairymen assert that the loss of milk Is due to the cows ranging from one tree to another to secure the apples that fall daily, instead of eating grass. Ap pies, if given as a portion of the ration will increase the milk flow, but too many apples will not prove beneficial, Apple trees should not be In the regu lar pasture, as they do not thrive In such locations, nor should the orchard be given over to cattle, the sheep and hogs being more serviceable in consum Ing the fallen fruit Cattle may be allowed In the orchard, however, after the apples are harvested, or before they begin to fall. .