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©a FTC r— ir #1 ht t V 1 «V, ■. *■■ ■ > : ■ V -• :■'<> V ;» ' >j9M"<xs; • I» » - - ? 'I f ii fßli '$ i '5 si Kl nijiM i:1 m Ü »» N the rotunda of the Capitol at Washington stands a large model of the structure e.xe cuted with a re gard for minute de tail and accuracy of scale which makes it a work of art in. its way. An accompanying plae ' ' "* ard announces tiiat It shows the sug -Tw:v. in* gi-sted extensions ■r; and Improvements in the Capitol, which will bring the building to its ltnal form. Why docs this shrine of the republic need alteration? Every (American is familiar with the outlines »f soaring dome ami majesti ■ facades. IA glimpse of tin 1 building arouses dor mant patriotism and affect! in in the heart of every American. The halls are rich with marbles, sculptures, paint ings and mural decorations worthy of (the finest Old World palace. Changes (mean a destruction of many associa tions. A critical study of the building, ■however, ami a comparison with the model, leads to the conclusion that the «Iterations will greatly add to the | beauty of the Capitol—already called a miracle of arcliitei tore. The build ing Is far from finished. Tin* dome lacks a needful support and the central building—the old Capitol—is subordin ated to the new wings on either side, dt is now proposed to correct these faults by erecting an extension to the central structure, so that the eastern front, with its portico and steps, will he on a line with those of the wings. As for sentimental objections to such a change, it need merely be stated that the adopted plan was made more than e quarter of a century ago. and com pletes tin* alterations of which the dome and legislative wings formed parts. A Ilbtory in Pictures. On this page is pictured the evolu tion of the Capitol. Thus only can the history of the building be traced and 1he proposed alterations given tlieir true significance. The structure we It now was not designed, in the usual meaning of the term. It has been (growing slowly during the last 110 years. No single mind is here repre tented. The story of the structure re sembles a list of quarrels and competi tions In which nearly every President, end certainly every architect and builder connected with the work, took Vigorous part. These quarrels have made the building what it Is—a com posite structure, representing the best thought and skill of the American poo pie. A rude sketch shows the ruins of tlu Capitol after its destruction by British eoldiers August 114, 1814. Compare this picture with those above it of the Capitol as it is and probably will he, «nil all sentimental objections to the «Iterations are silenced. Even more striking is the contrast between the capital city of to-day and of a century ago. Well can we imag ine General Washington and Major ■1/Enfant wandering over the Imre Maryland hills in 1791 planning the avenues of the unborn town, setting aside a valley for the main thorough fare, this knoll for the "President's House'' and yonder hill for "Congress Hall." L'Enfant made studies for the buildings and indicated the sites in Ids map of 1791. The designs were never finished. Congress took up the ques tion. Then the trouble began and it bas lasted ever since. UeaiKned by West Indian. It seemed the irony of Fute that the euceessful design came from a resident In the West Indies, who was not a citizen of the new republic. Congress, then holding its sessions In Philadel phia, exhausted every menus to pro cure a native architect. A competition was announced in a Phildelphia paper during 1792 for drawings for "Con gress Hall" and the President's House. The prize was a lot in the new city and $500 or a medal. "Congress Hall" was to be the largest building in the country, combining "grandeur, sim plicity and convenience." The thirteen designs submitted pos sessed indifferent merit—that of Ste phen Hallet, a French architect, meet ing with the most favor, lie was set to work on modifications. Then Hr. William Thornton, of the Island of Tortola, West Indies, came forward with a plan which was approved from the first and is substantially the cen tral structure of the present Capitol. Occupied by Congress. In 1800 the Federal government came to Washington The old Senate wing was by that time finished, the foundations of the rotunda were laid and the basement of the House wing was in process of construction. Oil November 17 both Senate and House wore called together in the new build ing—the former body in the original Senate chamber, the lloor of which was that of the present basement be neath what is now the room of the Su premo ( 'ourt. Meanwhile, the House, for lack of better quarters, met in a long apart ment over the Senate committee rooms, which is now cut up into oltices tor the Supreme Colrt. The arrange ment, quite naturally, gave great dis satisfaction to the Representatives, for whose accommodation a temporary structure of brick, in the shape of an ellipse 70 by 90 feet, was erected before the next winter within the rising walls The hall of the House, when llnally completed, was first occupied in October, 1X07. Benjamin H. I.atrobe had become Director of Public Works in 1803. He likewise quarreled with I»r. Thornton, and President Jefferson aftcrwnrd took an active part in the discussion. Most important among his modifica tions was an alteration of the shape of the south wing, jêr. 4 w. 2b iS# TO aw Ä«> 1 »Jabw 4 * 9 - n te 7a £3 BIRD'S-EYE VIEW IN lSt',1. of the chamber occupied by the House of Representatives from an elliptical room to one with two short sides and curved ends. A Curiosity in Acoustics. Thus began one of the most curious of the disputes regarding the Capitol. The acoustics of this old chamber have always been a puzzle. Now tlie Statu ary Hall, visitors to the structure to day find cause for wonder In the curi ous "whisperings" and the transmis sion of sound from point to point, audible on one stone in the pavement, unheard a few feet distant. Hr. Thornton finally suggested the placing of draperies between the row of mar ble pillars at the north end of the apartment. This served as a temporary remedy. The echoes In the House of Repre sentatives caused continued discussion between 1820 and 1830, Robert Mills, an architect under I.atrobe, thought that the trouble niose from the fact that the walls in the rear of the col umns. which partially surrounded the room, ran at different angles. He suggested n curved wall and a perma nent screen parallel with the colon nade. Bulflnch attributed the faulty acoustics to the unfinished condition of the interior. Curtains were suspended between the pillars and a flat ceiling of cloth was hung under the domes in the ceiling. The latter seemed to ab sorb all the sound. Strickland sug gested that numerous sunken panels he placed in the dome instead of tue painted sections which were and are still there. Mills' plan of a circular wall and raised floor was finally adopted. This chamber has been al tered decidedly since then, and It is, therefore, curious that the defects are still so apparent. Burned l>y the British, Evil days were to fall upon the Cap itol. During the summer of 1814 the Atlantic seaboard was threatened by the Republic's enemy, the British. Almut the middle of August some sixty English ships sailed up the Chesa peake. and General Ross landed i.ooO British soldiers, defeated the Ameri cans at Bhidenshiirg. a few miles from Washington, and on August 24 march ed into the infant capital to destroy it. Washington then had about 900 houses, scattered over three miles of open country, and bordering on ave nues which were merely dirt roads. The Invaders found that the Capitol consisted of two wings joined, where the central pavilion was afterward erected, by a wooden passageway, 145 feet long, which Congressmen culled "The Oven," because it lacked ventila tion and was very hot in the summer time. A pitiful scene of destruction fol lowed. Rockets were discharged into the roof of the Capitol, to set it on tire, but did not serve this purpose. The timbers of "The Oven" furnished fuel. Books, papers, hangings and lur nitnre were piled in the center of each legislative chamber, and rockets placed beneath tin* material to spread the lire. A British officer's remark, that it was a "pity to burn anything so beautiful'' ns the Hall of Representatives, did not save it from destruction. The two wings of the unfinished Capitol, the "President's Palace,'' and tue long bridge across the Potomac, formed parts of a conflagration that could be seen in Baltimore, forty miles distant. Thus was realized the ruin outlined In the middle picture. The walls and many of the interior partitions were used in tin* new building, which now forms the central pavilion of the struc ture. The sculptures crumbled in the fire, and were replaced. The material was sandstone, and a coat of white paint concealed the smoke marks. In this manner the Capitol and Executive Mansion were changed from dull yel low to white buildings, and the latter earned the name of "White House." The Old Capitol Kitiished. During the next thirteen years the old Capitol was finished. President Madison was authorized by Congress litt RUINS OF BURNED BUILDING IN 1S14. In 1815 to borrow $500,000 for the re building. The legislative wings were reconstructed and occupied in 1819, and the central pavilion in 1827, the entire structure costing $3.700,000. Latrobe made minor modifications in the Thornton design, llis are the fa mous "corn columns" beneath the old Senate chamber—a new American or der. He increased the height of the dome, but the drawings were never executed. Latrobe also changed Dr. Thornton's semi-cireular portico to tne rectangular projection which now or naments the central structure. The floor of the Senate chamber was elevated to the main floor, the Supreme Court moving into the basement be neath, and the hall of the House as -umed a form which was meant to re -emble that of an ancient Greek thea ter. Beneath the center of the rotunda was built a subterranean chalutier, called the orj'Pt, in which it was un derstood that the remains of Washing ton were to lie. In a stone sarcophagus, exposed to the view of the multitude. His widow was not adverse to the plan, but his heirs objected to the removal of the coffin from Mount Vernon, and so that project was abandoned. Nev ertheless, a watcher called the keeper of the crypt, was employed by Con gress up to the Civil War and a light kept there was not extinguished, it is said, for fifty years. Charles Bulflnch, of Boston, was architect of the Capitol from 1817 to 1829, and completed »he building as -hown in the picture of 1S35. Under his direction, the dome rose higher than in any previous design, the cupolas were added at either end and the familiar western portico and ter races incorporated into the design. The acoustics of the Hall of Represen tatives still baffled the government, and William Strickland, of Philadel phia, was called into consultation with Bulflnch to supply n remedy. The picture of 1835 marks the sec ond stage in the evolution of the Cap itol. The changes to come gave the structure substantially its present ap pearance. The Capitol of 1835 covered a little more than an acre and a half ot ground, and was 351 feet 4 inches long. New Wjngs nml Borne Added. In the course of years it became too small. The Congressional Committee on Public Buildings advertised, in De cember, 1850, for plans for an exten sion of the Capitol. From th.e numer ous designs submitted four were se lected, and the premium equally divid ed among the four architects. The committee then employed an architect named Mills to prepare a design for Hie extension of the Capitol, based on I lie principal feature of the four se lected plans. President Fillmore adopt ed a different design, and the corner stone was laid on July 4, 1851, an ora tion being delivered by Daniel Web ster. Thomas U. Walter, of Philadel phia, was the successful architect. In 1855 the old dome, which was too "squatty" to be beautiful on the ex tended facade, was removed and work on the present one begun. During this operation a movement was started in a convention of Ameri can artists at Washington to supervise the decorations in tin* new wings and dome. The members of the convention recommended the appointment of a committee for the work. As named by President Buchanan, in 1858, this body comprised Henry K. Brown, a sculptor, of New York; James It. Eambdin. a portrait painter, of Phila delphia. and John F. Kennett. a land scape painter, of New York. Although these gentlemen took a hand in the work of supervision, they accomplish ed little, and finally abandoned their duties when Congress declined to pay their bills for expenses. Thus the building was brought to the condition shown in the picture made in IStil. A comparison of this bird's-eye view with theCapitol of 1835 illustrates In a comprehensive way the proportions of the wings as compared with the size of the old building in the middle and the contracted dimensions of the roof upon which the present dome was placed. The statue was raised to the apex of the dome in 1S(»3. The Capitol To-day. The Capitol to-day contains 430 rooms. With the contemplated addi tion it will have 49d rooms—thirty three more for the Senate and an equal number for the House of Representa tives. When the extension has been made, the edifice, including the works of art which It contains, will have cost near ly $20,000,000—more money than Con gress had ever imagined, In a lump sum, when In the early nineties of the century before last it offered $500 and a building lot for the best design for n house for the National Legislature.— Philadelphia Ledger. Its It It It as It Is this new blood which people talk so much about that causes the runaways. THE WAY TO SCHOOL Its starting point, the old back stoop, was gray with weather-wear, But tribute of the freshest bloom a rose bush offered there, And white nnd scarlet hollyhocks shook dew drops, silver-cool Each morn, upon the straggling path that led away to school. It sauntered leisurely between the aisles of vineyard bloom, Then dipped, with arrow straightness, through the orchard-woven gloom. And trailing out where, mottled piuk, the bergamot grew dense, It struck the weedy angle of a stake-anJ rider fence. Small wonder that it loitered there, where berry bushes grew— The brier-roses were so pink, the spider wort so blue! The misty opals of the dawn—beguiling youthful feet— Lay stored away amidst the grass and clover blossoms sweet. But once beyond the fence's line, the path ran, straight and prim, Where locusts interlocked their boughs and made the morning dim With musky shade; then suddenly it took a headlong turn And scrambled down a hollow through a snarl of brake and fern. It led us to a lazy stream, and tempted us to lag And gather pungent peppermint and root of fragrant Hag; The mandrake lured with golden fruit; the witch-elm wove a spell That shattered at the echo of a loudly pealing bell. Then straight from Idle dallying the pathway firmly sped, And up the heights, at duty's call, un swervingly it led; And as with moist and scarlet cheeks our daily seats we took, Unwittingly we closed a page of Nature's fairest book. —Youth's Companion. Robbing w mil ¥ EAR in a years, 8 driven th EAR in and year out. for thirty Simon Merridew Had the mail cart that plies between Thetbridge Junction and the outlying market town of Culverton. Later, when the rural free delivery was established, he was one of the first men appointed as carrier. A jolly, hail-fellow-well-met old man as a rule, lie had no eyes for acquaint ances this night, but with bent head pursued his course till he came to the big dry goods store of Royston & Son, where he was finally permitted to see "a figure stepped from the hedge." the head of the firm, being ushered into a glass counting house, where sat two men. one old, one young. "I made bold to call about my sick daughter, sir, as works here," - Simon began, addressing the elder of the two. "She's mortal bad to-da.v—not as 1 think she's really worse, but she's wor rying because the month you gave her to get well is up and she's not fit to come back. The doctor says it would do her a power of good if you could ease her mind by letting her know that you'd kindly keep the place open for her a bit longer." The old driver delivered himself nervously, for he had been warned by his sick daughter that the appeal would be useless. Mr. Boyston, Sr., was known as a hard man, devoid cf compassion, except when he could deftly twist it into an advertisement. His answer showed that he was not going hack on his reputation. "I shall do nothing of the sort," he said harshly. "Miss Merridew Is not so valuable to the firm that I can af ford to play pranks with my rules on her behalf." "It will kill my child, sir," answer ed Simon with puckered brow. "Nonsense," returned the merchant "She's not the girl to die for lack of work—always making eyes at the men." And for some reason best known to himself Royston, Sr., made a very ug'y eye at Royston. Jr., on the other side of the table. Simon glancing at the young man poring over his ledger put him down as equally heartless—to work so diligently while Margery Mer ridew's life was at stake. "If that is your last word, sir, it is my Margery's death warrant," Simon faltered, the tears coming into his eyes. "Oh, yes. it's my last word right enough, and it may save your breath and my time to tell you that I have written by to-night's post to your daughter dispensing with her ser vices," Royston blustered, at the same time pointing to the door of the count ing house in a manner not to be mis taken. "It is terrible hard that I have to be the one to carry that letter," he as on It to in mused, glancing askance at the Cul verton mall bag, which lay at his feet, as he drove out Into the country—a giant among the lesser bags for sur rounding villages—"and yet it seem ingly gives me a chance I shouldn't otherwise get. Gee-up, Polly!" this to the mare. "It don't do to think." But his thoughts possessed him. "I might slit the bag up, take out the letter and say Dd been attacked and robbed," he reflected. "Margery might take a turn for the better if she didn't get the sack on the day she's been expecting it. Maybe she'd be more able to bear it a week or two later on." "No, I'll do no such thing," he told himself. "Thirty years I've carried the mails, and never a black mark to my name, and—well, I respect myself too much." He drew the whip across the mare's flanks to start her on again, but al most Immediately his hand tightened on the reins. A figure had stepped from the hedge into the road. Tho moonbeams glinted on the nickeled barrel of a pistol nnd a pair of eyes shone from the slits of a crape mask. Simon could hardly believe his senses. It seemed like a judgment on him for thinking of his abandoned proiject— to be confronted by a real robber just then, the first he had ever encoun tered. "Pull up, my man, and chuck out the mall bags," said he of the mask in gruff tones, suggesting a feigned voice. "You see I am armed; 1 shan't hesitate to shoot if you disobey." One by one Simon dropped the hags into the rond, carefully letting them fall close to the cart. They had hardly touched the ground when the robber singled out the hag stamped "Culver ton," and ripping It open with his knife, shook out a white shower on the highway. By the light of the lantern he began to eagerly scan the addresses on the envelopes, keeping a wary eye on Simon the while. Simon, too, watched the aggressor like a lynx and presently seized the opportunity for which he had been waiting. The robber had become sud denly engrossed in the address of an envelope, when with an agility won derful for one of his years 'the old driver leaped from the cart on to his hack, hurling him to the ground and sending the loosely held pistol ttying. In a moment the two were struggling for the mastery. Simon Merridew. with the advantage of being upper most—and advantage which he used to pluck off his opponent's mask. "Well, I'm blessed if it ain't the r "Well, I'm blessed 17 it ain't tho younger of the two Roystons," ho panted as the light fell on the up turned features. "I'm going to hang on to you and get you seven years for this." "I suppose that would be the pen alty," said the young man, calmly. "I will do whatever you wish, Mr. Mer ridew, If you will lot me get up and hear wlmt I have to say." Elated by his victor}', Simon per mitted him to rise, hut not till he had reached out nnd possessed himself of the pistol. "Now spit It out and be done with it before 1 drive you to Cul verton police station," he said, stern ly. But Edward Roystou's reply took his breath away. "We have had this rough-and-tum ble, Mr. Merridew," said the captive, "because 1 love your daughter and I believe she loves me. I wanted to stop that letter which my father posted to her with his own hands, and I was not aware that you drove the mail cart till after I had ordered you to pull up; then I thought I had better go on with It. Believe me, I had no in tention of doing the driver any harm if he resisted; I hoped to carry the play through by sheer bluff. That pis tol isn't loaded." Simon's tanned visage creased into a hundred wrinkles, the upper half of his face seemed to be frowning, but round his mouth the lines curved and twitched suspiciously like a grin. He spoke not for nearly a minute, for he was trying to reconcile the dictates of duty with those of parental affection. "Had you found the letter?" he asked suddenly. T had It In my hand when you jumped and I didn't let go," said Roy ston, disclosing a crumpled paper in his palm. "Then, my lad, I trust you to carry out the rest of the program," said Simon. "I'll forget I pulled your mask off when I report the attack on tho mall."—Indianapolis Sun. Frequent Yawn Does Good. To be told that physicians recom mend yawning as a remedy for dis ease would make some people smile with incredulity, but it is a fact nev ertheless. They say that muscles are brought Into play during a yawn that would otherwise never get any exercise at all. The muscles that move the lower jaw and the breathing muscles of the chest are the first that come into use in the yawn. Then the tongue is rounded, the palate tightly stretched and the uvula raised. Near the termination of the yawn the eyes close, the ears are slightly raised and the nostrils dilate. The crack sometimes heard In the ear shows that the aural membranes are also stretched and exercised, some thing that cannot be done by any other process. Nasal catarrh. Inflammation of the palate, sore throat and earache may all be helped toward a cure by the suffer er's making a practice of yawning six or seven times a day. But good form requires it should be done In private, of course. If a man doesn't acquire the reform ation germ when he is sick there isn't much hope for him.