Newspaper Page Text
Of THE WEST
The Native Grasses Are fast Dis
appearing Throughout the En
tire Western Country.
ADVENT Of SHORT L!\lD GRASS
The Range Herds Arc Rapidly Oblit
erating the Better Class of
The ample rains that have fallen this
sin ing- have worked marvelous change
in the condition of the ranges of the
west and with proper usage the effect
should be noticed for more than one
season. Those who have given thought
to the matter realize fully that over
stocking not only causes loss of cattle
and sheep from starvation in time of
drouth hut it causes the rapid extermi
nation of the must valuable of the na
tive grasses, and forage plants. In any
pasture the grasses first eaten are
those most nutritious or the most pal
atable. Unless tit pasturage is foster
ed and these best grasses are protect
ed by resting or by artificial care and
cultivation they are soon reduced in
number and soon become unimportant
factors. They are prevented from rip
ening seed and are eaten so close that
often the roots are killed by the expos
ure. The first result of over grazing is
the disappearance of the best grasses
that is. a le-isetiing of the potential car
rying capacity of the pasture. If the
best grasses cover twenty-live per cent
of the range, the loss from over graz
ing will be at bast that amount. If
tile pasture is still over slocked a simi
lar process is continued with the re
maining species until at last not a
blade or fragment of a stem is left to
support any gi a zing animal. The
young- slto.ds an eaten off as rapid
ly as put forth and the vitality of the
plants are sapped so that tie y tire un
til'!- to endure the extremes of temp
rat uro or shortage of water supply to
the same degree as when growth has
been uninterrupted. 4 has been noted
that very often in times of drouth the
best grazing grasses such its sedge
grasses, needle grass, grumes and cur
ley mesouite, which will ordinarily
wilitstand the hardest useage, are de
stroyed root and branch by being eat
en into the ground. Not only is the
grass destroyed but the ground over
extensive areas is trampled and com
pacted by cattle until the grass that
grows upon it breaks up and is blown
away. Following the distribution of
the valuable perennials, the low annu
als, such as the six-weeks' grama
comes in and supply almost the only
food. At tlte same time that the valu
able grasses is disappearing the land
is invaded by a large number of ram
pant weeds which are not eaten by any
grazing animal. It is the opinion of a
majority of stockmen that the loss in
what may be called the capital value
of the grazing lands has been enor
mous within the past few years. The
land made poor by this stripping pro
cess suffers actual decrease itt fertili
ty through exposures of the surface
layers to the sun and air. Soil cover
ed with verdure is always fertile and
those which lack a protecting plant
covering are sterile and deficient in
life. Over grazing also subjects the
soil to the destructive action of torren
tial rains. When rain falls upon any
field thickly covered with grass or oth
er vegetation the surface drainage is
much retarded because the total sur-.
face of the retention of water is large
ly increased hut when the grass is eat
en off or destroyed in any other way.
not only is less rain fall absorbed but
the full force of the rfshing waters is
exerted upon tlie surface and vast
quantites of the finest and richest
parts of the soil covering are washed
into the stream. The denudation of
land by the destruction of grasses,
while perhaps not so familiar as that
following from the destruction of for
ests nevertheless is quite rapidly in a
number of the places in tin* west.
The washing away of the soil proceeds
less rapidly on the plains where the
slopes are less abrupt than in the
mountains, but the result is just as
sure, although the obvious d- structlon
is less marked. Wherever grasses are
allowed to fully mature and are not
entirely eaten down, we see a decided
difference in the amount and rapidity
of the drainage. I,'-ss water runs int
th- streams in the form of floods and
more is absorbed into the soil. These
are the various results of the evil
course of over stocking the grazing
lands of the west, which if persistent
ly - ■ tinu d will surely supply anothei
example of the transformation by hu
' an 'tries of a fertile land into a
d'sert waste, a rest of two or three
months during the growing seas pi in
<-,e early spring would enable the rar
1 - grasses to rlp< n and sited their seed,
'■'us perpetuating such species. After
' ■e seed has fallen the cattle can lie
4 irned on 1he grass for two or three
■ ontlis aril ngatn trnnsf rrr-d to n
' esti pasture. Tn tlte same way .v.t
'•'mn and winter ps dures can Pe se
cured, Several slocktren who have
employed this method on a large seals
'op a number of years say that th' ir
r-nges are constantly improving in
marked contrast to th» fieterioation
— here the old methods were praeth ;d.
—■Denver Fi Id a'id Farm.
You cannot afford to 1
premium map issued V
•"is County Democrat. Tr _____
1- a\v far you are from any given point
! ' the state, gives you range numbers,
e-unty lines and a lot of information
t' at you have been wanting for the
1 ast ten years.
DINN'S VIEWS Of BOUNTY LAW.
Mr. Dunn Explains How the Wolfer
is Getting the Worst of Deal.
On March fi, 1005, there was enact
ed by the state legislature of the
state ol Montana, a law providing for
the extermination of the wolves and
coyotes. The law provides money for
bounty on said wolves and coyotes to
be paid for each scalp.
The rates are. old wolves. *lo:pups,
$3: old coyotes. $.'5 and pups. IT it
does not take long before wolf pups
are killing as much as the full grown
animal, for about four months from
the time of pupping tlie old wolf
takes her pups and teaches them to
kill. They do not stop at killing just:
what they want to eat at that time
but kill for the purpose of teaching
the pups how it is done.
It does not look reasonable that llu
should be paid for old wolves and on
ly Hi for pups. The cattlemen claim
that it takes from 175 to 1100 per
year to keep a wolf. A wolf will live
for about twelve years if umnole-ted.
which would make hi> board bill
about 1000 for his natural life. This
is figuring very iow: what is true of
the wolf is true of the coyote, except
that it costs the sheepmen less to
It looks like the state legislature
was raising Cain when it. put a boun
ty of from ten to three dollars on
wolves and then put a fine of ten
cents per head on them to protect
them. I have talked with a few stock
men in Fergus county anti i hey say that
the bounty law does not suit them at
all: that it is not high enough for most
of the wolf tribe and there Dtoo much
red tape attached to it. Then there
is ariot her thing to he considered: how
can the stockmen expect anyone to
go out and hunt wolves and coyotes
under (lie present bounty, pay a line
of ten cents per head and then di—
count the claim twenty or thirty per
cent? What is the matter with the
state when ils paper is not worth Us
lace value? That must be because
some of us have not got a good pull,
hut that is another matter which we |
will not monkey with at present. If j
anyone catches a coyote that is sup
posed to be worth 13, he takes it to
tiie inspector and has it punched.
That costs him ten cents. This is
the fine of which I speak. Then he
goes to the county clerk and gets his
bounty claim- If lie wants his money
lie goes to the bank and they dis
count it twenty per cent at least,
which makes sixty cents; add the ten
cent tine and that makes seventy
cents. That leaves the man that
killed the coyote the enormous sum
of two dollars and thirty' cents for
his little hit of trouble.
It is claimed by some that there are
wolves brought from Canada to the
states for to get the bounty on them
here. Why should they go to the
trouble of bringing them from Can
ada here when the bounty in Canada
is from ten to twenty-live dollars?
1 think that at the present time
the wolves and coyotes are protected
as effectually as the antelopes are.
At the next session of the legislature
will they put in time in passing a law
that some city gun club has drafted
and introduced, or will they act for
the good of the state and the people?
(Signed) Geohoe I)enn.
THE OREL WAS BADLY BATTERED.
Russian Battleship Was Simply Rid
dled With Shot and Shell.
Tokio. .1 une 7.—ii it. m.—A corre
spondent of the Associated press has
been permitted to inspect the Ilns
sian battleship Orel, now lying at
Muisura. The Orel received a tei
rible battering. Her hull shows for
ty gaping holes, pierced by large
shells, and main smaller ones where
she had been hit, while the super
structure. her upper works and upper
decks were riddled by shells, steel
fragments and splinters. Tl'ie star
board forward twelve-inch gun was
smashed ten feet from the muzzle,
either by a shell or by an explosion.
\ fragment of t lie gun went over the
bridge, smashing Hie rail. and. after
carrying away the breach of a twelve
pounder, buried itself in the signal
locker. From the main deck upward
the condition of the vessel was ter
rible to behold. Steel particles were
smashed, the gangway was broken
nd stanchions were wrecked. Gear
of various kinds covered the decks,
and the state of the alleyways shows
that, the ship was afire several times.
The mark of the tiames increased the
scene of desolation. The main armor
belt is intact . The turret armor gen
erally withstood the battering from
shells, although two of the six-inch
turrets were .rendered unserviceable
i by shots which struck close to llteir
■ base. Several smaller guns were dis
I mounted and smashed. A gruesome
[sight was a bulkhead besmattered
: with blood, fragments of flesh and
The Orel is sound structurally, ul
| though it will he necessary to practi
j cully reconstruct her from the water
; line up. The condition of the ship
shows that the crew underwent a ter
rible ordeal before they surrendered.
Like a Whale.
I "You cannot keep me down," shout
: ed the great orator at a public meet
ing; "though I may be pressed ' below
the waves I rise again. You will find
that I come to the surface, gentlemen."
"Yes," said an old whaler in the au
dience, "you come to the surface to
Thin people should bathe as often as
possible in warm water. Warm water
Is absorbed by the skin more readily
The Contrary Dost.
"Can dogs find their way home from
a distance?" Is a question frequently
asked. It's according to the dog. If It
Is one you want to get rid of he can
find his way back from Africa. If it Is
a valuable one he is apt to get lost if
he goes round the comer.
g W. PENNOCK
ATTORNEY AT LA
TELEPHONE HU LLI >I N (J
Jjrl'NTOoS'. WotiDEN & SMITH
ATTORNEYS AT UW
Office Main > ! . Day House TVl.
Q W. COOK
Fifth Am-., rear First National Hank
Lew istown. - - Montana.
\y ILIJAM A. CORDON, .In,
ATTORNEY AND COUNSELLORR AT LAW
Office l-'irst IT nor l-'iist National Hunk
COLLECTIONS A SPECIALTY.
A. Hopkins &- Sons j
| PURE FOOD GROCERY]
When You Dine
You want the best. This store caters to the
ultra particular class of people who appreci
ate "Good Things." Our prices are most
reasonable; for instance, we are giving 25 per
cent off on all canned meats. Our line of
fresh vegetables is the largest carried in the
Strawberries are getting plentiful now
and the quality is fine. Get in your order
for canning, as the season will be short.
Our Prices are the Very Lowest
A. Hopkins &- Sons
| DuCLOS &
rvr\ $« n \
i aslors M? *
Opposite Fair Store
-i -7 3 ■£ i -2 -5 i -3 S -s 4 -3 i 4 -S -5 i -S -3 *
Tiie - BIG
^TT^HE largest, best and ci eapest stock of Lumber
in the state. We can sell you for less money
than you can buy from the mills; get our figures.
We have just shipped in three large cars Sash and
Doors and one car Screen Doors. Call and see us.
Call and see us, we are always on the spot at : : ;
The Big Red Shed
MONTANA LUMBER CO., Telephone 77
The Sherwin-Williams Paint
MADE TO PAINT BUILDINGS
WITH OUTSIDE AND INSIDE
We have secured the agency for this ter
Tr Q ritory for The Sherwin-Williams
Paint —the best known and
most widely sold house paint made.
We have decided to sell S. W. P. be
cause we wanted to offer the trade of
this community the best paint value ob
tainable. We selected S.W.P. because
we are convinced that it's the best, safest,
and most economical house paint in the
market. We do not hesitate to back it
with our reputation.
It covers most; spreads easiest; looks
best; wears longest; saves money; and
is always full measure. Color card
shows forty handsome shades.
S. W. P. is made by The Sherwin-Williams Co., the largest paint
and varnish makers in the world. They operate four big factories and
have offices and warehouses in twelve cities. They make paints
and varnishes for all purposes—each one as good as it's possible
to make. They have built up their business on high quality goods.
No matter what you want to paint or varnish, you'll get
best results and save money if you use The Sherwin
Williams Paints and Varnishes. We carry the full line.
Fergus County Hardware Co.
Call and Get Our Prices. They are Right
MAIL ORDERS PROMPTLY KILLED
SPRING CREEK COAL COMPANY
SPRING CREEK COAL COMPANY
Office, Moat. Lumber Co.'s Old Building, 5th Ave. "Phone 157.
MONTANA RAILROAD COMPANY
Time Card Effecthe at 12:01 a. m. June 4. 1905
I >ai!y except
Lve. s:45 a.m.
Air. 3:45 p.m
Ait. 11:55 p.m.
Lve. 12:50 "
A rr. 12:25 "
A it. 0:00 "
Lve. 7:00 "
Montana Railroad Co.. Helena. AWntana.
Money to Lend
We are now prepared to receive applications for
Ten Year Loans
impiowd Ranch Property
In any amount. Reasonable interest
rates and prepayment privileges .
Real Estate, Loans, Abstracts of
Tii le, General Insurance.....
Telephone No. 30. Opposite P. O.
LhWiSTOWN, - MONTANA