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OF INTEREST TO
FARMERS Montana Farmer: Each Montana season has a particular charm of its own and yet of them all we like fall the best, for that is the season of con tentment. All spring and summer na ture has been working, doing her best ---Q to eive a bounteous yield and now that the worst of the labor is over, she is setting her the coming winter spring house-cleaning of a gradual settling; everything is well trained and does its part with out haste or effort. The leaves, un like their sudden bursting in the spring, drop off slowly one by one; there are no sudden changes like the Chinooks of March, but each night is a little colder, each morning brings a plainer hint of snow. And the thou sand and one of nature's creatures and nature's plants are ready for rest, are prepared for the coming winter. Among these myriads of nature's chil dren there is not one that the season finds unprepared. How different it is with nature's human children. How many of our farmers could take a lesson from the wild kindred, the birds, the beasts and plants of the woodland and have the seasons find them prepared for what may come. Instead, the fall finds many places all hurry and bustle, con-] fusion abounds and of course much of the fall work is left undone. This is partly due to negligence, partly to an unexpectedly short season, yet if the work had been planned in ad vance, all trouble could be avoided. On some farms things are not this way, the fall work is done when It should be, the grain is stacked or threshed, the machinery is put away and the fall plowing is finished. And if it is true on some farms, why not on all? In many- places in Montana, espe cially where the altitude is high, we do not have a long season. There are few, if any, places in the state where the season is too short to grow crops if the farmer will take advan tage of all the good weather that he gets. In some localities the springs are late, the frost may go out of the ground early but the spring rains and snows keep the ground too wet to plow. There comes a few days of warm, dry weather and the farmer gets his plowing done, but mayhap the rain comes again before the grain drills start working. It may not be' dry again for a week or more. Now if that farmer had practiced fall plow-! ing, he would have been able to put his drills in the field early, almost as soon as the plows did go in, and he would have had his crop in a week or two earlier and had the benefit of all the rains that followed. While fall plowing is not always ad visable, still as a general thing it is the best crop insurance that a farmer C.C.JEFFREY of and Dealer in HARNESS SADDLE3 TURF GOODS Etc. All Repairs Given Prompt Attention Sign of the Big Collar 109 Main St. WANTED BEEF HIDES SHEEP PELTS THE OLD RELIABLE Lewistown Hide & Fur Co. 207 Fifth Ave. A. L. Hawkins, Mgr. m ^ m ^ ^ LEWISTOWN DENTAL PARLORS Wc guarantee perfect fitting teeth. The highest class of dental work at prices which you cannot afford to overlook. High grade work—none better at any price. Best sets of teeth..................$15.00 Crown and bridge work, gold....... 7.00 Fillings......................... 1.00 up. (No Charge for Examination) DR. H. L. MILLS, ROOMS 7-8 EMPIRE BANK BLK TELEPHONE 730 LEWI8TOWN, MONTANA ca n have. It gains him time in the spring, he gets his crop in earlier.; Then the ground is in better condition, The alternate thaws and freezing of the winter time break up the soil par ticles, liberate plant food and mellow the soil. The rough surface of the fall-plowed land offers a better place for the snow in winter, it does not blow' off so easily and when it melts, more of the moisture gets in the ground. With fall plowing many more weeds are killed than is the case where the land is broken up in the spring and many a destructive insect 5 up . a ls J eft exposed to the elements d " r j?5 v,?„ f . ; < l 0urse ! ln lands uul ujio does not happen often in'Montana, Where land ls fall plowed and disked afterwards and then double disked In, the spring, it offers as fine a seed-bed as can be obtained by any method and moreover the seed-bed is timely, it is ready when you want it. re realize just as well as you do: that it is sometimes difficult to plow I in the fall, that early frosts take hold of the land and you are prevented j from plowing, when otherwise you would. That is often the case, but get ahead of those frosts. They won't come the middle of October in most places. There is always plenty of time to plow in the fall if you wish to. Don't keep putting it off, we know how that is for we have tried it our selves. Set a date for your plowing, a date when you think from past ex perience that the ground will be right and plow on that day or earller> lf you poS sibly can. Go into this with the idea that you are going to get your land plowed this fall, make up your mind to do that, and ten chances to one, winter will find you with all your acres broken and ready for the spring disking. Winter Wheat Planting. It has been hot and sultry back there in the Twin Cities, those days in early spring, the Dakotas were flat and uninteresting, but once we had crossed the Montana line everyone seemed to take a new lease on life. The air, filtered over those snow | capped peaks far to the front of us, | seemed more vital and at the same j time more soothing, says the Montana | Farmer. The traveling man in the smoking room had stopped mopping j his brow, the girls on the back plat j form w ere not resorting to their van ity boxes so often, even tired baby In i section 3 has ceased its whimpering ; and was now sleeping, curled up on j a pillow. On either side of us stretched the fleeting Montana landscape, the long acres of wheat fields marked off by buttes and table mountains, now close j at hand, now stretching away into the hazy distance. The wheat fields were i of many different shades, here one with the green of the sprouting wheat just discernable above the dark earth, j farther on another field several inches high, its green a dark, vivid, healthy color, unspoken evidence of the thriv ing condition of the crop. Here in eastern Montana with the climatic and soil conditions the same, there was wheat in every stage of growth, from the veriest sproutling to big, vigorous wheat that gave promise to a bumper crop. Why did this difference exist Coming down through the Rocky canyon into the Gallatin, farther on along the banks of the Missouri, even westward into the Bitter Root, we no ticed the same conditions. Here would be a field of waving, growing wheat that had a good start, more than an even chance of escaping any drought that might come later in the summer, while near it, not in another part of the state, but in the very next j field, would be wheat that was just breaking through the surface of a most uneven seed-bed. Again we ask, why does this difference exist? Between eastern and western Mon tana there are hundreds of miles, many mountains and a wide variance of altitudes, but between one adjoin ing field and another there is little room for change, the conditions must be much the" same! ^They "areThe same, generally speaking, except in one respect, and herein enters the per sonal equation, for the difference, the cause of variance in the condition of the wheat lies, not in the wheat or climate, but the farmer. Winter wheat is one of the principal crops of Montana. When properly planted and cultivated it is the surest ! crop we have. Planted in the late | summer and fall, there is generally ! ample moisture to germinate it. With | a good start in the fall it attains a | growth that affords protection for the plants in the winter. The spring rains and snows nurse it along, the June rains play their part, so that with a good rain or two in the summer time we always get a crop. With the re sult of a successful crop stored in our granaries or already hauled to the ele vator, we are too often tempted to wax careless and put off planting our next year's wheat until it is too late for best results. We get a crop, that is true, but think how much better crop we might have obtained had we got ten our wheat in two weeks earlier. Fall wheat is safe from winter killing if it has not started to joint. We are speaking nere of the part of the plant j above ground. In many years' experi ■ ence in Montana we have never seen wheat injured by being too large in the fall, by being planted too early., On the other hand, we'would never attempt to count the fields where the yield has been made lighter by being put in too late. There are some farmres who will disagree with us in this respect. In some sections of the state, or rather on some farms, the planters do not care whether the wheat comes up in the fall or not. This may be all right "'LL 1ca " set good yield! „ ucal U1 the wheat that has had a chance to get a good, vigorous start in the fall, This wheat has better protection in the winter time, it holds more snow and the frost and thaws of early spring do not affect it so easily. And when the big thaw comes in the spring, 1 when the warm Chinook winds coax it I into growth, the root system is better developed and in far more advan j tageous position to absorb the plant food that is released in the soil. The wheat is in a position to take advan tage of every help that nature offers, j The wheat that is just sprouting has, a handicap to overcome. Sometimes 1 it does it, that is true, but such will not happen every year and the totaled average of season after season leans heavily towards the wheat that is Pl n t ! d 1 Ll n £ e .? alL T h ! d«fI Ll £ .? , ,| v,*t The date for planting fall wheat is not fixed. Every locality and every altitude differs. For some, the first of August is not too early or even the last weeks in July, while for others, middle September is not too late. We have seen good wheat of October and; even November plantings, but these are the exception. If you did not get a good crop this year, if your neigh bor was more timely in his planting, take the hint from him, he will be more than glad to tell you when he planted. Look to it that you are not too late. Take every advantage you can of the climate and the season, There is little or no danger of your getting your wheat in too early, so long as you put it in when the soil is right for a quick and speedy ger mination. Talk this over with the other fellow, see if next year our crop won t be a bit more uniform and pros perity be more evenly distributed. Montana Farmer: For years one of the greatest losses to the wheat farm-; er has been the shattering of the grain when it was cut. It has long been a question just when is the best time to cut wheat. If it is let go too long it will shatter badly, and on the other hand, if it is cut too early it will im pair the flour-making substance of the cereal. The state college of Washing ton is carrying on an investigation, now in its second year, of this subject and some conclusions have been reached. It is found that two or three weeks before the wheat is dead ripe it con tains some forty per cent moisture and this is the time when wheat should be cut. When the amount Jf: water in the kernel decreases to aboit forty per cent the development ceasjs and when the grain is dead ripe tie moisture content is around fifteen per cent. Tests made on grain that lad been allowed to stand in the field un til it was dead ripe showed no advin tage, either in quality nor quanti.y, over grain that had been cut two or three weeks earlier. j There are several advantages of cut ting the grain earlier. One of the I greatest, as was stated above, is the: saving of a loss through shattering.! The loss is a serious one in many b calities and if it can be avoided, thou sands of dollars will be saved for the irZrVvf th f coantry - Another thir.g * n 11 ** 16 grains are liab e to he bleached by rains or are liable * iii , hv hnf rirv 'test* mnlntc/i „i„ ^ !1? a ? d bakin F ment nrnvea the? s Z\ nf thP k P ™?i a i a f adaal , drying ° ut flour. Then, toi. when the harvest season is more extended there is less liable to be a rush of work to crowd tne farmer and not so much wheat on the market all at once Prof. George A. Olsen is in charge of the investigation and at present he is rather cautious in telling farmers just when to harvest their grain The average farmer has no means of de termining the moisture content the way the college determines the proper time to harvest, and so further infor mation is required. This season Prof I Olsen is making notes of the color of the wheat, the straw, the leaves and stems, in order to give the farmers something to work with. This will enable the grower to estimate when the water content of the wheat ap proaches forty per cent. i This experiment corrects the quite prevalent opinion that wheat keeps on growing in the field until it is dead ripe. According to the Washington data, there are no chemical changes in the wheat after the moisture con-, tent gets down to forty per cent ex-j cept the further loss of moisture. If wheat is cut at this time it is just as good for all purposes and the yield is fully as heavy. Of course when wheat Is cut early in this manner it must be given more time to cure in the shock before it is threshed. The further de velopments of this experiment will be watched with interest by wheat grow ers all over the northwest ________1 j Brazil's Rubber, Indianapolis News: A large part of the world's supply of crude rubber comes from the republic of Brazil which has hitherto paid little ntten tlon to the manufacture of that com moditv. Another day is coming, Brazil is about to engage intelligently rope, by bringing in a new and for midable competitor. Le Bresll Econo mique of itio Janeria says that under favorable conditions offered by govern nient refineries of caoutchous (rub ber) will be established in a number of states and factories for the manu facture of rubber articles in the cities of Manaos, Belem in Para, Recife and Bahia. There will be special exernp tion in the duties upon articles im ported for the carrying forward of this enterprise. Trusting a Mexican Bandit. Everybody in Mexico goes about armed. Even the passenger trains on most of the railroads are guarded by detachments of soldiers who ride in lspecial cars ' while on every station . ., , platforra are seen rural guards armed with carabines, ready for an erner gency. Foreigners have to adapt them selves to the custom of going about armed or else make themselves un favorably conspicuous in the eyes of the natives. It was a novel experl ence, however, to see railroad sur veyors, when occupied with their peaceful work, armed to the teeth with knives and revolvers. As a mat ter of fact, arms were rarely required in Mexico as a means of defense. As everywhere else, it is well to remem ber, iiowever, to keep cool and iprget that you are armed, in case of a quar rel. In this connection, the principal lo eating engineer of the road had an ex perience at which he displayed some nerve. He had to make a reconnols sauce of a mountain range called the sierra Gorda, said to be infested with cut-throats. He was warned to let the district alone, but duty prevailed, and he went. When reaching a ranch near the summit at sundown, he and his at tendant were met by four men whose law-breaking propensities required no further introduction than their faces, They took hold of the party's horses, told the engineer and his attendant to dismount, and made no effort to con ceal the fact that they were there for business. The engineer complied smilingly, and going up to the lead er, mystified that individual by ask ing him to step aside. "I am told that it is unsafe to travel in these mountains," he whispered, "Will you not, therefore, oblige me by taking care of my property and allow us to remain under your roof until morning." With that he handed over his watch, money and other things and the astonished thief, who was probably for the first time in his life treated to the novelty of being trusted, not only let the engineer have the best of his house, but handed him back his property in the morning and furnished him with two cut-throats to serve as an escort during the rest of his journey. ---- I ---- a Problem in the Gold Supply, Tp . . .. . ^ there be any truth in the con tention that the increase of gold sup ply has been a potent cause in moving price8 upW ard, why has not the inter es j- ra (- e on gold declined? This should be the logical and nat ural consequence unless some other causes liae supervened. That the la terest rate has advanced during re cent years no one will dispute. The jf a g ' Ish and c « ntinental financial pub Beat.ionsespecially are constantly dis Cu ™, ng the P robIem - argeddernand comes from we B"fi e fined sources, the need of ,he merchant for more capital in con sft( inence of the higher prices he must pa y for his merchandise, besides the additional capital needed for business extension; the other enlarged demand comes from tho railroads and other gre , at enterprises for the extension of lbeir business. I These two facts, the enlarged de mand for capital and the higher inter RSt rate cannot be reconciled with the l )rese nt high prices for commodities, We must therefore account for their advance in some other way than the enlarged gold supply. If gold is so i abundant as to send the prices of coin modities upward, surely it should send the Interest rate downward. The new S° ld supply cannot act on prices for commodities and rates for the use of money in directly opposite ways, send in S the price of the one up and the oth er down. It is true the assertion has been dar ingly mentioned that the interest rate i bas been advanced to cover gold de j predation. This is a purely imaginary assertion, contradicted by the entire world of finance and business. It ls hopeless to attempt to enlighten any one who will thus disregard plain fact. For if any fact has been established in recent times it Is the fact that the lenders of money have advanced rates, not to cover past, present, or future depreciation of gold, but because the demand for money, credit or capital, for the reasons above explained, has vastly increased.—North American Re view. Vegetable Kingdom Wonders. Hunting wild animals may be all right so far as it goes, but how much more romance and how much more value to the world there is in hunt ing for wild vegetables and plants which can be made use of for the benefit of humanity. F. N. Meyer, the government agricultural explorer, has started on another trip to China and Siberia in search for new fruit novel ties which can be introduced into this country. He will be gone three years and during that time will travel with his own caravan In the wildest parts of eastern Asia. Whenever he hears of a remarkable fruit he will follow it up, and get seeds or cuttings from the tree. These will be sent to Washington for propaga tion and study. Owing to the great distance it is difficult to make scions or cuttings preserve their vitality so they can be made to grow. One of the objects of this long journey is to procure cuttings of the famous Feit Ching peach of China. This peach grows so that it weighs as much as three pounds. On a former trip Mr. Meyer got cuttings from It, but they refused to live when grafted on Amer ican stock. Stones from the peaches have been planted, but there is little hope from them, for peach seedlings seldom come true to variety or are of much merit.—Brooklyn Eagle. How to Cut a Glass Bottle. It is sometimes necessary to cut a heavy glass bottle or cylinder. Four methods are in use. A carborundum disc having a thin edge, if kept wet and rotated at a high speed, will cut heavy glass, tmt the cylinder must be Let Your Money Work For You fVPEN a savings account and you ^ will be astonished how fast mon ey will grow. We pay five per cent interest compounded semi-annually and accept accounts irom one dollar up. A safety deposit box for twenty-one cents per month. Empire Bank and Trust Company Lewistown, Montana Edwin L. Norris, President George B. Conway, Secretary and Auditor H B. Palmer, s. D. Cook, Vice President and Treasurer Vice-Pres. and Supt. of Agencies Dr. E. D. Nash, Chief Veterinarian MONTANA LIVESTOCK & CASUALTY INSURANCE COMPANY Helena, Montana Judith Gap, Mont., Aug. 12, 1913, Montana Livestock & Casualty Insurance Co., Helena, Mont. Gentlemen: I have just received your draft for one thousand dollars In full payment of my claim for the death of my Shire stallion, "Klnsal Lad," No. 7726, insured by you for that amount on May 24th. I com mend your plan of Insurance to every stockgrower, and thank you for your prompt settlement of the loss, just four days after the death of the horse. Yours truly, (Signed) A. A. COSLET. E. L. SHEPARD, District Manager LEWISTOWN, MONTANA QUALITY FARMING Now that we are threshing another year's crop, we are in a position to figure the returns on the year's work. As a whole, we have good crops this year and In some localities the yields are big. The vital ques tion is: "Are we getting the most out of the farm?" Remember, we have to pay a heavy freight rate to get our wheat to market, and wages for farm help are high. If you figure your cost of breaking, cultivation, twine, harvesting, threshing and hauling, you will find even in raising 20-bushel wheat that the profits are not large. How then are we going to make bigger profits? P. J. Grie8naner, of Denton, Montana, has become wealthy and his "Golden Gate Ranch" is famous as a slock ranch. He has secured his success through diversified farming methods. He raises cattle and hogs, corn, alfalfa, wheat, oats and barley, but instead of selling his grain at so much per bushel, he feeds it and gets threo times the market price of hig grain in the shape of high-priced pork. Mr. Griesnaner has dem onstrated where the big profits are, and his example would be a good one to follow. We will be glad to discuss the possibilities of corn or any other ques tion pertaining to better farming methods at the Home of Quality Goods. Ask your neighbor; he knows ROGERS-TEMPLETON LUMBER CO., E. J. Morrow, Manager. fed against the wheel very gently. A better way ls to make a file mark —clean, but not very deep—around the cylinder and heat It with a long, slen der flame while slowly rotating the cylinder all the time. It is very im portant that the gas flame should not spread over the surface of the glass, for It is only the file mark that should be heated. A mere glancing touch ls sufficient. Usually the glass will crack off in n very clean cut. Sometimes a fine platinum wire la wound around in the file mark and ! hented by an electric current. Less common is the trick of wrapping a strand of yarn soaked In turpentine ! around the mark and burning it. The principle is the same in each case. The unequal heating of the glass causes it to break.—New York Press. Business. "Your brother who waits on the table is much more countrified than you,' remarked the summer boarder. "He's a regular rube." "That Isn't my brother," replied the farmer's daughter. "He's an actor j papa hired in the city to kid the | guests."—Judge.