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THE FUTURE OF AGRICULTURE
Written for the Democrat by Prof. F. S. Cooley, of Bozeman We are no prophet and lay no claims to any special perspicacity in forecast . . ..._____ .___ .__ ... ing events that are to transpire. We, have, however, two guides which in dicate more or less accurately the probable developments of the agricul ture of the country. According to the seer, "The thing that hath been is what shall be." From this it appears that certain indications of what the future, has in store are to be obtained by reviewing the story of the past. Second, the present tendencies and ac tivities themselves point somewhat clearly in a definite direction. The development of the Atlantic states from their permanent and stable establishment to the present time cov ers about 250 years. For one-half of that time there was little pretense at manufacture and nearly three-quarters of it had elapsed before transports tion had begun to be developed. It is safe to say that one-half of the de velopment of these Atlantic states has come in the last half century of time, A traveler in these same Atlantic states at the present time is struck with the fact of large areas of unused land. Abandoned farms, though less numerous than popularly supposed-! ond commonly abandoned by reason o location, topography or other natura . qualities not adapted to tillage so that their logical use is for timber produc tion or pasture-yet such abandoned farms do exist. Many of the occupied lands are producing far less than their real capacity, and there is room In these same Atlantic states for a great increase in rural population. The rural population has not increased to any thing like the extent of the increase in cities. It is the urban development of the east that has been most con spicuous. During the past decade it has been found that the agricultural population has scarcely increased even In some of the richest and most pro ductive agricultural states of the mid dle west. Montana has an area equivalent to New England, New York, Pennsyl vania, and some, besides. In that area are found twenty million people, more or less, after 250 years of develop ment. Agriculturally the New York Pennsylvania-New England region does not present advantages superior to those of Montana. It Is true that the rainfall is much greater, two or three times as much, but the topography is generally quite rough, hilly, rocky, broken and often presenting soils of inferior quality. We estimate about one-third of the area of Montana as being capable of agricultural develop ment, ignoring sixty to sixty-five mil lion acres of mountain, forest and broken land, which has a considerable value for grazing purposes. Its value for such purposes is scarcely dimin ished by its rough contours. It is doubtful If the proportion of arable land In New York, Pennsylvania and New England is much greater than In Montana. If the former is capable of sustaining a population of twenty mil lion people, why not Montana? If a half century's time has added ten mil lion to the population of the eastern section, what is not possible in the, way of Montana development during a like period of time. It is not im probable that Montana will some day support a population of from twenty to fifty million people. Transportation problems are not difficult and are well on the way towards ultimate solution. Possibilities for the. development of Popular Thru Train Daily Between Lewistown - Butte Great Falls and Helena Buffet-Parlor Car serving meals a la carte No. 234 No. 238 No. 237 Daily Daily Daily 8.00 am Lv Butte 49, 51 . Ar 7:55 pm 10 50 am Lv. . . . .Helena. .Ar 4:10pm 2:20 pm Ar. Gt. Falls 51 Lv 12:45 pm 6:15am 2:35 pm Lv. Gt. Falls 7. Ar 12:35pm 9:45am 6:00 pm Lv. . . .Moccasin . . . .Ar 10:10am 6:25 pm Lv. Ar 10:25am 6:40 pm Lv Rossfork . . . .Ar 10:45am 7:00 pm Lv. . . Kingston. . . .Ar 8:25 am 10.55am 7:10pm Lv. Ar 8:17 am 11:00am 7:15pm Lv. . . .Scott...... .Ar 11:15am 7:30 pm Ar. . Lewistown.. Lv 8:00 am An ideal train for a comfortable journey between these points. For tickets and information call on your local representative. J. T. McGaughey, A. G. F. & P. A., Helena, Mont. Panama-Pacific International Exposition San Francisco 1915 Visit Glacier National Park June 15-October 1 No. 233 Daily 9:20 pm 5:35 pm 5:13pm 4:57 pm 4:40 pm 4:30 pm 4:25pm 4:10pm i cheap power are infinite. Coal and t ue * supplies are enormous. Climate I is salubrious and healthful. increase in Population. A great increase in population means not merely more intensified farming, but far better markets. That the agriculture of the future in Mon tana will realize both there seems to be no reasonable doubt. There Is a certain type of farming adapted to ex-; tensive areas and sparse population, Grazing and the production of small grains exemplify this type of farming. By means of improved machinery and a liberal use of power the individual farmer Is able to cover large areas and secure an enormous product in pro-1 portion to human labor employed. The acre product is low, but the man prod uct is high. Millions of acres of Mon tana are well adapted at present to this type of farming. On such land, however, continuous cultivation will produce modifications in the soil and: its adaptability to plant production, that will in turn modify farm prac tice For example, dry, unbroken prairie, where moisture occurs only, within a few inches of the surface,! after a few years of cultivation ac cumulates supplies of moisture to a much greater depth, n regions where the crop production s largely deter mined by the available moisture sup ply this is an important fact. Better tillage methods, the bringing of high lands under cultivation, and the de-l velopment of a marketing system will increase many fold the returns from such lands. There are five or six million acres of lands in Montana susceptible to lr-i rigation. It does not generally pay to° irrigate land for extensive farming. Irrigation farming is fundamentally In tensive. It does not pay to irrigate a large tract of land unless there are farmers enough to cultivate substan tially all of it and even then irrigation calls for crops of higher value than those permissible upon unirrigated | an d B ' Extremists Both Wrong. The man wno harps upon the irriga tion string all the time and sees no merit in dry land farming is as far astray as the one who would cultivate, dry land areas exclusively and ignore. the merits of irrigation. Where land, is worth 20 dollars an acre and it costs 50 dollars to bring irrigation wa ter to such land it will cost as much! for two acres with water as for seven acres without It, and a farmer mayjP make more money from the seven. acres dry than from the two acres ir-ji° rigated. If, however, the land is worth ! 100 dollars without the water and the water costs 50 dollars additional, two acres of irrigated land cost no more i than three, unirrigated and should 1 prove much more profitable. It is not. a question whether irrigation Is better! in the abstract than moisture conser -1 vation. Both are good. Sometimes dry farming is more profitable and, sometimes irrigation is more profit able. It is certain, however, that with the settling up of the state the increased competition for land Its consequent rise in value more and more land will be irrigated. Furthermore, land that it would not pay to irrigate at the present time, on account of the rela tive high cost of bringing the water, in comparison with the present value I of the land, will in time be profitably j irrigated. The time, may come when an expense of not only 20, 30, or 50 dollars an acre, but even as high as 100 or 200 dollars an acre (or irriga tion will be justifiable. More than that, as the art of engineering ad vances the work that now costs 100 dollars may be accomplished for a fraction of that sum. Bringing It Home. Farming in a new coutnry id expen s | ve beyond the calculations of very many w h Q engage In it. Real estate men and promoters are prone to em phasize the expectation of profit based upon a few examples of exceptional 8U ccess. They are just as prone to un flerestimate the cost. Every farmer who has had experience in making im provements and developing farm prop er ^y knows the tremendous capacity of suen a project for the absorption of capital. Not realizing the need of more capital than is available and the dif ficulty of obtaining it in a new agri cultural region, farmers are very prone __ to'oVeTinvestln expensive machinery, M . * ^jg machinery is earning dividends on the investment only a d during the year . In the mat . of f arm equipment, the advantage ' h propoS ed investment should be car e.fully considered, and unless t , le y machinery in question is an absc " le necessity y the question whether it al ® £ investment the first to bp settled With it mlv not be safe ? U "" ed in machineTy that will not to ln . vest J"Lif a.Vrin^the flvear pay for the faJmer may be sold out ®, ; h aecond dividends are available. , . ,___ ut °„ f reP a,r and are ° at sl ° a ^ uring ™ a " y ° , thj ^ b, ® b ar f a . h . nanacitv to Engines have no , a n i^lav r ® pa V^ffn^rin*nf^ Inixnerienced and m9 .hlnprv farmers with intricate machine^ is aot c °mmonly conducive to efficiency. Horses a " do *® n '°"* e t ° t ® rb t P i ' are repaired by nature to a certain extent during vacation days ahd will ?°™ monl y come u back _ stronger and bed " after each layo |*' , . . The re a great dev ®l? p ^.®"* f ®^ ore f ° r Montana aloag *. ® - 8 dlverslfled f aradn 8- J n p „ e , ' elusive production of a™®* 1 g £? la ' m '* ed fa ™ ing ,' 8 w111 b ® th ? introduction offorag cr °P s f ° r far " t L nima !. a ' " among these will be corn.■ " y ot be adapted to all of Montana, u it is rapidly gaining in favor in the wer altitudes where the summer cli mate is not too uncertain. Corn use®® 3 a i°t of feed for animals; not only the f>rain, but the iodder and silage form feeds for cattle, horses, sheep and swine, which will have the effect ot vastly increasing the number of ani mals kept. The keeping of animals commonly doubles the value of market returns from the. raw materials fed. The investment in farm equipment and buildings is also double, and the at In the matter of power, engines get tractiveness of a country with large barns for livestock, with silos and oth er accessories, it many times greater than where wheat is the sole product, The production of corn or any other cultivated crop has the effect of im proving the mechanical condition of the soil, cleaning up the weeds, and increasing the yield of grain the year following. Where these products are fed on the place there is a return of fertility as a by-product in stock feed in B The production of other forage plants, such as alfalfa, clovers, peas and vetches, has the effect of enrich ing the soil as well as providing valua ble forage. By judicious rotation of bread crops, cultivated crops and soil enriching crops the productiveness of land is steadily increased. Popular illusions to the decadent agriculture of the country are hardly justified by facts. Statistics show that the crop yields of the United States have been steadily increasing during the past few years. We know that in the older agricultural regions of Eu rope crop yields have increased until they are higher at the present time than at any former period. What is true of Europe is going to be true of the United States in an increasing de gree, and what is true of the earlier settled portions of the United States will soon be true in the newer agri cultural regions, including Montana. Country Life. There will be a large and increasing attention paid to what are now con sidered luxuries in country life. The planting of trees, ornamental shrubs, and flowers; the making of lawns and care of grass about the farm home; and the cultivation of small fruits, garden products and the hardier tree fruits will become universal. With thesuccess of general farming and the accumulation of profits, more invest ments will be made, in beautifying farmsteads and more attention paid to cultivating the amenities of rural life. Strawberries, raspberries and other small fruits have produced marvelous crops almost all over Montana. Com mercial orcharding has become, very successful in certain sections, but home orchards are possible almost everywhere, and commercfal possibili ties have by no means reached their limit of development. With increased population and market facilities, gar den and truck crops will largely in crease. Many of these develop in the highest degree of perfection and with superb quality in Montana. Dairying has potentialities that are sure to find tremendous development in coming years. A salubrious climate well adapted to all kinds of stock, win ters not too severe, during which ani mals may remain out of doors, to the benefit of their health, much of the time, summer temperatures delightful, comparative freedom from insect peats, and plenty ot good water, form nat ural conditions for dairying surpassed by no locality in the world. With the development of good dairymen; the production of suitable forage, which is easy in a country where alfalfa, roots, and grains grow luxuriantly; and the erection of adequate shelter, the dairy industry will be placed among the most prominent in the state. There are splendid possibilities of j development in seed production. Al falfa seed, Montana grown, Is now ■ greatly in demand and there are splen I did prospects for greatly increasing its I supply. All kinds of small grains grow I to perfection and the best seed can | easily be produced. Our oats are re markably heavy and prolific, and are desirable for seed purposes all over the country, weighing as they do from 45 to 50 pounds per bushel. The seed pea industry has already made sub stantial progress. Seed potatoes should become an important crop. Not only are conditions favorable for growing superior potatoes, but the winter con ditions for keeping seed potatoes are. well nigh perfect. The combination of the two ought to place us In a position to supply seed potatoes to southern and eastern markets on a large scale. The. same is true of many garden vege tables and particularly roots. Almost all kinds of root crops flourish to a re markable degree. The sugar beet is of the highest quality and produces heavy tonnage. It is probable that the future will see many beet sugar fac tories scattered over the state of Mon tana and hundreds of thousands of acres of sugar beets cultivated. Be sides being a commercial crop of high value, sugar beets leave a large resi due for feeding purposes. They also prepare'the land for subsequent crops, Value of Training. The great geologist, Dr. N. S. Shaler, of Harvard University, expressed the opinion that a race of people of su perior intelligence would be developed in the northwestern part of the United States. This undoubtedly means in Montana. Montana is the last great area to be developed and populated. Because of natural obstacles this ter ritory was the last for human con quest. It Is the overcoming of ob stacles that develops human power. Strong, virile, acute people have not developed under easy, equable and mild climatic conditions. Quick changes develop acuteness. The necessity of rapid adjustments to varying condi tions produces keen intellect. So in agriculture the necessity of moisture conservation and the artificial supply ing of water have produced a higher grade of intelligence. Montana farm ers will become peers of the world in their ability to work out agricultural problems. Their need is great. They must rise up to the occasion of this need. The future farmer of Montana will be a trained, a scientific, and an efficient person. In no place, is there greater need of understanding funda mental principles. Nowhere is it more important to conserve natural re sources. Nowhere will training in agricultural science be of greater value. The important factors in the agricultural development of Montana are found in the educational system of the state. The agricultural college and experiment station and the extension service, which Is putting agricultural knowledge at work on the farm, will have a vast influence in the develop ment of the state. This will be ex tended to the high schools, where agri cultural courses will be given. Instruc tion in agriculture will be, carried to schools of elementary grades. Trained teachers in agriculture in high schools and rural schools will find their work supplemented by that of the county agriculturalist, who will travel from farm to farm, bringing the best of scientific research, farm experience, and the purpose to put all this knowl edge into practice. There will be a closer cooperation of other business agencies with the agriculture of the future. The realization that interests are common and universal will lead the merchant, the banker, the railroad operator and the manufacturer to work for the farmre's interest, knowing that their own interests are better served by such a plan. The farmer in turn will more and more learn that he is not independent, but that his inter ests are the interests of the. whole business world. Cooperation will be the watchword in the future of Mon tana agriculture. Farming as a pro ductive industry may become less and less prominent as farming as an oc cupation becomes more appreciated. The object of farming is not to pro duce wheat and corn and hogs, but to produce and sustain men and women. It is not tne crops alone, nor even the successful marketing of these crops, but the higher standard of living on the farm that is to be the ideal of the future. This ideal will be realized in coming generations in a Montana farm home second to none on earth. GEO. R. CREEL. UNDERTAKER LICENSED EMBALMER Calls answered promptly day or night. Both 'phones No. 2. Lewistown, : Montana WIL80N-8EIDEN DRUG The Rexall Store Lewistown, Montana CO. s Baseball in Lewistown 5 Left to right, rear row—Applegate, p itcher; Horrigan, official scorer; Goo. Eastman, short stop; Giffin, center fi eld (captain); Chief Eastman, pitcher; Harmon, pitcher; Becker, third basem an. Front row, seated, left to fight— McQuaid, short stop and second bas e; McNamara, third base and second base; Sorenson, left field and catcher ; Kelly, catcher; Hopkins, pitcher and right field; Conley, first base; Willard, fielder. No other form of Bport has ever had anything like the hold upon the peo ple here that baseball has, Lewistown being in this respect not unlike almost Lewistown League Team, 1913. every other town in the country. In the early days when this city was but a straggling settlement it had its ball team and the contests with Utica for the championship are still remembered by the old-timers. Each year since there has always been a team ready to compete with all comers, but this year Lewistown had for the first time a season of organized baseball. It cost the business men who stood back of the team considerable, because they had to assume a heavy debt left over from the previous season in order to secure the grounds on Brooks' island. The close of the season found Lewis town in second place in the Midland Empire league, Billings winning the pennant. Sheridan was third, finish ing close to Lewistown, and Buffalo, Wyoming, came in fourth. Lewistown had a fast team all season, but suf fered somewhat toward the end, some of the best men being crippled and un able to play. Among these were Hop kins, a corking good fielder and a heavy batter, who came to Lewistown from the Helena league team; Jimmy WITCHES AND WITCHERY. Anecdotes of Spell-Putters As Recount ed in England. T. P.'s Weekly: Mr. M. L. Lewes, in the Occult Review, tells some stories about witches. I must apologize, to my psychic readers for repeating them, as no doubt most of them take that admirable monthly: In olden days Welsh witches used to "put spells" on the animals of neighbors who annoyed them. If a cow was the victim it would sicken of no apparent disease, cease to give milk, and, if the spell were not removed, would die. The ef fect of "witching" a pig was to cause a curious kind of madness, something like a fit; this again ended fatally un less a countercharm was forthcoming. Quite recently I saw one of these "charms" quoted in a local paper by a colector of folk-lore. "An old witch living not far from Llangadock (in Carmarthenshire) * * on one. occa sion, when she had witched a pig, was compelled subsequently to unwitch the animal. She came and put her hand on the pig's back, saying, 'Duwa'th gadwo i'th berchenog (God keep thee.! to thine owner).'" Which seems ai mild way of calming a franzied pig. "A noted witch," says Mr. Lewes,! "used to live about a mile and a half j from my own home. She was known i 'Mary Perllan Peter,' from the! name of her house, Perllan Peter, deep down in a thickly wooded ravine, or dingle, as we call it in Cardiganshire. This way of designating individuals is common in our part of Wales, where surnames among the peasantry are chiefly limited to Jones, Davies, and Evans. So that a person's Christian name, followed by that of their house, is far more distinctive than using a surname most probably common to half the people, in a parish. So the witch was 'Mary of Peter's Orchard,' 'perllan' meaning 'orchard,' though who 'Peter' was I could never find out, and she was undoubtedly a powerful one. One day she asked a neighbor to bring her some, corn which she re quired, and the man very unwillingly consented, as the path down to the cottage was very steep, and the corn ' heavy to carry. On the way he split some, and Mary was very angry, and muttered threat^ to her friends when he left. And when he got back to his home, and went to the stable, what was his amazement to see. his little mare 'sitting like a pig' on her haunches and staring wildly before her. He went to her, and pulling at the halter, tried to get her on her feet, but in vain. She did not seem able to move. Then the man, very frightened, bethought him of the witch's threats, for he felt sure the mare was spellbound. So he sent off for Mary to come and remove the spell, and when she arrived she went straight up to the animal, and 'Moron fach, what ails thee now?' was all she said, and the. mare jumped to her feet as well and lively as ever." Coffee a "Thirst" Cure. At his own expense CapL William Cavanagh, of the police department, is going to supply all drunks before he turns them out in the morning with a cup of Bteamlng bot coffee. "When you turn a man loose who has been drunk the night before the McQuaid, who played at short through most of the season, and Becker, the sterling third sacker. The batting average of the team for the season stood: Player. Games. Pet. Sorenson ................. _.....24 .400 Conley _____________ ......54 .367 Kelly ....................... _______54 -367 Hopkins ___________ —17 .360 C. Eastman............. ___22 .355 G. Eastman............ .......24 .336 Giffin ........................... ......54 .334 Harmon .................. ... 40 .305 McQuaid ............... ......41 .300 McNamara ....... ......37 .250 Becker ................ .....—.38 .242 Applegate __________ -------14 .214 Willard _____________ ..........30 .208 Ploof _________________ ______ .352 Next Season. Whatever happens, Lewistown will have a ball team next season. Just what policy will be followed cannot be known until the question as to whether or not there will be a state league is answered. If Great Falls, Missoula, Helena and Butte drop out of the Union association and a state league is organized, a good many of the local fans favor putting Lewistown into it. If there is not a state league, one fol lowing the lines of the Midland will be favored here. The big problem for next season, however, is in regard to grounds. The construction of the new Catholic church on Brooks' island will begin in the spring and the first matter to be attended to is that of securing a new park. This is fully realized, how ever, and the fans are all on the look out for a suitable location for grounds for next season. appetite for more whiskey is just as acute as when he started on the drunk," Cavanagh said. "The idea in serving them hot coffee is to kill that appetite, and a cup of piping hot, strong coffee, will do it. "There is a craving on the part of a drunken man recovering from a spree for something, and he himself is not sure what It Is that he wants, but just goes for the whiskey again, thinking It will do him good. Finally he is back here, again Inside of an hour."— Venice (Calif.) Dispatch to the New York Sun. c PRINCESS THEATRE Safe Sanitary Over 4,000 Feet of Pictures Every Night Change of Program Daily SHOWS START 7:30 8HARP ^Adults, 15c : Children, 10c Prom our sanitary market will b< ound juicy, tender and delicious il favor. V/e are noted foi oar supertoi Trade of home-rendered lard ant tmoked meats. ABEL BROS.