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Fergus County Democrat. (Lewistown, Mont.) 1904-1919, December 23, 1913, Image 16

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THE FUTURE OF AGRICULTURE
Written for the Democrat by Prof. F. S. Cooley, of Bozeman
We are no prophet and lay no claims
to any special perspicacity in forecast
. . ..._____ .___ .__ ...
ing events that are to transpire. We,
have, however, two guides which in
dicate more or less accurately the
probable developments of the agricul
ture of the country. According to the
seer, "The thing that hath been is
what shall be." From this it appears
that certain indications of what the
future, has in store are to be obtained
by reviewing the story of the past.
Second, the present tendencies and ac
tivities themselves point somewhat
clearly in a definite direction.
The development of the Atlantic
states from their permanent and stable
establishment to the present time cov
ers about 250 years. For one-half of
that time there was little pretense at
manufacture and nearly three-quarters
of it had elapsed before transports
tion had begun to be developed. It is
safe to say that one-half of the de
velopment of these Atlantic states has
come in the last half century of time,
A traveler in these same Atlantic
states at the present time is struck
with the fact of large areas of unused
land. Abandoned farms, though less
numerous than popularly supposed-!
ond commonly abandoned by reason o
location, topography or other natura .
qualities not adapted to tillage so that
their logical use is for timber produc
tion or pasture-yet such abandoned
farms do exist. Many of the occupied
lands are producing far less than their
real capacity, and there is room In
these same Atlantic states for a great
increase in rural population. The rural
population has not increased to any
thing like the extent of the increase
in cities. It is the urban development
of the east that has been most con
spicuous. During the past decade it
has been found that the agricultural
population has scarcely increased even
In some of the richest and most pro
ductive agricultural states of the mid
dle west.
Montana has an area equivalent to
New England, New York, Pennsyl
vania, and some, besides. In that area
are found twenty million people, more
or less, after 250 years of develop
ment. Agriculturally the New York
Pennsylvania-New England region does
not present advantages superior to
those of Montana. It Is true that the
rainfall is much greater, two or three
times as much, but the topography is
generally quite rough, hilly, rocky,
broken and often presenting soils of
inferior quality. We estimate about
one-third of the area of Montana as
being capable of agricultural develop
ment, ignoring sixty to sixty-five mil
lion acres of mountain, forest and
broken land, which has a considerable
value for grazing purposes. Its value
for such purposes is scarcely dimin
ished by its rough contours. It is
doubtful If the proportion of arable
land In New York, Pennsylvania and
New England is much greater than In
Montana. If the former is capable of
sustaining a population of twenty mil
lion people, why not Montana? If a
half century's time has added ten mil
lion to the population of the eastern
section, what is not possible in the,
way of Montana development during
a like period of time. It is not im
probable that Montana will some day
support a population of from twenty
to fifty million people. Transportation
problems are not difficult and are well
on the way towards ultimate solution.
Possibilities for the. development of
Popular
Thru Train
Daily Between
Lewistown - Butte
Great Falls and Helena
Buffet-Parlor Car serving meals a la carte
No. 234
No. 238
No. 237
Daily
Daily
Daily
8.00 am
Lv
Butte 49, 51
. Ar
7:55 pm
10 50 am
Lv.
. . . .Helena.
.Ar
4:10pm
2:20 pm
Ar.
Gt. Falls 51
Lv
12:45 pm
6:15am
2:35 pm
Lv.
Gt. Falls 7.
Ar
12:35pm
9:45am
6:00 pm
Lv.
. . .Moccasin . . .
.Ar
10:10am
6:25 pm
Lv.
Ar
10:25am
6:40 pm
Lv
Rossfork . . .
.Ar
10:45am
7:00 pm
Lv.
. . Kingston. . .
.Ar
8:25 am
10.55am
7:10pm
Lv.
Ar
8:17 am
11:00am
7:15pm
Lv.
. . .Scott......
.Ar
11:15am
7:30 pm
Ar.
. Lewistown..
Lv
8:00 am
An ideal train for a comfortable journey between these
points.
For tickets and information call on your local representative.
J. T. McGaughey, A. G. F. & P. A., Helena, Mont.
Panama-Pacific
International
Exposition
San Francisco
1915
Visit Glacier National Park June 15-October 1
No. 233
Daily
9:20 pm
5:35 pm
5:13pm
4:57 pm
4:40 pm
4:30 pm
4:25pm
4:10pm
i cheap power are infinite. Coal and
t ue * supplies are enormous. Climate
I is salubrious and healthful.
increase in Population.
A great increase in population
means not merely more intensified
farming, but far better markets. That
the agriculture of the future in Mon
tana will realize both there seems to
be no reasonable doubt. There Is a
certain type of farming adapted to ex-;
tensive areas and sparse population,
Grazing and the production of small
grains exemplify this type of farming.
By means of improved machinery and
a liberal use of power the individual
farmer Is able to cover large areas and
secure an enormous product in pro-1
portion to human labor employed. The
acre product is low, but the man prod
uct is high. Millions of acres of Mon
tana are well adapted at present to
this type of farming. On such land,
however, continuous cultivation will
produce modifications in the soil and:
its adaptability to plant production,
that will in turn modify farm prac
tice For example, dry, unbroken
prairie, where moisture occurs only,
within a few inches of the surface,!
after a few years of cultivation ac
cumulates supplies of moisture to a
much greater depth, n regions where
the crop production s largely deter
mined by the available moisture sup
ply this is an important fact. Better
tillage methods, the bringing of high
lands under cultivation, and the de-l
velopment of a marketing system will
increase many fold the returns from
such lands.
There are five or six million acres
of lands in Montana susceptible to lr-i
rigation. It does not generally pay to°
irrigate land for extensive farming.
Irrigation farming is fundamentally In
tensive. It does not pay to irrigate a
large tract of land unless there are
farmers enough to cultivate substan
tially all of it and even then irrigation
calls for crops of higher value than
those permissible upon unirrigated
| an d B
' Extremists Both Wrong.
The man wno harps upon the irriga
tion string all the time and sees no
merit in dry land farming is as far
astray as the one who would cultivate,
dry land areas exclusively and ignore.
the merits of irrigation. Where land,
is worth 20 dollars an acre and it
costs 50 dollars to bring irrigation wa
ter to such land it will cost as much!
for two acres with water as for seven
acres without It, and a farmer mayjP
make more money from the seven.
acres dry than from the two acres ir-ji°
rigated. If, however, the land is worth !
100 dollars without the water and the
water costs 50 dollars additional, two
acres of irrigated land cost no more i
than three, unirrigated and should 1
prove much more profitable. It is not.
a question whether irrigation Is better!
in the abstract than moisture conser -1
vation. Both are good. Sometimes
dry farming is more profitable and,
sometimes irrigation is more profit
able.
It is certain, however, that with the
settling up of the state the increased
competition for land Its consequent
rise in value more and more land will
be irrigated. Furthermore, land that
it would not pay to irrigate at the
present time, on account of the rela
tive high cost of bringing the water,
in comparison with the present value I
of the land, will in time be profitably j
irrigated. The time, may come when
an expense of not only 20, 30, or 50
dollars an acre, but even as high as
100 or 200 dollars an acre (or irriga
tion will be justifiable. More than
that, as the art of engineering ad
vances the work that now costs 100
dollars may be accomplished for a
fraction of that sum.
Bringing It Home.
Farming in a new coutnry id expen
s | ve beyond the calculations of very
many w h Q engage In it. Real estate
men and promoters are prone to em
phasize the expectation of profit based
upon a few examples of exceptional
8U ccess. They are just as prone to un
flerestimate the cost. Every farmer
who has had experience in making im
provements and developing farm prop
er ^y knows the tremendous capacity
of suen a project for the absorption of
capital. Not realizing the need of more
capital than is available and the dif
ficulty of obtaining it in a new agri
cultural region, farmers are very prone
__
to'oVeTinvestln expensive machinery,
M . * ^jg machinery is earning
dividends on the investment only a
d during the year . In the mat .
of f arm equipment, the advantage
' h propoS ed investment should be
car e.fully considered, and unless
t , le y machinery in question is an absc
" le necessity y the question whether it
al ® £ investment the first
to bp settled With
it mlv not be safe
? U "" ed in machineTy that will not
to ln . vest J"Lif a.Vrin^the flvear
pay for the faJmer may be sold out
®, ; h aecond dividends are
available.
, . ,___
ut °„ f reP a,r and are ° at
sl ° a ^ uring ™ a " y ° , thj
^ b, ® b ar f a . h . nanacitv to
Engines have no , a n i^lav
r ® pa V^ffn^rin*nf^ Inixnerienced
and m9 .hlnprv
farmers with intricate machine^ is
aot c °mmonly conducive to efficiency.
Horses a " do *® n '°"* e t ° t ® rb t P i '
are repaired by nature to a certain
extent during vacation days ahd will
?°™ monl y come u back _ stronger and
bed " after each layo |*' , . .
The re a great dev ®l? p ^.®"* f
®^ ore f ° r Montana aloag *. ® - 8
dlverslfled f aradn 8- J n p „ e , '
elusive production of a™®* 1 g £? la '
m '* ed fa ™ ing ,' 8
w111 b ® th ? introduction offorag
cr °P s f ° r far " t L nima !. a ' "
among these will be corn.■ " y
ot be adapted to all of Montana, u
it is rapidly gaining in favor in the
wer altitudes where the summer cli
mate is not too uncertain. Corn use®® 3
a i°t of feed for animals; not only the
f>rain, but the iodder and silage form
feeds for cattle, horses, sheep and
swine, which will have the effect ot
vastly increasing the number of ani
mals kept. The keeping of animals
commonly doubles the value of market
returns from the. raw materials fed.
The investment in farm equipment and
buildings is also double, and the at
In the matter of power, engines get
tractiveness of a country with large
barns for livestock, with silos and oth
er accessories, it many times greater
than where wheat is the sole product,
The production of corn or any other
cultivated crop has the effect of im
proving the mechanical condition of
the soil, cleaning up the weeds, and
increasing the yield of grain the year
following. Where these products are
fed on the place there is a return of
fertility as a by-product in stock feed
in B
The production of other forage
plants, such as alfalfa, clovers, peas
and vetches, has the effect of enrich
ing the soil as well as providing valua
ble forage. By judicious rotation of
bread crops, cultivated crops and soil
enriching crops the productiveness of
land is steadily increased.
Popular illusions to the decadent
agriculture of the country are hardly
justified by facts. Statistics show that
the crop yields of the United States
have been steadily increasing during
the past few years. We know that in
the older agricultural regions of Eu
rope crop yields have increased until
they are higher at the present time
than at any former period. What is
true of Europe is going to be true of
the United States in an increasing de
gree, and what is true of the earlier
settled portions of the United States
will soon be true in the newer agri
cultural regions, including Montana.
Country Life.
There will be a large and increasing
attention paid to what are now con
sidered luxuries in country life. The
planting of trees, ornamental shrubs,
and flowers; the making of lawns and
care of grass about the farm home;
and the cultivation of small fruits,
garden products and the hardier tree
fruits will become universal. With
thesuccess of general farming and the
accumulation of profits, more invest
ments will be made, in beautifying
farmsteads and more attention paid to
cultivating the amenities of rural life.
Strawberries, raspberries and other
small fruits have produced marvelous
crops almost all over Montana. Com
mercial orcharding has become, very
successful in certain sections, but
home orchards are possible almost
everywhere, and commercfal possibili
ties have by no means reached their
limit of development. With increased
population and market facilities, gar
den and truck crops will largely in
crease. Many of these develop in the
highest degree of perfection and with
superb quality in Montana.
Dairying has potentialities that are
sure to find tremendous development
in coming years. A salubrious climate
well adapted to all kinds of stock, win
ters not too severe, during which ani
mals may remain out of doors, to the
benefit of their health, much of the
time, summer temperatures delightful,
comparative freedom from insect peats,
and plenty ot good water, form nat
ural conditions for dairying surpassed
by no locality in the world. With the
development of good dairymen; the
production of suitable forage, which
is easy in a country where alfalfa,
roots, and grains grow luxuriantly;
and the erection of adequate shelter,
the dairy industry will be placed
among the most prominent in the
state.
There are splendid possibilities of
j development in seed production. Al
falfa seed, Montana grown, Is now
■ greatly in demand and there are splen
I did prospects for greatly increasing its
I supply. All kinds of small grains grow
I to perfection and the best seed can
| easily be produced. Our oats are re
markably heavy and prolific, and are
desirable for seed purposes all over
the country, weighing as they do from
45 to 50 pounds per bushel. The seed
pea industry has already made sub
stantial progress. Seed potatoes should
become an important crop. Not only
are conditions favorable for growing
superior potatoes, but the winter con
ditions for keeping seed potatoes are.
well nigh perfect. The combination of
the two ought to place us In a position
to supply seed potatoes to southern
and eastern markets on a large scale.
The. same is true of many garden vege
tables and particularly roots. Almost
all kinds of root crops flourish to a re
markable degree. The sugar beet is
of the highest quality and produces
heavy tonnage. It is probable that the
future will see many beet sugar fac
tories scattered over the state of Mon
tana and hundreds of thousands of
acres of sugar beets cultivated. Be
sides being a commercial crop of high
value, sugar beets leave a large resi
due for feeding purposes. They also
prepare'the land for subsequent crops,
Value of Training.
The great geologist, Dr. N. S. Shaler,
of Harvard University, expressed the
opinion that a race of people of su
perior intelligence would be developed
in the northwestern part of the United
States. This undoubtedly means in
Montana. Montana is the last great
area to be developed and populated.
Because of natural obstacles this ter
ritory was the last for human con
quest. It Is the overcoming of ob
stacles that develops human power.
Strong, virile, acute people have not
developed under easy, equable and mild
climatic conditions. Quick changes
develop acuteness. The necessity of
rapid adjustments to varying condi
tions produces keen intellect. So in
agriculture the necessity of moisture
conservation and the artificial supply
ing of water have produced a higher
grade of intelligence. Montana farm
ers will become peers of the world in
their ability to work out agricultural
problems. Their need is great. They
must rise up to the occasion of this
need. The future farmer of Montana
will be a trained, a scientific, and an
efficient person. In no place, is there
greater need of understanding funda
mental principles. Nowhere is it more
important to conserve natural re
sources. Nowhere will training in
agricultural science be of greater
value. The important factors in the
agricultural development of Montana
are found in the educational system of
the state. The agricultural college and
experiment station and the extension
service, which Is putting agricultural
knowledge at work on the farm, will
have a vast influence in the develop
ment of the state. This will be ex
tended to the high schools, where agri
cultural courses will be given. Instruc
tion in agriculture will be, carried to
schools of elementary grades. Trained
teachers in agriculture in high schools
and rural schools will find their work
supplemented by that of the county
agriculturalist, who will travel from
farm to farm, bringing the best of
scientific research, farm experience,
and the purpose to put all this knowl
edge into practice. There will be a
closer cooperation of other business
agencies with the agriculture of the
future. The realization that interests
are common and universal will lead
the merchant, the banker, the railroad
operator and the manufacturer to work
for the farmre's interest, knowing that
their own interests are better served
by such a plan. The farmer in turn
will more and more learn that he is
not independent, but that his inter
ests are the interests of the. whole
business world. Cooperation will be
the watchword in the future of Mon
tana agriculture. Farming as a pro
ductive industry may become less and
less prominent as farming as an oc
cupation becomes more appreciated.
The object of farming is not to pro
duce wheat and corn and hogs, but to
produce and sustain men and women.
It is not tne crops alone, nor even the
successful marketing of these crops,
but the higher standard of living on
the farm that is to be the ideal of the
future. This ideal will be realized in
coming generations in a Montana
farm home second to none on earth.
GEO. R. CREEL.
UNDERTAKER
LICENSED
EMBALMER
Calls answered promptly day or night.
Both 'phones No. 2.
Lewistown, : Montana
WIL80N-8EIDEN DRUG
The Rexall Store
Lewistown, Montana
CO.
s Baseball in Lewistown 5
Left to right, rear row—Applegate, p
itcher; Horrigan, official scorer; Goo.
Eastman, short stop; Giffin, center fi
eld (captain); Chief Eastman, pitcher;
Harmon, pitcher; Becker, third basem
an. Front row, seated, left to fight—
McQuaid, short stop and second bas
e; McNamara, third base and second
base; Sorenson, left field and catcher
; Kelly, catcher; Hopkins, pitcher and
right field; Conley, first base; Willard,
fielder.
No other form of Bport has ever had
anything like the hold upon the peo
ple here that baseball has, Lewistown
being in this respect not unlike almost
Lewistown League Team, 1913.
every other town in the country. In
the early days when this city was but
a straggling settlement it had its ball
team and the contests with Utica for
the championship are still remembered
by the old-timers. Each year since
there has always been a team ready
to compete with all comers, but this
year Lewistown had for the first time
a season of organized baseball. It cost
the business men who stood back of
the team considerable, because they
had to assume a heavy debt left over
from the previous season in order to
secure the grounds on Brooks' island.
The close of the season found Lewis
town in second place in the Midland
Empire league, Billings winning the
pennant. Sheridan was third, finish
ing close to Lewistown, and Buffalo,
Wyoming, came in fourth. Lewistown
had a fast team all season, but suf
fered somewhat toward the end, some
of the best men being crippled and un
able to play. Among these were Hop
kins, a corking good fielder and a
heavy batter, who came to Lewistown
from the Helena league team; Jimmy
WITCHES AND WITCHERY.
Anecdotes of Spell-Putters As Recount
ed in England.
T. P.'s Weekly: Mr. M. L. Lewes, in
the Occult Review, tells some stories
about witches. I must apologize, to
my psychic readers for repeating them,
as no doubt most of them take that
admirable monthly: In olden days
Welsh witches used to "put spells" on
the animals of neighbors who annoyed
them. If a cow was the victim it
would sicken of no apparent disease,
cease to give milk, and, if the spell
were not removed, would die. The ef
fect of "witching" a pig was to cause
a curious kind of madness, something
like a fit; this again ended fatally un
less a countercharm was forthcoming.
Quite recently I saw one of these
"charms" quoted in a local paper by
a colector of folk-lore. "An old witch
living not far from Llangadock (in
Carmarthenshire) * * on one. occa
sion, when she had witched a pig, was
compelled subsequently to unwitch the
animal. She came and put her hand
on the pig's back, saying, 'Duwa'th
gadwo i'th berchenog (God keep thee.!
to thine owner).'" Which seems ai
mild way of calming a franzied pig.
"A noted witch," says Mr. Lewes,!
"used to live about a mile and a half j
from my own home. She was known i
'Mary Perllan Peter,' from the!
name of her house, Perllan Peter, deep
down in a thickly wooded ravine, or
dingle, as we call it in Cardiganshire.
This way of designating individuals
is common in our part of Wales, where
surnames among the peasantry are
chiefly limited to Jones, Davies, and
Evans. So that a person's Christian
name, followed by that of their house,
is far more distinctive than using a
surname most probably common to
half the people, in a parish. So the
witch was 'Mary of Peter's Orchard,'
'perllan' meaning 'orchard,' though
who 'Peter' was I could never find out,
and she was undoubtedly a powerful
one.
One day she asked a neighbor to
bring her some, corn which she re
quired, and the man very unwillingly
consented, as the path down to the
cottage was very steep, and the corn '
heavy to carry. On the way he split
some, and Mary was very angry, and
muttered threat^ to her friends when
he left. And when he got back to his
home, and went to the stable, what
was his amazement to see. his little
mare 'sitting like a pig' on her
haunches and staring wildly before
her. He went to her, and pulling at
the halter, tried to get her on her
feet, but in vain. She did not seem
able to move. Then the man, very
frightened, bethought him of the
witch's threats, for he felt sure the
mare was spellbound. So he sent off
for Mary to come and remove the
spell, and when she arrived she went
straight up to the animal, and 'Moron
fach, what ails thee now?' was all she
said, and the. mare jumped to her feet
as well and lively as ever."
Coffee a "Thirst" Cure.
At his own expense CapL William
Cavanagh, of the police department,
is going to supply all drunks before
he turns them out in the morning with
a cup of Bteamlng bot coffee.
"When you turn a man loose who
has been drunk the night before the
McQuaid, who played at short through
most of the season, and Becker, the
sterling third sacker. The batting
average of the team for the season
stood:
Player.
Games.
Pet.
Sorenson .................
_.....24
.400
Conley _____________
......54
.367
Kelly .......................
_______54
-367
Hopkins ___________
—17
.360
C. Eastman.............
___22
.355
G. Eastman............
.......24
.336
Giffin ...........................
......54
.334
Harmon ..................
... 40
.305
McQuaid ...............
......41
.300
McNamara .......
......37
.250
Becker ................
.....—.38
.242
Applegate __________
-------14
.214
Willard _____________
..........30
.208
Ploof _________________
______
.352
Next
Season.
Whatever happens, Lewistown will
have a ball team next season. Just
what policy will be followed cannot be
known until the question as to whether
or not there will be a state league is
answered. If Great Falls, Missoula,
Helena and Butte drop out of the
Union association and a state league
is organized, a good many of the local
fans favor putting Lewistown into it.
If there is not a state league, one fol
lowing the lines of the Midland will
be favored here.
The big problem for next season,
however, is in regard to grounds. The
construction of the new Catholic
church on Brooks' island will begin
in the spring and the first matter to
be attended to is that of securing a
new park. This is fully realized, how
ever, and the fans are all on the look
out for a suitable location for grounds
for next season.
appetite for more whiskey is just as
acute as when he started on the
drunk," Cavanagh said. "The idea in
serving them hot coffee is to kill that
appetite, and a cup of piping hot,
strong coffee, will do it.
"There is a craving on the part of a
drunken man recovering from a spree
for something, and he himself is not
sure what It Is that he wants, but just
goes for the whiskey again, thinking
It will do him good. Finally he is
back here, again Inside of an hour."—
Venice (Calif.) Dispatch to the New
York Sun.
c
PRINCESS
THEATRE
Safe
Sanitary
Over 4,000 Feet of
Pictures Every
Night
Change of Program
Daily
SHOWS START 7:30 8HARP
^Adults, 15c : Children, 10c
Prom our sanitary market will b<
ound juicy, tender and delicious il
favor. V/e are noted foi oar supertoi
Trade of home-rendered lard ant
tmoked meats.
ABEL BROS.

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