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OF INTEREST TO FARMERS o----o From time to time there appears in the press of the country articles de rogatory to county agent work. The criticisms, for the most part, show a misunderstanding of what the move ment really is. The county agent plan is yet so new and its growth has been so rapid that it would be strange in deed if there did not exist some basis for criticism and much misunderstand ing of its purpose. From time to time the Farm Management Monthly will undertake to answer criticisms that appear to be made in good faith. This month will be devoted to the funda mental objection: The county agent is mot needed. This criticism is usually fortified by the argument that other forms of ex tension work—the farm press, the in stitute, the bulletins, etc.—meet the situation satisfactorily. The purpose of county agent work is not to take the place of any other form of exten sion work, but to supplement and helpall other forms. The farm press, the institute and the bulletin all have muchto their credit, and their glory is not departed. The agent will find these most useful adjuncts to his work. Only through the local or farm press can the agent reach each farmer in his county with an individual mes sage. A scientific principle finds a most ready acceptance when its local application has been demonstrated, and the agent will find many uncon scious local demonstrators of discov eries concerning which the great mass of the farmers of the country are not informed. JThe warmest friends of the farmers' Institute recognize its serious effi ciency in a total lack of follow-up work. There is such a great likeli hood that those attending the insti tute will assent to the preachments of the speaker and then go back home and farm the same old way. Instead of one institute a year, as at present, with an agent there can be twelve; instead of only two in the county there can be one in each township, and the agent can help the farmers apply the lessons of the institute. The bulletin is sent out from the ex periment station or the department of agriculture when it is published. The agent will see that it is sent out when it is needed. The scientific discus sions in the bulletin can frequently be summarized in a few terse paragraphs, and the agent, through the press and through the institute, will pass the message from the scientist to the farmer. The agent is needed, not to displace other work, but as an effl < ency man to second all legitimate forms of extension work and to bring to the concrete problems of the farm all their teachings of agricultural sci ence and to temper their application by the acid test of local farm experi ence.—Farm Management Monthly. The Half Grown Chick. It does not take a flock of young chicks very long to outgrow the coops that first house them, and as soon as they become at all crowded they ought to be transferred from the coops to the yards and the regular poultry house. Most hen-hatched flocks can be pret ty well taken care of by hens from this time on. Let them have the run of the orchard and the woods lot if possible, but keep them out of the feeding pens and away from the barn lots. They are likely to get under the feet of the stock and to be tramped to death while they are still so small that they cannot look after them selves. When it is possible to give them the partial freedom of the place they will get along well if they are not attacked by animals or birds of prey. They get a chance to pick up all manner of edi ble things from the white pieces of roots, grubs in the plowed ground and grass in the lots to many different kinds of insects. As this is an alto gether natural diet, they grow very last when this is combined with the usual feeds given the half-grown birds. I have no more trouble with birds The Big Saving with a ii l A De Laval will save enough over any gravity setting system in quantity and quality of cream, sweet skim-milk, labor, time and trouble to pay for itself every six months under ordinary conditions. A De Laval will save enough over any other sepa rator in closer skimming, in running heavier and smoother cream, skimming cool milk, greater capacity, easier cleaning, easier running and fewer repairs to pay for itself every year under ordinary conditions. An up-to-date De Laval saves enough ^' over De Laval machines of five, ten, fifteen or twenty years ago in closer separation under all conditions, greater capacity, easier running and greater mechanical perfection to pay for itself every two years under ordinary conditions. Remember that these are not mere claims. We always willing to let you try out a De Laval for yourself on your own place. V FERGUS CO. HDWE. CO. LEWISTOWN that are transferred from the coops to the poultry house than I do with those that I am able to permit to forage over the place near the house and barn. There are some springs, however, when the nearness of the fresh-plant ed crops to the house and chicken yards will prevent the chicks from be ing given the run of the premises. When this is the case the poultry house and the yards where the half grown chicks are to be kept should be given a very careful cleaning be fore the birds are placed therein. I renovate the chicken house before any thing else is done. This means the removal of everything from it, the whitewashing of the interior, the poles, perches, nesting boxes, watering troughs and feeding boxes and the burning of everything that I can find to burn. When the job is thoroughly done you will be surprised at the amount of trash that can be raked out of a henhouse that looked compara tivley clean when you began on it. Clean out all the droppings as a matter of course. Use the shovel and rake in getting these up. I get out in the spring and cut an armload of hazel or other stiff, slender brush and from these I make a half dozen "brush brooms" that are fine to use in sweep ing out the henhouse and cleaning up the fine trash that gets through the teeth of the rake when you are clean ing up the poultry yards. I keep these at hand all summer. After removing the droppings and getting the rubbish out of the build ing and off the floor I spade up the floor if it is made of earth, and mix it thoroughly with powdered lime and ashes. This gets rid of a lot of the taint that may be in the floor and helps to kill out the lurking vermin. I pay more attention to the yards and the outside runs than to the build ing. I do my best to keep the half grown birds in the open from ten to twelve hours of every day. The more sunlight they can get the better, and if they cannot be given the freedom of the whole premises I try to make up for this by giving them a roomy yard in which to grow. One part corn, two parts oats, fed with a little skim milk make a very good ration for the chick that has passed his first weeks. Common sense feeding ideas will cause this to be varied from time to time by providing some wheat, chopstuff, cracked corn or most anything else the chick rel ishes. Don't stuff and gorge them. A chick that is just a little hungry and is busy hunting and picking up things will grow better than one that is too full to move after feeding time.— George T. Woods. Sheep and Lamb. Everyone has heard the oft-repeated querie of "Why does a lamb sell for more than a sheep" It should not, but it does on every market in the country. There are several reasons for this, chief of which is a rather foolish prejudice on the part of the public. A market lamb is now about one year old and a sheep two years or over. As far as difference in the meat goes there is little to be seen, the meat of the older animal being just as nutritious as the younger and : a bit better in the opinion of many | people. But in the case of the older animal the carcass is bigger through out, and this the public objects to; and in cases of this nature there is no ap peal from the public's decision. The public demands lamb and does not like sheep. It will pay far less for sheep; in fact, in some cases it will not buy them at all. The public insists on handy-weight legs and shoulders and light chops, and these the lamb's car cass furnish. The public does not want heavy cuts at any price, and so the sheep's carcass is sold at a dis count, both because it is a sheep and because it is too weighty. The pub lic says it wants light, tender lamb meat. The chances are ten to one that the average buyer would not know the difference between a lamb and a sheep where it not for the dis crepancy in size. The public is ready for all sorts of measures to insure cheap meat, yet it will not have it if it is sheep meat. There is no sense in the difference in price between a sheep and a lamb, but the price is fixed, and fixed it will be until the pub lic changes its opinio n.—-Montana Farmer. Alfalfa in Fergus.' Says County Farmer Carl H. Peter son In the Montana Farmer: I find some exceptionally fine stands of alfalfa in the northern part of Fer gus county even though it is exceed ingly dry, and while winter wheat ap pears to be suffering from lack of mois ture, the alfalfa is flourishing. The best results in that section appear to be where alfalfa is sown in rows j twelve inches apart. This applies to both sod and old ground. The alfalfa seeded in this manner during the sum mer of 1913 shows up very well. A few farmers tried to use a nurse crop, but in nearly every instance it is a failure. I have been urging every farmer who intends to sow alfalfa not to use a.nurse crop as it will result in a failure so far as the alfalfa is con loerned. I In this section of the county It is exceptionally dry, owing to the lack of both snow and spring rains, and the winter wheat is not in the best condi tion. This is true especially of wheat seeded on a porly prepared seed bed, but even on summer fallowed land where the wheat was sown during the month of October it is not very prom ising. In nearly every instance where wheat was stubbled in early in the season it is in pretty good condition at present, due partly to the stubble retaining whatever snow fell during the winter. The farmers in this section have followed our advice and have at pres ent a goodly number of brood sows, all doing nicely, and the farmers are well satisfied with results. One of the farmers, Mr. George F. Fleming, who has twice topped the St. Joe market with his wheat-fed hogs, has at pres ent the finest lot of hogs ready for market I have seen in Montana. This farmer is keeping an account of wheat fed and I will get the actual cost of production when the hogs are sold. Grain or Livestock Farming. Farm specialists have been trying to ascertain for some time the amount of capital a farmer should have in or der to quit "grain" farming and launch into livestock. Professor Warren, of the New York agricultural station, says that $15,000 is about the dividing line between grain and livestock. The small farmer must usually turn his money quickly, so he resorts to crops. The man with money (from $15,000 up ward) can take things more leisurely, and hence, finds livestock better fitted to his needs and ideas for gaining wealth. Prof. Wilson's figures are based up on an investigation of 578 farms. Very rarely, he says, does a man with small capital succeed with livestock. In oth er words, it takes money to make money when handling cattle. cBNoniffra crops ABOVE THE TEN-TEAR AVERAGE WHILE THE PRICES OF FARM STUFF ARE DROPPING GRADUALLY. WASHINGTON, June 9.—The com posite condition of many important crops in the United States on June 1 was about 2.2 per cent, above the 10-year average for that date, the de partment of agriculture announced to night. Last year June 1 the condi tion was 1.2 per cent, below. The most promising crop and year was winter wheat, with a condition of 14.7 per cent, above its 10-year average, while cotton stood at the bottom of the list with 7.6 per cent, below. Average prices to producers on June 1 were lower on several articles than the average of the last five years on that date. Wheat's average on June 1 was .844 a bushel, compared with the five year average of .986. Oats, barley, rye, flax, hay, potatoes and butter showed varying decreases. Corn, buckwheat, cotton, chickens and eggs brought slightly higher average prices. SECORES DIVORCE AND IS QUICKLV MARRIED AGAIN MRS. MARY DURAND BECOMES BRIDE OF PHIL HARPER OF LEWISTOWN. The time required to go from the office of the clerk of the district'court on the third floor of the court house to the office of Justice B. H. Foley, on the ground floor, was all that elapsed after Mrs. Mary Durand se cured a divorce yesterday until she became a bride, Phil Harper of this city being the groom. However, the circumstances with regard to the divorce rather dispelled the idea of extraordinary haste, in theory at least. In her complaint Mrs. Durand set out that she was mar ried to Carter L. Durand at Hosing ton, Kansas, in 1904 and that three years later, in 1907, he deserted her, having since failed to provide for her In any way, so that she has been alone and has made her own living. Dur and, according to the complaint, aft erwards entered into some sort of a marriage contract with one Florence M. Hall, with whom he has been liv ing at Los Angeles. In the divorce proceedings, Mrs. Durand, now Mrs. Harper, was represented by Attorney Oscar O. Mueller. "Who are those two weary-looking men who both admit they are afraid to go home?" "One," replied Miss Cayenne, "is the husband of a suffragist and the other is the husband of an anti-suf fragist.' ✓/V THE kitchem 1 PANTRY I I N THIS LIST of economical dishes will b« found four excellent meat sugges tions, Each of these meat combination! possesses particular value and Is as savory as It is Inexpensive. The first of these is a I -cheon dish which nllows the use of left over veal and which results in a- real treat Veal turnovers are easily made and re thor oughly satisfactory. 8econd among the meat hints is a pie of mutton and potatoes, with a light pastry for the crust, and a nourishing combination of seasonaLie vegetables with the two m. Ingredients. Third comes th» beef cooked in a cas serole with Just a slight flavor of onion and all the rich Juices of the meat pre served by reason of the cas, -ole. Pota toes may be cooked with the bref. For the fourth suggestion there Is a combination of beef and rice. To give the proper tang there is a sauce of tomatoea When this dish Is carefully prepared it is one of the best in all the vast number of hr-ne economic-. Corn and tomato chow< is an excel lent winter soup. The cabbage salad is seasonable and eminently satlsfretory. Two especially delightful desserts are baked apples, with English walnuts, and banana pudding. LUNCHEON. Clear Couaomme. Veal Turnover*. Bruwu Gravy. Baked Apples, with Kugllah Walnuts. Tea. DINNER. Celery and Radishes. Mutton aud Potato Pie. Beet Salad. Cheese. Toasted Crackers. Coffee. LUNCHEON. Fruit Cocktail. Rice and Meat Wester® Style. Cabbage Salad. Hot Gingerbread. Tea. DINNER. Corn and Tomato Chowder. Casserole of Beef. Chopped Pickle. Banana Pudding Cookies. Coffee. Veal Turnovers. Remains of cold roast veal, minced fine, and seasoned, two or three eggs, one cup milk, flour to make a good batter, about four tablespoons; two tablespoons butter, chopped paisley, pepper and salt. Heat the butter to a boll In the frying pan. Mix eggs, milk, flour, parsley, pepper and salt Into a batter and pour It Into tho frying pan. I.ay In the middle, as soon as it be gins to "form," the minced meat. Fry I rather slowly, taking care that Hie batter does not bum. When done on one side fold edges of pancake over to the middle, en closing the meat, and turn with a cake spatula. When both sides are a delicate brown put the cake turner under It and slip over to a hot dish. If any gravy is left re heat and pass In gravy boat. Baked Apples. Wash and sore some very large apples, I fill tho cavities with broken English wal- j nuts and sprinkle some on top. Hake In ! the usual way and serve with sugar and cream or a soft custard sauce. Mutton and Potato Pie. Take one pound of mutton from the shoulder, one onion, one-half cupful of flour, one carrot, six medium sized po tatoes, one teaspoonful of baking powder, one tablespoonful butter, salt. Cook the onions, carrots and meat together In water enough to cover. Boll the potatoes sep arately. Reserve enough of the potatoes to make a cupful of mashed potatoes. Cut the remaining potatoes and the other vege tables and meat Into small pieces and place In a baking dish. Cover with some of the broth thickened with the flour. Mash the remaining potatoes. Add butter and salt j Mix this with the flour, which has been thoroughly sifted with the baking powder. Spread this mixture over tho ingredients In the baking dish and bake in a hot oven until the crust is brown. Gateau of Bice and Meat. One cupful uncooked rice, one solid cup ful of beef cooked, one teaspoonful salt. | one of pepper, one of chopped onion, one ' of parsley, one-half of summer savory, j three of breadcrumbs and one egg. To the rice add one teaspoonful of salt and four Quarts boiling water; cook thirty minutes, then strain. Chop meat very fine, add seasoning, bread crumbs and beaten egg. then one-half cupful of milk. Sprinkle buttered tin with crumbs, line with rice j one-fourth Inch thick, fill with meat mix ture. Put a layer of rice on top, cover and bake forty-five minutes. Sauce for serv ing with tills is made from two cupfuls chopped tomatoes, strain out the seeds; one cupful of '"ater, one teaspoonful of butter, a little chopped parsley, salt and pepper. Thicken with one teaspoonful flour. _____ Corn and Tomato Chowder. Put into frying pan a little butter or bacon and slice into it one onion and one sweet green peper; let brown slowly, then turn into a large saucepan together with a small can each of corn and tomatoes. Cook ; Slowly twenty minutes and serve hot with toasted bread croutons. Casserole of Beef. Get one and cne-half or two pounds of cheap cut of beef and have it cut as thick ss a medium steak. Then let the butcher cut the slice Into pieces for serving (half ss big as your hand). Place these slices in a baking dish or casserole and sprinkle thick with flour and salt to taste, slicing up a fair sized onion and putting It around and over the meat Cover with cold water and cover dish up tight. Bake three and a half or four hours in medium oven. Banana Budding. Make a sauce as follows:— Two table spuonfuls of butter, one-half cupful of sugar, one tablespoonful cornstarch, one cupful boiling water, Juice of one-half lemon, one-half tablespoonful lemon ex tract, one egg. Beat thoroughly butter, sugar, cornstarch and egg, then stir Into boiling water. Let cook until thick. Add lemon. When cold add sliced bananas. WILLIE RITCHIE WILL FIGHT IN LONDON ON JOLT 4 ! MATCH MADE WITH FREDDIE WELSH THE ENGLISH CHAMPION. | NEW YORK, June 9.—Willie ! Ritchie, the world's champion light j weight pugilist, signet! articles of agreement tonight for a 20-round bout with Freddie Welsh,' the English champion, for the world's lightweight championship in London. July 4, next. I Guarantee and forfeit money was i deposited by the representatives of both boxers. Eugene Corri of Lon don lias been selected as referee. RUSSIANS DISLIKE SOAP. (Pall Mall Gazette.) Are two pounds of soap sufficient to keep a man clean for a year? A re cent return shows that this is the amount per unit consumed in Russia. The list of soap-using countries is headed by the United Kingdom, with twenty-one pounds per individual; the United States comes next: Russia is last. Even if the soap bill is a true test of a people's personal cleanliness it is an invidious task to tabulate the dirtiness of nations. As to Germany, that great country is well up in the list. So is Spain. Not so Italy or France. Holland is quite high; Sweden quite low. Cold and warm climate seems to have little to do with the matter. Tho Brahmin's morning ablutions are a religious ceremony and hygienic-ally thorough. Have fog and smoke any influence? A great physiciun has recently said that the skin cleans itself, and that It is possible to overdo tho washing "Optional Payment farm Loans '' Our terms the best, our rates the lowest. You get your money the same day you apply for it. It will pay you to see us before borrowing. Our office is opposite Fergus Hotel on Third Avenue. Write or call upon us. Montana Loan & Investment Co. 'Phone, 496. Lewlstown, Montana r Farm Loans Are you thinking of making a loan? We are in a position t.o loan money on good farm lands—either patented land or on final cer tificate. It will pay you because Our terms are right. We loan our own money. We assure you a square deal. We allow prepayment privilege. We give you a check at once on a local bank. Principal and interest payable at our office in Lewlstown. LIST YOUR FARM FOR SALE WITH US Our eastern connections put us in touch with eastern buyers, and makes us the logical firm to list with. Come in and see us. AMERICAN LOAN & INVESTMENT COMPANY 510 MAIN STREET, LEWISTOWN, MONTANA Paid Up Capital, $100,000.00 ^ ^ "Sec \ merit o t i r.*>t" 6 N< gs. G|&cier \MionaJ Park ] On May 23rd, the Great Northern Will Sell Round-Trip Summer Excursion Tickets to many eastern points in addition, to the ones named: Denver, Chi cago, Des Moines, Dubuque, Sioux City, la., Duluth, Minneapolis, St. Paul, Kansas City, St. Louis, Omaha, Memphis, Milwaukee. Many of these destinations offer diversified routings. And one June 1, 6, 8, 13, 20 and 27th, July 1, 8, 15, 22 and 29th, August 5, 12, 19 and 26th, and September 2 and 16th, will include such eastern cities as New York, Philadelphia, Indianapolis, Washington and many others, bearing a final return limit October 31st, 1914. On June 1st to September 15th, Inclusive, will sell round trip sum mer tourist tickets daily to a number of coast points such as Seattle, Portland, Vancouver, Victoria and beach resorts, bearing a final re turn limit, September 30th and October 31st, 1914. For detailed Information as to routes and rates, call on Great Nor thern agent or 'phone 899. J. W. HALLORAN, Agent I habit. The history of the soap Indus try in England Is a romance in Itself. It has become great since the paralyz ing duties were taken off in 1853. But in spite of the erection of this and i that Soapopolis, we still have among us "the unsoaped," "the great un i washed." THE MICROBE MENACE. Our wide general information, in ; this day of the Sunday newspaper, tells us the rdal danger of the time Is the quiet microbe. We could even wish that microbes clanked their chains, and then we would know they were about and speed for the prophy lactic. The innumerable devils of the middle ages, invisible hut always somewhere In the neighborhood, have been neatly replaced by the discov eries of bacteriology, and if we hadn't got used to them, living would be an almost impossibly anxious perform ance. The vacationist, reading the warning issued by his government agnlnst the bacterial dangers of slm pie country living, would stay hope lessly in the city—and then, learning of the bacterial dangers of summer life In towu, would eventually be driven to suicide by drowning as the coolest way out of his troubles. Microbes, microbes everywhere. In the water, in the air! Kicking up a deadly row In the product of the cow. You can almost hear them mutter In the milk and in the butter. —The Atlantic. FOR THE CENSUS. Born On June 2, at St. Joseph's hospital, to Mr. and Mrs. Andrew Fergus, a daughter.