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Time System of the U. S.
Interesting Facts About it—Its Vagaries and Defection Our present method of calculating; and indicating time is a legacy from D „____ „„ .__.______I the ancient Romans. Having become; accustomed to it through long years, of use we fail to notice its shortcom-l ings, inconsistencies and absurdities, It is only when our attention is parti-. cularly directed to some glaring in consistency or some unbearable hard-j ship that we wake up to the situation; and take measures to relieve our-; selves of some burden that it imposes^ upon us. Such a condition forced itself upon| the attention of the public in 1883., Previous to that year each city and town reckoned its time from its meri dian. This is to say, from the meri dian passing through that particular place. It was impracticable for rail ways to arrange their time tables to confom strictly with this condition. Some attempts made to do so created, considerable confusjon. It necessitated. the engineer and other train hands setting their watches at nearly every important station. This proved a very costly practice to the railroad com-] panies and was the direct cause of some disasters. There were upward of 50 different kinds of railway time in the United States, and it was a usual thing for jewelry stores to pro vide their regulators with two minute hands, one for local time and one for railway time. This caused to much inconvenience to the public and be • came such a source of trouble to rail way managers that, in order to re lieve the situation, an agreement was entered into to adopt four meridians from which time for the United States should be taken. The meridians adopted for this pur pose were the seventy-fifth, from which eastern time is taken; the nine tieth, for central time! the one hun dred and fifth, for mountain time, and the one hundred and twentieth, for Pacific time. These meridians of 15 degrees apart, making a difference in time of exactly one hour between each. All the railways throughout the United States now arrange their time tables approximately in con formity with these meridians. On November 18, 1883, this new system went into effect and there was a general resetting of clocks and watches all over the country. Every city and town now uses for its local time one of th*ese meridians, the one used being identical with that used by the railways passing through or ter minating at that place. To fully comprehend the use of these meridians it must be borne in mind that longitude is universally reckoned from Greenwich. Every sea captain all over the world, regardless of from what port he sails or to what port he is bound, sets his chronometer by Greenwich time. It must also be borne in mind that the time occupied by the earth in making a revolution is 24 hours. Dividing 360 degrees by 24 hous gives 15 degrees; conse quently 15 degrees has a time value of one hour. This is to say, the ap parent motion of the sun from east to west is at the rate of 15 degrees per hour. The meridians, it will be under stood, run north and south. The six tieth, from which Atlantic time is taken, passes through the eastern parts of the province of Quebec and New Brunswick, Canada. This meri dian is used on some of the Canadian railways, but is not used in the United States. The seventy-fifth meridian, from which • eastern time is reckoned, passes through Herkimer, New York, western New Jersey and eastern Penn sylvania, about midway between Tren ton and Philadelphia. The ninetieth meridian, from which Central time is reckoned, passes through the extreme eastern edge of Minnesota, the west ern part of Michigan, the center of Wisconsin; through Illinois, 17 miles west of its capital—Springfield—and 12 miles east of St. Louis, through the extreme eastern parts of Missouri and Arkansas, the western part of Tennes see, three miles east of Memphis, through Mississippi, two miles west of Jackson, and through the eastern side of Louisiana, five miles east of New iJ£URS«7/i FARES 7 /o \ EXPOSITIONS TICKETS ON SALE Daily from March 15 to Nov. 30, 1915, inclusive, at all "Milwaukee" ticket offices in Montana, North Dakota and 8outh Dakota. Return Limit three months from date of sale but not to exceed Dec. 31, 1915. Stopovers enroute. Choice variable routes by RAIL and OCEAN combinations offering unsurpassed scenic attractions. 8ee 8POKANE and the beauty spota of the Inland Empire. See 8EATTLE, TACOMA and the beautlea of Puget Sound. Visit Wonderful Rainier National Park For rates, further details and descriptive literature apply to the near est ticket agent of the Chicago, Milwaukee ft St. Paul Railway or G. E. MARTIN, Lewistown Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railway Orleans. The one hundred and fifth meridian, from which mountain time is reckoned, passes through eastern Montana 40 mjleg eaat of Mlles city; through eastern Wyoming, 10 miles vvest of Cheyenne; through Denver, and yq j^ues west of Colorado Springs, through New Mexico, 50 miles east 0 f § a nta Fe, and through the extreme west of Texas, 85 miles east of El p as0i The one hundred and twentieth meridian, from which Pacific time is reckoned, passes centrally through the j states of Washington and Oregon, forms the dividing line between Ne vada and California, to a point 12i mllea weat of Carson City, thencei through the center of California. The ninetieth meridian furnishes. time for a larger area than any other. As a matter of fact it supplies time to 55 per cent, of the population of the nited States. It requires three meridians to supply the remaining 45 p er cent. There are, however, confus j n g irregularities caused bv the loca i tions selected by the railway corn j pa nies for changing their time schedules. This is unavoidable. Rail [ways cannot be expected to change time exactly midway between meri dians. They usually select the ter mination of divisions for that purpose. As a result the eastern and western boundaries of the area using central time form zigzag lines. This condi tion is productive of strange situa tions. Traveling from Greensburg, Kansas, to Beverly, Nebraska—a dis tance of about 200 miles due north— it becomes necessary for the traveler, if he would have his watch agree with the time used in the different towns through which he passes, to set it four times during his journey. This is owing to his crossing the zigzag boundary lines as laid out by the rail roads. Whenever a change of time is made by a railway there must of necessity be two kinds of time at that place. At Pittsburg there are eastern and central. Trains going east use the former, and those going west the lat ter. Buffalo has the same condition in an exaggerated form, for the rea son that all trains going east use eastern time, while trains going west "se both eastern and central. The Grand Trunk, the Michigan Central and the Wabash use eastern time, while all roads south of Lake Erie use central. Trains arrive and depart from El Paso, Texas, on four different kinds of railway time: central, moun tain, Pacific and Mexican. It is ini' possible to estimate the loss to the; traveling public from mistakes caused by this confusing state of affairs, but in stating that the monetary loss to the public from time spent in efforts to decipher and unravel the compli cations in our railway time-tables brought about by our present confus ing system is $5,000,000 would not seem to be very far from being cor rect. That this is not an exaggerated estimate may be seen when we con sider that American railways carry 2,500,000 passengers daily. If the average loss of time in deciphering and studying time tables is one half cent per passenger the yearly aggre gate would amount to $4,562,500. In addition to this our complicated sys tem involves increased labor and ex pense to the railway companies in making out their time-tables. Here, then, we have $5,000,000 a year abso lutely wasted. Enough to build a bat tleship, and this does not take into account the amount lost by mistakes arising from the same cause. Another fruitful source of confusion and mistakes is the method of divid ing the day and night into two periods of 12 hours, numbered 1 to 12, neces sitating the use of those awkward and inconvenient affixes a. m. and p. m. The Egyptians were the first to divide the day and night into 24 equal parts. They numbered the hours, 1 to 24. The Romans began their day at sunrise, numbering the hours from sunset 1 to 12, and numbering them from sunset to sunrise also 1 to 12. Our a. m. and p. m. is a part of the burdensome legacy inherited from them. The hours constituting their day and night were of unequal and constantly varying lengths. In course of time they made a chance to our present system, and had they adopted the Egyptian method they would have conferred an inestimable benefit upon mankind. The remedy for the evils we have described lies: First, in numbering the hours as the Egyptians did. Be ginning, as we do now at midnight, we would number the hours up to noon, 1 to 12; the hour we now desig nate as 1 p. m. would be 13, and so on to 24. Second, we should adopt one meridian for the entire United States, which could be done without any seri ous disturbance of affairs. The change which was made in 1883 was hardly noticed and proved a great benefit without working hardship on anyone. w _____ The advantage secured by that change was insignificant as compared to the advantage to be secured by the use of. one meridian and the 24-hour system. Canada has already adopted the 24-! hour system on her railroads west of, j Port Arthur, and China has adopted oa ® meridian for the entire empire,j 1 which embraces 60 degrees, the same; amount as the ^United States. we allow ourselves to be left behind by other nations? Let us suppose that the 90th de-l gree—central meridian—should adopted as the one from which the United States time should be reckon ed; what then would be the effect on business? The hour of 8 a. m. is now pretty generally adopted for the com mencement of business. If we should take our time from the central meri dian it would be 9 in New York, 8 in Chicago, 7 in Denver and 6 in San Francisco; but what matters it where the hands of the clock point so long as business commences the same amount of time after sunrise? Clocks and watches should be our servants, not we theirs. On April 15 the sun rises at Phila delphia at 5 o'clock as we now reckon time. This is to say, the Philadel delphians commence business three hours after sunrise. The only differ ence that the change would produce is that the hands of their clock would point at 9 instead of 8. We would soon become accustomed to the proposed change and the great benefit and saving resulting therefrom would repay us many times over for any slight inconvenience that might at first be felt. With this system in force there would be no setting and resetting of traveler's or railroad em ploye's watches. One might travel from coast to coast without disturbing his watch. The reading of railway time tables would be so simplified that there would be no excuse for making mistakes. The absurdities that now exist in the matter of time would be eliminated eliminated By our present system of reckoning time it would have been possible for an event to have occured in New York on January 1, 1911, at 1 a. m„ and for that event to have been known in San FTancisco at 10 p. m., December 31, 1910. It is now possible to leave El Paso for the west one hour and 50 minutes before you arrive from the east, according to railway time-tables. The writer recently saw the apparent anomaly of two trains standing side by side in the station at Buffalo, both headed for the west, yet the engineers' and conductors' watches on one train were just one hour ahead of the other. This sort of incongruity would be im possible with the proposed new sys tem. Half a century ago there was not a watch in existence capable of meeting the requirements of American railway time service today. Railway time in spection has set the limit of variation from true time, for its employe's watches, at 30 seconds a week. This means that the balance wheel shall not vary in its motion to the extent of one vibration out of every 20,000. Tak ing into consideration the various causes of disturbance to which a rail way engineer's watch is subjected, the jolts and jars, the changes of temper ature and the magnetic influencce in cidental to the proximity of large masses of iron and steel, this per formance is truly remarkable. That it is possible to secure such accuracy in such a tiny piece of mechanism sub jected to those adverse influences is little short of marvelous, and Justifies the claim that the watch of today is the most wonderful piece of mechan ism that the ingeunity of man has ever produced. The requirement for accuracy in railway watches in particular, and for others as well, is becoming more exacting every day. Horologists are at their wits' end to meet them. The time is surely coming when a purely mechanical device will no longer suf fice to produce sufficient accuracy, What then? Some other force of na ture must be enlisted. What will it be? What else but that mysterious force, electricity? That wonderful power which is being harnessed to lighten man's burdens and minister to his wants and pleasures. Yes; wire less electricity is destined to solve the problem. The time is now sent out from the observatory at Washington from an astronomical clock, so protected against all disturbing influences that it runs with Infinitesimal variation, and is corrected by nightly stellar ob servations. Centrally located clocks contolled from this master clock at Washington will be used to send out aerial electric waves. These clocks will control a radius of, perhaps, 100 miles. The watch and the clock of the future, like their precursors, the sun-dial and the clepsydra, will be rele gated to the shelves of our museums, their places taken by electric recelv ers' contrived to indicate time re ceived from these central clocks. — Scientific American. An English inventor's aeroplane can be converted into a tent wherever its pilot may happen to stop by the addi tion of curtains between Its planes. According to a Paris physician pre mature baldness is due to some trou-1 ble with the teeth. CB s of Our Neig bbors Items of Interest to Our Readers Clipped From Our Contemporaries MOCCASIN. E. O. Hedrick lias purchased the ma terial for the construction of a small residence on his ranch northeast of tow n. Fred Rector and Robert Branding, living on Louse creek, will co-op. rate with each other in an effort to clock the creek which flows through their ranches with fish. Max Ferry, who recently arrived 1 j! roni I°' va and the purchased of the . ^ cres owne< * by 'V- E. Blaekmun ,,, nK nort * 1 al ]d west of the llert material the f.TndnTm ^ f Rrni residence 28x28 feet " ' T1 Geors „ o ° ' rin ., t , nf aeres lvlng j„ st east of the Corneill rano i, no rwest of town, was sold on Saturday last by the Brown Land com Shall'pany, to parties from Seymour, Wis., but whose names we could not learn! The price paid was $65 per acre Under date of Sunday, June 20. the be'publishers of the Lewistown Daily Democrat and the Evening News an nounced that on July 1 the two papers will beconsolidated as one and publish ed under joint management ns the Democrat-News company. This win -Ive central Montana " daily paper that will rank with the highest in the state.—Dispatch. WIN NETT. W. J. Winnett started shearing sheep at Tils shearing plant five miles north of town last Friday. They have about 9,000 to shear. Mrs. Trotter of Boulder, Mont., ar rived Thursday to visit her daughter, Mrs. Holmes. Mrs. H. J. Kelly and son, Harry, who have been visiting Mrs. Kelly's broth er, George See, the past two weeks, re turned to their home in Lewistown Monday. Tom Graham of Dawson county, Carl Morsner and Frank Milsap of Flatwillow were here on business Mn day. Mrs. Julia Van Iderstine will arrive tday from Lewistown with a complete line of samples of ladies ready-to-wear garments, which she will have on dis play at Jarrett's hotel.—Times. STANFORD. Lucille Sherman left the latter part of the week for Lewistown, where she will spend two weeks visiting her friend, Mrs. Van Iderstein. Everyone is beginning to acquire the harvest rush already. Repairing of ma chinery and laying in supplies at this time will save much time and worry v i'Pii the real cutting begin?. Mr. J. H. Weingart left Wednesday morning for Silver Star, Mont, to at tend the funeral of B. '' einpart, an •V , "'ini died on last Monday e:c ning. Mr. Weingart was a real pio neer of Montana, having come to the state in 1862. A drive through the country be tween here and Denton gives one a pood idea of the wheat prospects. Many of the fields passed on tills drive are well headed and the process of filling is going on while others are a little short. This trip will also con vince one of the value of a well pre pared seed bed.—World. MOORE. Everything Is in readiness for the In dependence day ceelbratlon, which wH be held in Moore on Saturday, July 3. No pains have been spared to make this the biggest and best event that the Judith Basin and Moore have ever experienced. Every detail has been carefully looked after and from all In dications there will be a record-break ing crowd In the city on that day, a number of nearby towns as well as farmers from this vicinity signifying their intentions of being present, this occasion to participate In the fun In store for them. There'll be some thing doing every minute, as the pro gram indicates, and with fair weatner the day will be a grand success. V. E. Gamble, who has been local manager of the Montana 3tate Tele phone and Telegraph company for the past two years, resigned his position last Friday and departed on Tuesday for his former home in Springfield, Minn. Mrs. A. D. Scott returned on Friday afternoon after an absence of several months spent In Florida and later at Fargo, N. D„ with her parents.—In land Empire. GRASS RANGE. Secretary Barnes of the Chember of Commerce has been successful In get ting the train to stay over on the night of the third until 10:30 and further more there will be no freight cars at tached to the train. John Eschliman had a valuable brood mare killed by lightning a few days since. Her colt, which was standing a little distance away, escap ed unharmed. The mare was standing in the middle of a field when the bolt struck her. Norman Superenant was out f T/ewistown last week and spent a day or two at Roaring camp. Mr. Stir prenant says this is going to be a great vear for Roaring camp as it Is grow ing to be an ideal summer resort more and more every year.—Review. WINIFRED. will be erected for the ae :ommodu tlon of the people, here band music Preparations are nearly completed for the big Independence day celebra tion to be held in Winifred Saturday, July 3. The committee having charge of the arrangements, J. M. Stafford, Mike Mason and N. E. Ferrell, have been working faithfully and report that when the big day arrives every thing will be in complete readiness. There will be a special train from Lewistown, that will arrive here at 10 o'clock In the morning and will not leave until 8 In the evening. This will insure a big turnout from the towns along the way. A big pavilion When in Need of PULLEYS Line Shafting, Hangers, Set Collars or Anything in Iron or Steel We Carry the Largest Stock in the Northwest Great Falls Iron Works Established 1890 GREAT FALLS, MONTANA and the speaking will take place and later it will be used for danelng. Th committee were fortunate in getting! Judge Avers to deliver Hie oration He is classed with the loading orators of the state and has hundreds of friends in this vicinity. The riding and roping contest should be good. There are some go k 1 riders in this region and the rivalry among them will make the contests exciting. Tile ball game between Uc.y and Winifred will be wortli coming miles to see. These teams had some close games last year and both con tain good talent. The horse races will also be classy nffairs and the smaller sports and contests should prove high ly amusing. The Winifred band will keep the crowd in good humor bv the frequency and excellency of their play ing. There will he a grand display of fireworks in the evening. Pome to Winifred to celebrate and von will not regret It. Gerhard, eight miles east, of Wini fred, is now an established postoffice. The supplies for the office were re ceived from the department this week and it Is now being conducted by the postmistress. Mrs. N. J. Gerhard. Times. ----O------ ----O------ HOBSON. P. W. Korell was a business caller in the city on Wednesday from the Utica section. Mr. Korell, who Is the keeper of the weather records at the Utica station, Informs us that, the rain fa" for thus far In June Is over four Inches. It looks as If the rainy season for the month is passed, as we have ac tually had a few days of sunshine and warm weather. As a result the crops are fairly jumping from the grov and everybody has that optimistic feeling that this section will produce a bumper wheat crop. Mr. and Mrs. J. J. Jewell arrived in the city last Saturday from Roches ter, Minn. Mr. Jewell, who underwent an operation at the Mayo hospital, states that he Is feeling fine and will soon be enjoying his old time vigor ous health, which will he good news to hs many friends.—Star. a WINDHAM. General Manager James Pearson and family are now living at Lehigh, where Mr. Pearson has built a flno spae'nus bone. Miss Nina Kirk came down from l ewistown the latter part of last week ti spend ber vacation v,Ira her father on hi" ranch. Miss Nina lias been cm ployed lo tench the Mirlowton school the coming season. II will be her sec ond t< "ni. Tommie Lyons and W. L. Eckley have leased two sections of state land adjoining Windham, which they will use as a cattle ranch. They propose to put It all under fence and then stock it with the kind of cattle that are best suited for this country.—Leader. to CONTRARY PROCE8S. They are taking queer wayB smooth out prison life.'' "How do you mean?" hEVe Bt0pped ironing the convicts O A device for removing tires from wagon wheels has been invented that exerts a pull exceeding a ton yet weighs less than 25 pounds. 8CHOONER EDITH SUNK. LONDON, June 27 (10:42 p. m.).—A German submarine has sunk the: schooner Edith, of Barrow, off Youg hal, Ireland. The crew was saved. BUTTER STAMPS W E can furnish you with butter stamps with your name, ad dress and the weight, at a minimum cost. Place your order now. FERGUS COUNTY DEMOCRAT, Inc. Supply Department | j j j i FIERCE BATTLE k 1 of to PARIS. June 27. (2:35 p. m.)- A terrific battle, in which both com batants resorted to the use of hand grenades, was fought l>y the French and Germans last night in the vicin ity of Quennevierres and near th-a re cently captured German position call ed "tlie labyrinth," according to the official statement, issued by the French war department this after noon. The report adds that a Ger man surprise attack oil Arracourt, near the ixirraine border, failed and that twenty bombs were dropped by French aviators on the Douai and neighboring railway stations. BE SUCCESSFUL NEW YORK. June 25.—The success of the second Austro-Hungarian war loan is assured, according to wireless messages received here from Vienna and announced tonight by Alexander Von Nuber, consule general for Aus tria-Hungary. In a statement the con sul general says that the subscriptions for the second loan already amount to 4,500,000,000 crowns ($900,000,000). which be says provides financial means for the continuation of the war for at least 10 months. "Subscriptions continue to come In," the statement says, "and there Is a fair prospect tliAt the loan total amount will pass the billion dollar mark. Subscription for the first war loans total $600,000,000 and therefore the sums contributed by the popula tion of the dual monarchy amount at present to $1,500,000,000. "The total indebtedness of Austria Hungary, which previous to the war amounted to $3,800,000,000, lias thus been raised to $5,300,000,000. In this connection it Is pointed out that the total wealth of Austria-Hungary is es timated at $25,000,000,000; the in crease of Indebtedness, therefore, amounts to only 6 per cent, of the na tional wealth. ithanThe most sanguine expectations when we first ventured on the expert ment." WOMEN CONDUCTORS. NEWCASTLE, June 26.—As street car conductors women have done so well here that many people believe they will be retained after the war, or at least that they will he regarded as equally eligible with men for Huch positions. At the last meeting of the tramways committee the general man ager reported that forty-eight women conductors had been trained and half that number were now In full charge of cars. "The employment of wom en," he said, "has been an unqualified success. They have done far better The committee decided to era | p) 0 y more women conductors and an announcement was made that applica tions for service in that capacity would be welcomed. German experts have found that arc |lights totalling 1,000,000 candle-power the: in a lighthouse penetrate a fog less than a single oil lamp of 10,000 candle power.