Newspaper Page Text
chi Minrral ZTrou.
SI.Il. A VROOMAN!. Publ)hre,.
MAIIýfEN. . MONTANA.
Business men of Pittbrg think the
have seen the worst, and that fem now
onward 1885 will show a general im
provement. antil the volume of ibumem
is restored to its full proportion.
A partial oeassession by railrads it
Iowa to the demands for lower rates as
some commodities allayed the dam.
rome callu from all quarter for as e
Ir simica c Othe egaslature as Ax
The prie d pig iron h falsle to
about the Igure of January, 1879, whee
it was $17.25 per too. It steadily ad
vanced during 1879 and reached $40 in
January, 1880. Prhaps history will
repeat Itself and the present price c
$18 and upward be more than doubled
a the coamiag year, but the present out
ook is not favorable to msok an ad
The national debt was reduced leal
mounth about $400,100. There is a fall
ingo in tsrevesnues o thagoveramen
which is by no meeas udesirable,
the treasury is overlowing, and stasds
a chance of being depleted by extrav
agant app prlatiou. Many do act
stop to think that every dollar that gos
into the treasury comes from the peoa.
alt of the people.
The Earthquake shiver, which h:
visited moast of the Eastern States, from
Maine to North Carolina, gave addition
al interest to the aeeoants from abroad
of wide-spread devastation and loe of
ife makes our severest shocks sink Inte
insignifcance. The lis of life in
Spain during the past week has bea
far greater than that reoorded a the
whole history of the Uanted States.
The wide extent of the territory aftest
d in Euu e is, prhap, te geatest
element in the preseat series of dias
Seventy-Avr years ago the rst toes
toes grown in this country were culti
vated as a strange sad showy hortloul.
tral cariosity in a garden in Salem.
Forty years ago or a little more they be
gan to be used as a vegetable ina the
season. Last year nearly seventy-Av
million eans of tomatoes were packed
in this country, but this year, owing tc
the bhar times perhaps, or possibly to a
deaeieney in the crop, the number of
ease packed was only about ifty mil.
lions, but is nearly one can for every
man, woman and hild in the United
The approachng marriage of Prin.
eem Beatrige, whleh has become a topic
of much interest in English newspapers,
will deprive her royal mother of the
solace of costdnt intercourm with one
of her own children. Since the death
of the Prinee Consort she has depended
for ompanionship upon Prineo Leopold
and Prineses Beatrice more than upon
any other of her children, and now tl
death has removed one and marriage is
soon to take from her the other, her
condition will be one of peulisr lone
liness, although she is the sovereign of
one of the most powerful nations of
the earth. Since she sueeded Wil
liam the Fourth on the throne, nearly
half a eetry ago, she has not been as
soisted as she will be when her yoaget
daughter becomes a bride.
Thomas W. Higginson writes hrm
Cambridge, Mass., to the editor of Law
and Order that beis opposed tothe
proposed teaching in the publicachools
on she effect of alcoholism. Col. Hig.
ginson is too well known as a temper.
anoe man, a woman's rights advocate,
and an author to have his motives ques
taoonl or his protest lightly considered.
He objects on bre grounds: 1. Tha
it would add another and very difenult
mssdy to the alreadytoo numerous stud
les of children. 2. That the majority
of teachers are nt St. and never will be
At, to teach such adifdlultstudy, about
which the doctors disagree, most of
them frankly confessing that it is
tremely perplexing. 8. That it is un
scientiAfe to teach about disases before
teaching the laws of health; especially
when neither are properly or thoroughly
taught. 4 That premature and preco
cios knowledge of evil is harmfl. 5.
That the very pupils who most need to
be beneated are likely to be harmed by
such teaching, as teaching about any
secret and pernicious vies often awakens
mortal curiosity and leads to their
WRA M TW W MW WI.
*Emm ......Iw 41111111
It woud som a e 60 a to saes a twa
tb pp of te meorge upm Gm 0e O . per
m.ml Weft has hem e mer Meppid by
e Wa-a hm..et The mai l laperne
pabisha bUshet h h ti hr me t.
New Testk ly, Urn. 4 Iin-Der Na
Throgh bers ml elbere I heame hS
706, and me her MeleIs mne~ -s e
wh have diLtea this east.. Nrut
butLe masr. eeme I r M e t
meymei a" tamily t~ed4.e eedg.-M
earit. I seeaLt Idedseesmae shes.e
Wmmr. Magear West aU.gr.
The A r o.. Yetim Formsa =es =e a
blse.lthe soes rnurume . wetrsl em tee
veswea hoe teb areepee atedm her
-e - h -A ee s.
wNWet he teMedI tl am. t;1...mete wiheut
be has u nd .. 1..4 jtua
tg aIdemo tBe be a m -eMwhvm
o. deldlm Idd a -M Wal be 4wa
w medal am e la, whet esuld h
aninlM ~ies~ *mdam m PSI.
Ihetele . madame. QOsate-Nugu fer be
murderether teaMeer, Privele Deleeg,e 3.
tm, epemed et atast Thrsed menlug et 1be1
eso! mao~m The nr emal - e - mm
d ealew, uwma le
- .1 M alm ele bete pre au 6uke b e A u. i a b . 4 d
bealtes .ofbve todetmet Madame. (bat
larr mmi es = .M6 0 wa .4 ia ho
beM ehetle isuyfrn prmdlethl mlf ode
arses bet he wesl Mayee 1s duee hab
hem umeelved hi her. Toth luger. .a
statement obe sad: I. Lat'- a
tIfyed Merle. ame dappl toerm ismeelotb
oateme u he would tae raeleIee he
osrwuimil abouit hmS r auly
sTu a wladl.eg reY. is emnk, her
It youL beile u git, semlee mah It
euda·~~lred, aeqult ma -
iri tinos. he appemred to maia a thvesahle
rueeom dle jury. Ia reply tea
remark ·lb'bjde bat~o -( weell m
juetleable, r after atueu membe
premedl amlim, .deemd "You would met rma
ama .o eeolIy it you hew saerend -. I bew;
eedber~ey ruseddeifl eue
Tb. trial e hmmetr . be~ perm
to s r~eeehmrm comeled
a" dew so dean
Madame CeeMgeeweaqlte te
mrdrf Ra Netio, hat was ~ f dM
deamgie w bem ree trile
e aie mn S uIse (DiL) WeMe.
Joiet slpecal:-As mly enaviet momm
like Ftnelory, who b.a bee frequemty pis
ished, left hin shop withboet perniele and
ram o the deputy warden' odMec, where he
stated that his foremel wasted to kill him
Me was tt back with a eprimand, blut i
tead et goina i his ehsp, he went chaerging
arond the pron yard like a mad ma, ead
ag gensral atteo a wu ea badte
asy, hetoelan alt lrtr Lad tbkL Ib
t the ari a g art ill the time, was take
toaas sdell. betg Caahole It wa thonght
lta Il he wan put iL with e talew Caihellob
could quit hmnif, no he wan p with a res.
leacih cenr r t r a -med ~a w bl et
Ihbesre the guard wam ae in the
ouhim (m . a )enli e embrace, with aue,
ened, khf ttokhism thrat ein weekt, VanuA
noh et rant and e.vry tlamee mver
fbot t gwuard erdread Flanery w bon
et b rea d ad the thed e tht tlem.,
woe u let thi ·tety o amdett l ies cp e
at m re lr wbo t m pei opld the cell dee
he wsla ucut VraAllan threat hum -a t ear.
ehotgbboth. The wnie e wan en for, bat
•dp a. e ews, mo adee d mis Y mrY
had the nav hprcisnoer en bin har before
nanapyialy ae l waan mreal.
there nee mthaiewa i vey. tn
An seashamle review of the lember bb-sm
smm of lan year in Mimemn given a dear
th outlook for the ammn gs ss The
tooal ot in the Ntorthwetern lumboer
I*s , of tlMO71a feet of lumber o1D,01
ehlegsh leple, and liS,53,70 lah Ti salo
Hi l lU . Mureprea im lo
Mnughton Wea)l Specit: John Sleieby,
m mla frem her, poinend kin deughter,
rhild of here, and led tn part unknown,
The child and her mother are dead, and th
beatabl of the town and a number of the
rttinsm are mrching for the merde".
lelaving home after cem tiag i fa
Lrod alive. Several oseer ad the eherig
have jail loft thin ctto amneis the eaglet.
f the murderer, who in spposed to helathe
Saeshberbood of hinomehe weaeda
orfaitd Statse nenator from Minnuri, bavinga
n aepeclly general ad evesre in Montreal, h
hr tmortalty a g children in very
Ii J. aStem, newly seted preneonatng at.i
IN. mdb hqi.61 mi -
r. hblgu mU be 8rm bama
sN~e. Vms Wt a m.prapia 61" owas VmWi
* ha :41s hiaO.m abi
pbm On mamau~o -mmias
o-WHsw emm61 inliam
T . omw bl pC picsrd s ie Aak
, r ais -0% ti ahula lmiw. w" NW
..s 61 j p4a m w ee Una bedlM Mab.
61 km wel hSit W~a " maiige"
= LMet tml E~i lise, "e.. O WAcr
"i 6re rnd 61 Uarp a, , set
-km. I7".. Maas. a adi MIN 61 a
Carat amuaag a eon In
RaMlas Rabin, laNm aMa fnremhAIMS Wnia,
WInsiaiollkadin hi kmui T.e
Wisa alaf lsit 1sama 6
dispaalaMaa 61 abmm IL b . O 61 warp
Memanw rs to Scrw ýN Saab rkm w apa" I
tan ome Rlr. Mae wW. e Ib.
If Lsa.M~ rd m bal 46 dibas bml4s
~cUmlaI atf~~r aam L r~
2%o Nor pwlab..ND ion view v ·
Thm~ lisa pibbar rimmai wilkr Gm I
Manan caacenang cas abap h baa paha, "
".4 sisala Lus tu Gaalltpaa. im gmaa a
617'-0 ci e-iiAi. .MdMimb' uMir a
The bomas saamlaestratmirn 61 aMa cuwal
alns a eml poaabg is moagram for iwamly C
a yarnm Tbm data mm mada faa Okm C
by CbaraF. Bn" of13qeoalya. MY., as .
hosoapamw ter maflaeg a ublpwmahiM "i.~
tkra am umlabbin lai· rmm Cape J
14415 Tbe .semig was pada M 1e tha ammabaid
(bla Jmal" Walw Ia mnpmYng Nm km
kMoreoee dn fo brpisadM tea, ml baai am Mai macb aweilam al
.aaaad. aM. ablah, ,waar, tobop ap Mi
irmagi, Sol waib ha e dob atfr
dossar mamy w ay bare me a simm
bin ady tcs Itch u M4
his amybiin ta a ft le reault
2b of aualmy, 61 Ibm iramamy km aiM of a
aibswlag auiaa tram tbm ucrary yf 6rn
Sas aaaraa.: 1"m ib aauallaa 61 a gum fader, w
1Mlao Miaorf eh asNai piMi ý
ibm .Mmi..a fa Ibm Miaaaouri rime are do 1
mums al ibaamaskmmd a i racamuamlalia. a
61 ibm Mimmat rhas aanMmlaiaa for bal EU
a ramu. Iag
Tha pnaaiaa~t bas approvalM tbetlaaataata
prapahilam. Coumislasmr Prim Imlgreaplad
imasema a~t ibm Ules ibtea sod thm Plpagam 61 h
bIa k mmd aMs beat. liar smd otber sapplim 1a
ILsmauroumof(i paran of a pprrls. to
flaw Al baal will bm mmde, my.oo.dds
daas Pries ti e iba. Mealsam Giber is i
am .atoulma med prosperoms a aaaslsseeej 27
Peastoom Wtabbled-Ilows, Iuesa Om
umtay; Miammets, aprim.get, me countyee
Peemaers Cemmiuommed-uemoe c( iaw
Wdbse, lows; J. I Clatl, Elei, Iowao;
a CsmOledW. c eis; aU. ] a toe, Hau
o. AAs b, ummnmrett, owaAles Owe., ohr-ll
Iýo iA.L r Zra. Mime. ; T. W. T1uahe
Re-eemtstive Consrs gumeer of Oalifoem.
will be a appliost for the peetio en thes
ae dlhe dethlkof - i
to the met bom s Defort be ue to ýs
be we tbhe okos u1 m tMr -r o
foe ouim Th. poettih fr whiek be t as
appliasot pay.m k s year.
William Eery Olasdnmte, .a , em et t·
prime masler, rplymg at isward.m to a
tes to his fathuer'. health, aid that after fty
ee. of arduoas pabbe ervies a mutch ffr.
teal f letbe esticiplted r ahthe
wold doubtIem alwaye nstmal Is herme s, ad
thes of in-t the pol WmLteal areas
etl hm Estmblshet-WIaoms , Desets
Jeasm aunty; North L Creae, La ros .
musty. emaettem Comamaloeed-Ambre
Hiller, New Proideo, We; . L ouble,
Dimmer, Fesmere RiseUD4 el an-,
IFr, WI.- T dm Doealdeb , Wila,,
imA . ie.7 l Prlbg, w um
The wtdUw of Mark ophie l temnds a
build m GrOnt Dartrigte . ee, Ase mes
upemse rselidease to the Umleed Iamb. The
met of the house .d romad wie hell s al
Uaoe The home. wil be built of blue ste
from the quarry she owns, ind work wall be.
gas mmm eptiag oeema. Work at the
quarry will be eaned oah-eedulgbr. e#e
Ioti lighe will be used for eight operttuee,
A theusa men will be employed the yer
War departmeat eMials are activelyoip.
portle the bill tutrodued by Iased Cos tk
irnes the osee f aumeteet chief .tgal aeU
ear, a place L-teeded for Ieut Greely Ne
ether peom are oadids-mak for the pece, s
astrog fmig preml tLhat the lill ehould
pa to rewrd Greey for hie dletloguehed
c.rrrr to the oth. Gem Ham ezprumm
mtilefolom at the preepeet of harne eUrt
-ear._-.dy Cloh thlh that evey tidL
miles polnte to better times, sl that the wore
e uqusgeiebly bsm maheWd. Uoleasm.
dwi. aunt a nm. g oerror
eyma Utas mpr~ lSert of bul.e.m a ter
hi JI rfereeee to the mevome, be dosa e
-fLb that tbhe rae e( the debIt tNovemb
or De ber maes be repeated. The rovom,
ror Juearywill be gesmr thm for either o
At IL Johns the Driteh bark babel, from
d, rspeet pames a laree erwoga bawl
a the th. The me f the barkut was tb
uhas m. Areadla. No seetihe of s emw we
roand. Two dy the eahbe esperleed tee.
Ie thudrom e.b.are ratg wasspall
mg, the hlp wa sem to every ib, an
he crew, Pnryd with fear, bk tbmroug
dltdedple md eithe beae hemo The es
e d eod re tm.equl u beard
It we alma and iM at the rns.
um u by m mUlw Ubt tpi
m -ambl d rr emq e mM be w
MtVM f W.bsemNpw" d Stl ellabepe.h.F
j ee. bos me Meml rim b IM -
a. booml at .b . ps.. IS .. vm ib
be b iii a -r psemI- (ma sbed
Ir dd ml~m of bd er -ue bftboubjd bu.
mid, mdvspehdela.e eeeey
rv -rl mwredmr m ýle abe
a elheljrest.. be stj eed Y Mj
be mlelts be. ',ml NImbveesM s e
tiww...c I..l Par .lPi
tier q ·1r w bba wat QM*r aan
hae e1~jemr kerne bern b
T M hIa baa - w sllbmemaebm
asci aUesbsmr inae p.»~ to r a m
tie, hewe bb - ttped ew
mithbesh .ab~e.bra .mi~. i.s bee
..llfw...y«.Ylhir l.0.'p.I i YiIli..
eamms l.a ml. 1 bei em mid
ris emý MIV -lei w elam N
mt..~ro be beled be messels of O O*Is,
memid r~alm r/obW. .pl e
s. a... ~ Pr w .S wr f be
bwbw rnftgN L trr Of arr lr' w '--"lr
THr.e mmle Is eseeileei M mames edied
hmg pleIrepuie e Isý e be
mmabeemam ju sbyse Naem
bsle dt epeeer I led whitI Ibe. ie
bUs, ml bd r e SIumes apes.
ebasalemi r*ab ml pm~rosa ere eseetesde
Nase . ke~rn sii, meree~ebr mbr.l
..ea brefrn asbedlee pmees . , inealinJ.
at be emuhr Irscr be rhleea 1
IN odes*-. I N ~sd nT
PIrn~4 em -li -lbspb
~be.9 m at e sem . atb Grewin
be ml.. asbns bema meaw; e et be ebee~
. fu Y nr m s be ery . mWcS.. ,yeeseh
M Rli. wrel. es Nibdr ml be
toy dIred l er led
meyes ef be Umldy ; IsLee &
lbsd fisgemsesere oesehed
bs. emel fuCsmr tw mIYes.rbsslu
Rosa-r. Cbsru teasls the ao wN
Ut nCui l d1r., trpor d a uroltiooalL1
or be fros e ells ..; L I meI . r TA ri
etc bmLetL, r Aem. Als; 1 1.olabs.
sgLeb ml 5. Urb. o7pebsu N. u N.Imse
UOIU-KL of~s km e e ummll~e f eamoas/
9ev bfmelforas kmr be euelivthe AaR sLv Is
be ereLmt T. pN. pamm en Ameuteem
a lbs Ip~reeles for aftmln ltltl~ Is
bet Y~Cesa fUeselu. A Al.
recibarellau a ubs( pureaelr copY·- es
atb conapusdss'.r (bews Ibsl~ ete~rs
mastrr md Fue.m rga . lb Frulnlr b mled
AdopCUL siL Aradrllan·JI s uolt
miYe a qbe merIetmry dOf . fats dilml
ellees of lprb. espeuamausf lbs· meanst1
r~ udP~oer n~pl b bs~M Vumb,
On sasede a fr..a not i m ...ae ,
SIut the borms did a good day' work. Mr.
I ande adlreted tiM atsenet of the boeto
to the importace of proceeding rwith the op.
pvorioe blls, and wad the hom tat
melee. e manare. were ,peedUy danspomeed
of there was danger of a etr semeon of the
Forty-ninth ongrem Thleadmoollonm seeued
to o t deeird elffect, am the house refured
' to te ps the ~l~)ic burting.l, hell, a h in
meaeure i wap d w rin ltt e dicnew.
The rnval appropriatiu bill miake prkis.
on s for the a seice for the els ainothe
ndleg June I , K nIl, o tbeb iseof thle 1.11
which paeed the holme the r traeeun of thi
coogress giving for t~h erits of espeoditure
r et wobit a mo the eofntatid in the maid
w ent wh lowinag eeeelaon: For cur
I rent esop of the bmreauofyvanddocks,
in hem of one-half, or g(lOOlU, there ie givea
P/at0; the unuat apes. of the bureau of
aetructano and repairs, is hem oft oe-alt,
or UIt.etao, thre r in MO, W; for uer
ant epar e of T bill of asrenginer.
I in bee of ono-hlr, or 000, thl *
dl the0m hee i"
d provdsw tr t D tfe es frt the are
w dl t for mnitov r ; t e
a h eu of otl n tr orpe at eo
wrior ts tebsail, a aseseeqa totherba
e propoed an the s mai Tr her ie both
'tsg in th e it et Ifo em Crulerme, appoprra
dtsix mouths De." 1 , 1 ,14,to.
51T, mke th talppoertalo for the
avy for the emtre tlyea r of In 14,070,
415 or _ en, thanrr apperinted for the
Meat yearo e of w r L D o lm
eats-There wa a srp discuion in
A. eae o theo reeletlo of SMenator Haw
.ey, alig upon the mecret ray of wr for t
m ar nd documt bearing upon thi eost
rery between (em. therma atrod Jeff Iavar.
r. Vet- objected to the reuolutiom and mede
a epeech of unmeal .eame during whcl
be meld the paeeag of the reeolutlio wan
I Jeff DD av ean aid Ma who wee Orws 1mk
dowo aad eeeking est ftarom etsc rootrover
-ele ..- was involved in the questlon the s.onat,
w-e athrd to conmeider. enator Ingaslls tirre
ep the Dmratic aenator by sme. peppery
remarks which catted ' , organ, (l-rg, aslnd
Lamar, the latter entlemn n makig a defese
AMr vmis ate the - ash of heta atrlit
,r. The diacunelon eonltnued for about an
aour and was perthap the mont betod thbt lea
-€uelrsd dur~n bo1ing th pe o m eses
Seators Wioodsal Mitchell atrodneed bilk
o inreae the pemeona of widowa or minor
-hiblren of deceased soldlers and atilor. of
the United itates in the ate war, from N to
tl'per motb. The bitl of Messlor Maethel
a.,. provide hr the fat that ldider or al,
tr wau regularly mutered intothe servicenhll
be prime fade evidenee of hie snundurom at
eneator Coger introu ed a i adtloretlg
the eeeretary of war to eotiate for alnd per
,taere the P4ortage Lake& Nliver Improvemet
'omis paty canal and Portage take ant Lake
S.'eri a water wayd ars e * d oe s oer
esn Kewenana a ero. T
biltaleo pColvde the canan .aIIt be a
trie waler way after user purchase by the
llowma-A bitl pemsed Satbmrting the Ch.
agoe, St Paul A L Loui Railrload company
to cuctrct baRdgee erem the inaeletppita
Minneeota arnd Wicosn. A bill wa intro
-du-ed for the better protection of the Northern
lnd Norlbweetern frontire and to fsacilitate
comnoere, among the etates. It cnatemplate.
New York, of aueint nine to aw the pee
Sof vesste of war. Dtaict of Codumbi
basins aa ppr ý rtat6o e hlll caneidermadl
The New York eorrepoodast of th
a DetroiM Treasrelaa a great rmay
d hell meiea One ohis la te-e
Ifort is as eeoma the rmpti$l se
earded to a timid, young lady, in
Smra rh a. oatribh ea for chariy, by
st lduger alivar the dy after hi.
Ight wis Le IA . The pulis bed
edlebraed his vi etry In the mal man
er, and goae to bed wih his boots eo.
Nxet nmasing he had hardy awakened
when sell-boy bee eard. The
"Shew sh ear up tW ehampisa
s aid, w st leaibkg at h srd.
T' as amtelr, air. Ayhow. I
I rtf "DeS ." her uP.
Eyea'dbe bild eanagh to me e
tIShe.- Seb a loafed diows t the
Ie re, meae Stha half wake
d ever er add lbapdr
t h mI a ewdity a WWi
to the awrapmets of lash .
we Wad advanced timily to the
g ewho bg, re, brutish fae s
taaa we its eharacteristle eowl.
A dayb growth of black bard rough.
med t, several mows In th previous
ag eastest had left crimcon spot,
o wereM eary ad his elothes di.
"The dchurch d the Pealiot
Father is to hold fair," the girl aid,
"aem I am e the ommite to solici
articles to plea on sale. I thought you
might he willing to contribute a few
autgraphe-" "A few what?" "Au
tographs, you know-your sta res-
your nitn selipe of p rby
ourself, if you please. We could eal
them for a dollar " he dd not
know that the meaner of the sue
esfulsl is moo thra Jatag when
be is miae. When ullivaen glowed
sa ve dow on her, with a wicked
l is yes and ma exprmeio o1
anea around hi moath and mnoe, she
wouldn't have been surprised if annihll.
lion had lnstantly happeued to her.
"Of course, Mr. Sullivea, if it would
be distasteful to you, don'tdo it," ead
sh shyly retreated backward, keeping
her mild eves faxed on hi, beeanuse she
had read of that method m the only one
for getting ot of a wild beast's cage.
"O, what ye givin' me?" he ecleamed.
"I ain't na good at writin', but I'll have
Dave Maloney make as many auto
igraph a ye want." The missionury
-e-planed why that pla, would not do.
Pea, ink ad paper were brought, anad
with aunteady toil Sullivan signed his
same twenty times over. "I always
like to do all I ki fer religion," said
he, as he took one of his visitor's hands
and moet of the forearm into his cape
cious grip, "an' I hope you'll find
champs to buy these things." The
soft smaullnes of her hand seemied to
complete the conquest. and he very
savagely adled: "An' if ye kin arrange
a set-to betwixt me an' one of your fel
lers Ill put on the gloves for the cause,
ana' you hall take the gate mone."
The sweet missionary melted out of ibe
room, mutisfied that she had risked
martyrdom for the church.
odie rewers' Guardian.
The custom of touching glasses prior
to drinking healths is very c3mmon in
England and other countries, and
especially in Germany. It is curious
to traee how this custom has prevailed
and still exists even among savage tribes.
To drink out of the same cup and toest
of the same plate was one of the ways
in whiob the ancants celebrated a mar
riage, and the wedding feast continues
to be not the least important of the
a-rriageoeres nies to the present day.
The Indians of Brasil retain a custom
of drinking together a little brandy, as
a sign that the marriage is eoncluded.
In China similar eutoms are met with.
In the medieval banquets of Germany
it,was thecustom to peas a "loving cup"
from hand to hand, but this gradually
necessitated that the cup should be of
enormons sias, and thus smaller caps
or glasses were adopted, and the old
eustom was conformed to by the driak.
er touching their glasses before drink
tag. The ceremony attending the pa
sing mad drinkin out of the "loving
cup,' as prac.tce at our great city
festivals and at some of our college
halls, is said to have arisen from the as
sassination of King Edward. It was
then the custom of the Anglo-Saxons to
pas round a large cup, from which
each guest drank. e who thus drank
stood up, and, as he lifted up the cup
with both hands, his body was exposed
without any defense to a blow, and the
oeasscon was often msamd by an eneay
to murder him. To prevent this the
following pla was adopted: when one
of the company stood up to drink he
required the eqapanik who sat next to
him to be hs pled--that s, toe re
sponsibie for prtecting him against
anybody who should attempt to take
advantage of his defenseless petion.
This companion stood up ao, and
raised his drawn sword in his hand to
defend the drinker while drinking.
This practice, in a somewhat altered
form, continued lon after the condition
of society had ceasd to require it, and
was the origin of the modern pra
of pledging by drinking. In drinking
from the "loving cup," as now practih
S, each parson rises and takes the cup
his hand to drink and, at thae sam
the person seated next to him
rises alo, and when the latter takes
the up in hi tur, the indivdul next
tolm does the me.