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The Broadus Independent tOL. 1. NO. 26. OLIVE, MONTANA, THURSDAY, APRIL 10, 1919 $2 PER YEAR wool rom IU) STAY Jim Marion of Chicago and Montana Tells of Con ditions He Finds BEST FEED FOR LARGE SHEEP HERDS < Smaller Bands and Farmers Must Raise Feed for Them Wool prices are keeping up in good shape, but sheep are likely to drop to some extent, in the opinion of Jim Marion, of Chicago, and who also has several large ranch interests in Mon tana. In speaking of the general con dition of the sheep market, Mr. Mar ion said: "While the price of wool is not as high as it was last year, it has been keeping up in good shape so far and I do not exepct to see any great re duction. The Trask clip, in western Montana brought fifty-seven cents re cently, but, of course, this is a well known clip and of fine grade. I ex pect to see range wool stay at about fifty cents or a little better through the year. When it comes to sheep, the price will probably fall, as we cannot export mutton as we can pork and beef, there not being the demand for this from abroad in the American market. market. "The sheep industry, as far as the big old time flocks are concerned, is gine, but there is a new place com ing up for it, where the farmer is go ing to grow a crop on his smaller ranch and at the same time handle a small bunch of a couple of hun dred sheep and maybe fifty head of cattle. But to do this he has got to work, that is, he can no longer de pend on the big open range and must grow feed for his animals. "This matter was placed before me in an interesting light the other day by a banker at Terry. He told me that the splendid winter which we have had in Montana has been a life saver, that he has made many loans to stockmen through the fall and that they had only been saved by the open winter, which gave the cattle all the V e 'od they needed, for hardly one of ranchmen had a bit of hay, in case the snowfall had been heavy and the winter cold. He said that it was never again for him and that when men came in for loans in the future it was going to be a case of 'show me your stacks' first. "He is just right on the proposi tion. There is plenty of chance for the farmer here who wants to work, to do well with sheep and cattle, but he cannot take chances on an open winter and must provide feed. Root feed is the best in this country, even tn dry land root plants, such as beets, turnips will grow and they make the finest kind of fodder. The man with a section or so of land can plant part of it in some crop of this kind and be sure to get away with it at a profit and he must do it in the future. Squaw corn is another feed which can be used, but the trouble with the farmers here is that they still think of the days when there was plenty of open range and won't do the needed planting and caring for this crop. They must come to it and then will find it pays." J On Estimating the Weight of Silage It is often necessary to estimate the capacitiy of silos or the weight of silage under various conditions. Such estimates are usually made by the use of tables published by silo manu facturers or by experiment stations. These tables are based on a table published by King in 1893. Even when the tables are used according to the directions of the originator the results are too high, and as they are generally applied the tonnage is often estimated 25 per cent above the ac tual weight of the silage. From i four-year experiment with 32 silos tt is apparent, according to C. H. Eckles, of the University of Missouri College of Agriculture, that no table used for estimaitng the capacity of silos and the weight of silage at the time of filling is adapted for estimat ing the weight of settled silage. The weight per cubic foot at the time of filling varies widely with the depth of silo, the percentage of moisture in the silage, the proportion of grain, the thoroughness of packing, the rate of filling, and the diameter of the silo. G account of the many com plications influencing the weight of silage it is impossible to give any es timate of the weight that is more than an approximation. Whenever possible the weight of silage bought or sold should 'be actually determined rather than estimated. A more ac curate table for estimating the weight of silage with directions for correct ing for conditions is published by the Missouri Agricultural Experiment Station, in a circular called "Esti mating the Capacity of Silos and the Weight of Silage," which will be sent free on request. The Ground-Water Resources of U. S. The United States Geological Sur vey, Department of the Interior, has just issued a bibliography and index of its publications on ground water and related subjects, such as wind mills, pumps, and other lifting de vices, methodb of water analysis, and methods of measuring the flow of water. The Geological Survey's hydrologic investigations include work on both surface and ground water, but this bibliography, as its title indicates, covers only the survey's reports on ground water. The bibliography lists more than 600 papers, of which more than 300 relate primarily to the sub ject of ground water. It contains brief abstracts of most of the reports listed. A detailed index of over 100 pages constitutes the larger part of the pamphlet, which contains also a map of the United States showing the area covered by each report. A copy of the bibliography, which is published as Water-Supply Paper 427, may be obtained on application to the Director of the Geological Sur vey, Washington, D. C. A STORY OF BAND SCULPTURE The report contains a brief but clearly written story of the origin of the physical features of this attract ive mountain region. It tells why the valleys are open parks here and constricted canyons there; it explains the forms of the drainageways; it tells why the streams are at some places gentle brooks, meandering, willow-lined, through flower-dotted meadows and are at others wild rap ids dashing along over boulder beds or through narrow canyons. It ex plains the great terraces that extend like railroad embankments along some of the valleys and the curved and hummocky ridges that cross them. This brief paper will also be of value to teachers of geology who want a short summary of the glacial history of the upper Rio Grande basin, and it will be of interest to summer tourists who desire to gain some understanding of the origin of the things they see. The report can be obtained from the Director of the United States Ge ological Survey, Washington, D. C. i Growers Get Their Own Price. That it pays to list products for sale with local representatives of the Department of Agriculture is shown in Arkansas as reported by the field agent in marketing at Little Rock. This agent attended a meeting of sweet potato growers and found out where stocks were held. Shortly after this a sweet popato buyer drop ped into the agent's office and asked where he could buy a few cars. The agent told him, and before the buyer finished shipping he had bought 10. 000 bushels in that neighborhood, for which he paid the growers their price f. o. b. cars, furnishing the packages himself. ADVERTISE THAT COW OR HORSE Got a good cow or horse to sell? Sell it through an ad in your home newspaper. Not a "For Sale" ad in the classi fied column, but a good display ad. Your cow is probably worth $100, or your horse $150. A 6-inch dou ble-column ad will cost you only $3 in this papar, a small percentage to charge to "sales." You can tell more about the ani mal in a display space than in a classified ad, and can make a dis play which is sure to attract a buyer. HAILS FROM FUANtE com mi duly Soldiers' Letters by the Ton Despatched in Fastest Vessels of of a of it ex of Washington, D. G.—Dispatches of mall from doughboys in France and Germany are now coming to this country at the rate of twenty-five a month—one every day except Sun day. Included in the hundreds of tons of postal matter which soldiers are sending home are all manner of souvenirs. German helmets, buttons, frag ments of airplanes, revolvers and bayonets are the most common of the mementos for the "folks at home." Four or five hundred thou sand helmets have been forwarded to this country since the signing of the armistice. In the single month of November 17.615,400 letters were dispatched from Bordeaux, in addition to 2,618 sacks of papers, 5,419 sacks of pack ages and 26,089 pieces of registered mail. The weight of all this matter was 278 tons. The post offices at Bordeaux and Brest have more extensive distrib ution service than any other in the world. , From these points mail is sent to every state in the Union, and to every city, town, village and rural route of each state. The building oc cupied by the United States post of fice in Bordet, .x is 250 feet long and 28 feet wide, and is provided with every appliance for the expeditious handling of mail. Before leaving Bordeaux and Brest the mail collected by the army from 150 military post offices is sorted and prepared for direct dispatch to the cities and railway routes in this country. Letters for a given state, for example, go direct to its princi pal cities without rehandling at New York. The pouches and sacks are placed aboard postal cars at New York and go by fast mail trains from there to the routes or cities for which they are labeled. All liners plying between New York and Bordeaux and Brest, and English steamers between New York and Plymouth, stop at Brest for this mail to the United State». Every piece of mail in Boardeaux and Brest at the time of a ship's departure Is put on board. In dispatching sol diers' mail preference is given to the faster vessels to insure its arrival in this country at the earliest moment. Postal officials report that since the signing of the armistite, and es pecially since the beginning of de mobilization, men of the expedition ary force are showing a greater de sire to write back home. One sol dier is known to have written thirty letters in a single day. Frequently tyelve to fifteen letters were sent by each soldier during the months of December and January. December and January. to a ARIZONA HIM ILL FOR IMF OF ms State Party Council Unani ously Approves Pro posed Covenant Washington, D. C.—Resolutions approving a league of nations and urging its ratification by the United States Senate were adopted by more than 300 Democrats assembled in party council in Pheonix, Ariz. At the gathering were represented all the different wings of the party, but the resolution in behalf of a league of nations was adopted unanimously. The resolution expressed the view of the party council that the presi dent's plan was worthy of approval by every democrat in the state and of support by Arizona's representa tives in congress. The course of senators who have been opposed to covenants of the league thus far was condemned as an attempt to "undo the victory won at Chateau-Thierry and St. Mihiel." MOVING TO BILLINGS Ingomar— R. H. Jamison, who has been manager of the Midland Coal and Lumber Co., for the past two months, has resigned to accept a more remunative position at Billings. Mr. Jamison and family left for Bil lings Wednesday morning. News Over The State a of at is Is 1919 MONTANA STATE FAIR Rosebud—The Montana State fair and victory exposition to be held at Helena September 8, 9, 10, 11, 12 and 13, 1919, has a booster bunch back of it, for they have already begun to get this event in the minds of the people. The fair this year is to be one of patriotism, refinement, educa tion and recreation. There are to be government exhibits, state exhibits, county exhibits, agricultural, horti cultural, floricultural, industrial, live stock all phases of school work, farm machinery, auto, truck and tractor show. And there will be attractions a plenty, horse racing, music galore, baud concerts, solos, quartets and vic tory singing. Horace S Ensign, who is the secretary, will furnish anyone with a premium list, or with any oth er information which they may want. This early announcement will give everyone a chance to get into the game and maybe show some kind of a prize winner this fall. ROSEBUD COUNTY FAIR. Rosebud — The Rosebud County fair board has begun operations to ward arranging for the fair to be held this coming fall. They believe in beginning early and making a huge success of this annual event. They held a meeting last Tuesday at the court house, inviting County Agent Broich to meet with them, and outline the plan for 1919, including the preparation of the premium list. It is expected that this list will be ready for' distribution within a few weeks so that all who expect to ex hibit at the fair this fall will have an opportunity to plan their seeding ac cordingly. DECLAMATORY CONTEST Baker—The annual high school de clamatory contest was held in the Lake Theatre last Friday evening and was the most successful affair of the kind ever held in the city. The number Of contestants this year was larger than any previous occasion and seemingly more interest was taken in the outcome of the con test. Eleven students competed for the honors. Miss Helen Owen was awarded the first prize, a trip to Missoula with all expenses paid. That Miss Owen is an able speaker there is no question and everyone was pleased that she se cured first place. LONG TIME GETTING SICK Baker—Harold Vanlamngham who while enroute to Camp Lewis last fall was violently attacked at one station by a mob of young Red Cross ladies and kissed fourteen times before he could be rescued, is again on duty at the Earlingburt store after a week's illness.—lsmay Journal. SOLDIERS ON WAY HOME Baker—Bud Stammen, whose home is at Alzada, arriveu in the city last Friday from Camp McPherson, Geor gia, where he had been confined in a base hospital. Mr. Stammen was in the thick of the fight overseas and was wounded in six different places from flying shrapnel. He was with the 81st di vision. Mr. Stammen will remain in the city a few days before going to his home in Carter county. ROBBERY AT BAKER Baker—Another robbery was suc cessfuly pulled off Tuesday evening when some person or persons entered the Hilbreth House and got away with $45.00. Mrs. Hilbreth suffered a loss of $30 taken from a dresser drawer and Clarence Sherrett was relieved of $15 taken from a pair of pants left in his room. Nothing in the house was dis turbed or disarranged in any manner and whoever took the money evident ly knew just where to look for it. a BURGLARY AT MILDRED Mildred—Last Friday night the store of the Mildred Mercantile Com pany was burglarized and goods to the amount of about $400 taken. The loot consisted mostly of jewelery and watches. As near as can be ascer tained there was little taken aside from the jewelery. The visitants overlooked a bet in that the safe was not disturbed, although it was not locked and there was about $25.00 in silver in it. However, they h r oke open a mash drawer from which they secured a few pennies. HOMER CLARK Ekalaka — The community was deeply shocked to learn of the death of Hower Clark, who died Saturday from loss of blood following an op eration at Camp Crook hospital for the removal of his tonsils. Mr. Clark returned to Ekalaka Friday evening from the hospital having ridden 50 miles in an auto. He was about 40 years of age and leaves a wife and one small child, al so a brother, Glen Clark, and two sisters, one of whom is employed as a deputy in one of the county offices. COAL RICH IN OIL For many years lignite mined near lone, Cal., has been used as a fuel, though it contains a large quantity of miosture and therefore does not burn very well. Recently, however, on ac count of its resemblance to some oil shales that are apparently similar to caunel coals, this lignite has been tested by the United States Geological Survey, Department of the Interior, to determine whether it would not yield oil on destructive distillation. The results ,of the tests show that the best of the lignite, when destruc tively distilled, will yield 62 gallons of oil to the ton and, as a by-prod uct, at least 18 pounds of ammonium sulphate, which is a valuable fertiliz er. This lignite is remarkably "fat." Although it contains 46 per cent of moisture, analysis made by the Bu reau of Mines shows that it contains also 31 per cent of volatile matter and 16 per cent of fixed carbon. The ash amounts to only 7 per cent, and the heating value is 6,060 British thermal units. Although the bed containing this lignite does not appear to underlie a large territory, it is doubtless des tined to receive attention sooner or later as a possible source of oil and gasoline. a HELPING SELL PRODUCTS How to obtain a fair price for the products mey have to sell is always a live problem with farm women. Realizing its importance, the home demonstration agent places it near the top in the budget of conditions she hopes to remedy. Many differ ent ways to accomplish the same end are being used. In Cheshire County, New Hampshire, the home-demon stration agent is working with the country women's organizations to provide a market for all canned foods eggs, butter, and cottage cheese. Three big reasons for lack of market ing success in the past have been that the farmers' wives did not know where to sell, they needed salesman ship knowledge, and they tried to sell products which were not standard ized. The home-demonstration agent shows the farm women how to bring her products up to the accepted stan dards and help her to find a market for the surplus. for the surplus. to in HOMESTEADERS 10 n FOR (RAZE LARD APRIL 25 304,000 Acres to Be Thrown Open in Central Part of State Helena—Rush for land for home steaders in the central part of the state is expected here with the an nouncement by Joseph Oker, receiver of the federal land office here of designation by the geological survey of 304,000 acres of land in the Hel ena district, all of which will come under the stock grazing designation affording an entryman to secure a section of land. The office already has 700 applications for land which will be acted upon April 25, when the designation of the land commission er at Washington becomes effective. The land included is scattered throughout the Helena district which includes the counties of Beaverhead, Silverbow, Deer Lodge, Powell, Lewis and Clark, Broadwater, Jefferson and part of Madison. of It Sergt. Floyd Meade Tells High School Pupils of Work Done PARADE GIVEN ON MAIN STREETS Seventy-five per cent of Men In This Service on the Casualty List Hundreds of Miles City people braved an unpleasant storm of snow and wind Monday to watch the whippet tank in action, and then to listen to a few' short remarks on the subject of the Liberty loan which were made by the Rev. Thomas Har dier. According to Sergt. Floyd Meade, who was in charge of the tank the weather was typical of that which might have been exepeted un der conditions which were common at the battlefront in France and the tank showed its willingness to sur mount any and all obstacles just as though it were driving through a mass of Hun machine gun nests. Following the exhibition at the Chautauqua grounds the tank was driven through the main streets of Miles City and then gave the pupils of the Custer County high school a special treat. At the request of Meade drove the battle-scarred tank to the school where he "hove it to," clambered out and went inside to tell the students a few facts about the tanks and their work. "I have been over-seas for about eight months," said Sergeant Meade, "and have trained with the tanks in both England and France. During that time I will say that I came to know tanks pretty well. Their main duty is to clean up machine gun nés ,kà and obstacles which the artillary could not get to and which held (up the advance of the doughboys. M mpy an infantryman's life has been spareil^ by the work of these tanks. It is hard to put a concrets pillbox, or a machine gun nest out of action with artillery, as a direct hit is hard to secure and tho Hun would, merely duck into his dugout until the bar rage stopper, when he would emerge and resume his merry work which a spelled death to many an American. "The small tank, such as we have demonstrated here to day, was used largely by the French, who were op erating in rougher ground than that .ldlehasllswopd 789 78 789 12 121 which opposed the English. They proved remarkably effective \and un less the Hun secured a direct hit before the tank got started, its speed made it almost a matter of luck if he got the tank before it got the ma chine gun which was checking the infantry. Towards the close of the war the Germans got out a rifle which fired an explosive bullet which could and did penetrate the armor. This put many a man and tank out of service. The government figures on the casualties in the tank service were that 75 per cent of the men and tanks were put out of commission. It was a good service as far as ac tion was concerned and more than paid for itself. We had plenty of tanks at concentration centers when the armistice was signed and could have soon sent a whole fleet of them over every few minutes." NEW GLENDIVE THEATRE Glendive—Fred Goulding, the sec retary-treasurer of the new Vallencey Theatre Co., says the new theatre is an assured thing for GlencLive this summer and that work on the build ing will be started about June 1st. The new company completed the pur chase of the site for the building this week from Mrs. Jordan, paying her $15,500 in cash and $500 in stock in the company for the lots. The officer^, of the company are T. E. Ytllencey, president and manager; E. A. Shabel, vice jpresident; Fred T. Goulding, secretary and treasurer and T. Ï*. Hagan and R. H. Watson, directors.