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The Dupuyer acantha. [volume] (Dupuyer, Mont.) 1894-1904, March 14, 1901, Image 2

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Persistent link: https://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn84036266/1901-03-14/ed-1/seq-2/

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EYESIGHT OF THE BOERS.
Sir Redvers Buller's statement that
the ordinary Boer could see a man
coming toward him two miles before
the man could see the Boer excites
neither surprise nor skepticism among
the eye specialists.
"Really," said a high authority to a
London Mall representative, "if you
apply your common sense to the mat
ter you will see it must be so. The
Boer is, comparatively speaking a bar
barian. At lca^t he has few indoor
occupations, and does little reading.
For generations he has been training
himself to see long distances, for his
livelihood depends on sighting his cat
tie or on tracking down game. Mr.
Atkins will never possess such fine
vision until his conditions of life ap
proximate to those of the Boer. Like
all civilized peoples, his vision is con
fined to a limited range Even at the
butts he is not called upon for any
very special effort of long sight, and
he is not there very often."
The fact was mentioned that sev
eral officers had come home from the
war with greatly improved eyesight.
Some, who had worn glasses, now
found their sight quite cured, and
attributed the fact to the effect of the
fine clear air of the veldt.
"A clear atmosphere," said the au
thority, "would be an important fac
'tor in sighting the enemy, of course;
!but the real truth is that these officers
have benefited by their experience in
iSouth Africa. It is all a question of
'the ciliary muscle. Here is the ciliary
muscle on this diagram, attached to
the choroid coat of the eyeball. The
ciliary is an involuntary muscle—one
of the few muscles we cannot control.
Its function is to adjust the vision to
different distances, and it acts some
thing like the screw of an opera glass.
At long ranges there is practically no
call on the ciliary muscle, but when,
for example, you want to read, it
screws up till the proper focus lias
been obtained. I have known too
much study induce a sort of artificial
shortsight, easily cured by months of
rest. We use our ciliary muscle too
much—the Boer hardly at all."
CANADIAN TIRE PIMP.
A number of automatic tire infiators
have already been patented and placed
on the market, but the majority of
them are somewhat clumsy affairs,
which are both unsightly on the bi
Icycle and heavy enough to increase
jthe weight of the wheel perceptibly.
iThe device which we show in the cu
has just been patented by a Canadian.
In the first place, it is entirely out of
■sight, the exposed portion taking tha
iplace of the ordinary valve, which lat
ter it resembles. When the tire is
formed an oval elastic shell is inserted
through the spring valve, and as the
J valve closes against the return current
-of air its only means of escape, when
as shown. This shell has an intake
the section of tire reaches the lowest
18
a
INFLATING DEVICE.
point of its circuit and is compressed
by the weight of the rider, is through
the slotted tip of the oval shell. As
soon as the pressure is removed from
the oval it again expands, drawing a
fresh supply of air through the valve.
The pumping operation will continue
until the tire becomes inflated to a suf
ficient degree to overcome the rider's
weight and stop the contraction and
expansion of the oval shell.
ANIMALS WIT1I VOICES.
The toy shops rival the Tower of
Babel in confusion of sounds just now.
The baa of the lamb, the bray of the
donkey, the consumptive bark of the
small dog all unite to make the hours
hideous for the clerks and such shop
pers as are not of an experimental
frame of mind, for, of course, the furry
animals don't do their stunts of their
own volition; they're impelled thereto
by the grown-ups who anticipate pur
chasing them.
One poor little sheep -it was brown,
by the way, but the saleswoman in
sisted it was a sheep—had become
voiceless from too much vocal exer
tion and was lying, an awful example
to us family, neglected and forsaken
011 the floor.
The best Southdown in the flock,
you know, would be nothing to Willie
if it couldn't b-a-a.
One has only to invade the fascinat
ing precincts of these shops to dis
cover just exactly how popular is the
furry animal with the squeak, says a
writer in the Baltimore News.
"Some persons buy 'em who haven't
any children in the house at all, just
to amuse their friends," confided a
small saleswoman yesterday. "Yes,
it is rather hard to tell the dogs from
the bears before you're used to 'em.
If the dogs didn't always have 011 col
lars it would be right embarrassing
for me sometimes. I'd be sure to make
mistakes.
"The voice doesn't last long after a
child gets hold of the animal. The
mechanism is so delicate that a rough
touch or two is fatal."
The latest things found for Miss
Dolly are rocking-chairs of wicker
ware that are fully as attractive as
the ones sold for milady herself, and
swings of the sort that delight the
children in Dru'd I-Ii 1 park are plen
tiful. Then there's a little hammock
for lier dainty ladyship, so it's plain
she can be nude comfortable if her
mistress wills.
INCREASES SAVIMMER'S SPEED.
The apparatus shown in the draw
ing below has been designed by a Cali
fornia inventor, as an aid in increasing
the speed« of the swimmer in the water
or allowing him to float in a comfort
able position when desired. The ap
ATTACHMENT FOR ARMS,
paratus consists of a light framework
of bamboo or aluminum, supporting an
endless web of canvass, the whole be
ing secured to the arms of the swim
mer by elastic bands or straps. The
braces forming the frame are pivoted
at their inner ends to a sectional base
running parallel with the arm, and
the swimmer adjusts the device so that
this base is at the back of the arm
in taking the stroke. As soon as the
canvas catches the water in the back
ward stroke it expands and causes the
framework to open out Into a flat web,
which affords the swimmer greatly in
creased leverage on the water, but as
soon as the forward stroke is begun
the frame again assumes a folded posi
tion and does not interfere with the
action of the arms. As the frame is
either of wood or light, air-tight tubes,
the swimmer is enabled to place his
hands in any comfortable position and
the apparatus will support him in the
water as long as desired.
Rods Are Not Necessary.
A total rearrangement of the sys
tem of lightning conductors on St.
Paul's cathedral, London, is now virt
ually complete. It is interesting to
learn from Killingsworth Hedges, the
electrician under whose superinten
dence the work has been carried out,
that the old idea that the erection of a
lightning rod on the highest point of
a structure protected an area all round
is quite illusory. The safeguarded area
was supposed to be the space within
a circle whose radius was equal to the
height of the lightning rod. This
theory, we understand, is now dis
credited and the cathedral has been
protected by a system of conductors,
perpendicular and horizontal, compris
ing over a mile of cables, on which at
various prominent points are placed
about fifty "aigrettes"—groups of solid
copper spikes radiating upward, and
effectually connected at the base with
the cables.
Compulsory Vaccinations.
In Holland a law making vaccina
tion of school children compulsory
went into effect in 1873. Prior to that
timo the average death rate from
smallpox was eighty-nine in every
100,000. For the ensuing sixteen years
the average was seven in 100,000.
It is easier to see through a window
glass than it is to see a glass eye.
DAIRY AND POULTRY.
INTERESTING CHAPTERS "fOR
OUR RURAL READERS.
How Successful Farmen Operate Thl*
Department of the Farm — A Few
Hint* as to the Care of Llva Stock
and Poultry.
Dairy N te«.
Every farmer that carries on dairy
ing, to even a limited extent shouicl
provide for an ice supply. Where such
1 supply is to be put in this is the
time to consider it. The question of
s tOiage is not a difficult one to solve.
Dn most farms there is some building,
3r part of building, easily drainable,
where the ice may be stored. The
packing material is cheaper for the
farmer than for any other man, wheth
er it be chaff, straw or old hay, as the
professional ice-man has to purchase
these of the farmers. No city family
that can afford to buy ice ever thinks
of being without it, and it is no more
a luxury in the city than in the coun
try. To the dairyman it is ex
ceedingly valuable, if he is trying to
make good butter; for it enables him
to keep his ripening cream at a low
temperature, where the best flavors are
developed, and also makes it possible
to keep the finished product in a con
dition where it will not deteriorate.
» » a
This seems to be an era of co-opera
tion and combination even in the dairy
world. In the eastern states and in
New York buyers and retailers of milk
in the big cities have formed, within
the last few years, some pretty strong
combinations for the purchasing or
milk at the best terms. Naturally this
has stimulated the forming of coun
ter-associations among the milk pro
ducers. Now these have begun the
work of consolidation, and out of this
has grown the "Central Association
of the Five States' Milk Produc
ers' Association." This association
is at present vigorously prosecut
ing its work, and among other
things has fixed a net rate of three
cents per quart that every member
must receive for his milk. Their rules
also throw all expense of shipment,
such as station fees and freight, onto
the buyers of the milk. The producers
of milk have been forced into a posi
tion where they must combine for de
fense against the rapacity of the
wholesale buyers of milk.
Tracing the evolution of breeds is
always interesting. Someone has been
figuring out the pedigree of the so
called "native" cow of this country
and brings to the light some old facts
that are worth recording. As early as
1611 dairy cows were brought to Vir
ginia from England and 13 years later
there was an importation into the Ply
mouth colony. This was in 1624.
These cows were brought from Devon
shire, England, and were doubtless of
the same stock as that from which the
Devon breed was developed at a later
period. This probably accounts for
the predominance of red color In the
native New England cattle. Whether
or not the Virginia cows were from
the same locality we do not know for
a certainty. At a little later period
evidently cattle were imported into
Virginia from Spain. These cattle
were black. The Dutch, having set
tied New York, naturally brought
cows from their own country. Some
of these are known to have come from
an island off the coast of Holland
That was before the development of
fixed breeds even in Holland, but we
may fairly infer that they were re
Jated to the progenitors of the Dutch
belted cattle. Delaware was provided
with cattle from Sweden, and it is said
that from Denmark were brought the
cattle that became famous in New
Hampshire. Coming down to révolu
tionary times we find that cattle had
•at that date, been previously imported
from Great Britain and Ireland in con
siderable numbers. Some of these, we
know from tradition, were white
Durhams, especially white Durham
bulls. The general mixup of all ot
these breeds, which subsequently took
place, gave us the almost endless va
riety of form and color now seen in
American cattle.
Money In Hogs.
A Michigan farmer has this to say
on the question of making money out
of hogs:
I have always believed it best to
raise the mo3t improved breeds, be
lieving that high-bred animals are the
most profitable, but think there is
great deal of truth in the old adage
that the breed is in the mouth;
other words, there is more gain
good care and management than in the
breed. I have always had the best sue
cess with March or April pigs. Early
iPigs are best for two reasons: 1st. If
designed for fattening the flrët year,
they will have acquired a reasonable
growth before v/inter, and can be
turned off before very cold weather.
■2d. Early pigs stand the winter far
better and make faster growth during
'the cold weather, if wintered over, and
are larger in the spring in proportion
to their age, than shoats two or three
months younger, and when turned into
clover pasture have larger frame and
eat more, making a greater growth
through to the end. I think it a good
plan to sort out, give away, kill and
destroy the scrubby looking pigs while
running with the mother, as I have
noticed that the scrubs continue to be
scrubs in most cases to the end. It Is
always best to get the pigs to eating
well before weaning, and feed well un
til they are ten or twelve weeks old,
on ground feed and milk well soured
in a barrel before feeding. Well kept
pigs at that age will have acquired suf
ficient size to run in a pasture, being
large enough so they will not get
through a good fence and into mis
chief. Clover pasture is as good for
young pigs, with a reasonable amount
of swill, as twice or three times the
amount of feed, when fed to them
while shut up on a floor or in a small
yard. The pigs should be kefct in the
pasture until the grass has done grow
ing in the fall, and without having
been crowded at all should weigh over
one hundred pounds each. Then if the
price of pork seems to justify, the
farmer may shut up as many as con
venient in a warm pen and fatten for
market, as they will then be in splen
did condition for fattening and will
grow and take ön flesb very rapidly.
Care should be taken not to over
feed, feeding only as much as will be
taken up readily, keeping the appetite
sharp, for if allowed to become cloyed,
they will not do well afterwards. Pens
for feeding should be open toward the
south. Have tried feeding hogs with
pen open toward the south, and also,
at the same time, had hogs shut up for
fatting in a pen open to the north,
and without sunshine. Those having
the sunshine and light thrived splen
didly, while those in the pen with the
northern front scarcely made any
progress at all, with the same feed and
care. Some might think this idea to
be a blue grass theory, but the prac
tice is not. I think that thinking and
observing farmers will bear me out
in this assertion. The pigs taken in
the fall and fattened, should weigh,
when nine months old, two hundred
and fifty pounds live weight, without
having been crowded on expensive
feed but a short time, comparatively.
I have not found it profitable as a rule
to fatten and sell pigs the first year,
preferring to winter and sell them
early the next fall. In wintering
shoats, I find that they do best to have
plenty of room to run about, a large
yard with a field adjoining being very
good. Care should be taken that they
have a sheltered place, with plenty of
reasonably clean straw for bedding. I
think it pays best to feed them suffi
ciently well in winter to keep them
growing well. I have found that hogs
will eat clover hay in winter with as
good relish as tattle or sheep, and will
pick up the hay cleaner than cattle.
This winter I have made a practice of
feeding clover to the shoats every day
at noon, and think it profitable, sav
ing thereby one-third of the corn
which would otherwise have to be
used.
I see no reason why clover when cut
a little green for hay, and saved bright,
suould not be as nutritious, and do as
much good, as when eaten in the pas
ture, it making a very good change
once a day from corn, and being cheap
feed.
Heredity and Vecandlty.
A. A. Brigham, in a report of the
Rhode Island Experiment Station,
says: Fecundity, which in fowls is in
dicated by great prolificness in the lay
ing of eggs, Is a quality which has
been greatly increased in domestic an
imals by domestication. To-day some
breeders are striving to bring their
flocks up to an average egg production
of 200 eggs annually per female fowl
Food, Ehelter, care, management and
functional exercise ail affect the fowls'
egg production, but first of all the
poultryman must seek for his flock a
parentage and an ancestry prolific in
egg production. By means of record
ing nests and personal study of his
fowls he is able to select females which
are large producers of eggs. With
those fowls he mates a male bird se
lected from the progeny of a prolific
mother. The progeny of such a pen
will certainly show the quality of pro
lific egg production, but not all in the
same degree. The pullets obtained
will, under like environment and with
apparently equal opportunities, show
considerable difference in their egg
laying capacity. Some of the female
parents will have transmitted to their
offspring more strongly than others
the desired quality of prolific egg pro
duction; in other words, some great
layers among hens have stronger
power of heredity than other equally
great layers in transmitting the quali
ty of prolific laying.
By the closest study and watchful
ness tne poultry breeder is enabled to
gradually select on both the female
and the male sides birds which in the
highest degree have the power of
transmitting the quality of prolific egg
laying to their offspring. Continuing
this process of selection from genera
tion to generation, there may be de
veloped a long line of breeders pos
sessing the predominant power of he
reditary fecundity. In the same way a
brown-egg laying family of Wyan
dottes or Plymouth Rocks may be de
veloped. Likewise there may be ob
tained as hereditary characteristics
plump breasts, early maturity, fine
feathers and almost any desired color
of plumage or shape or size of body.
Of Iinterest to HoracMCfl.
A. southern exchange reports that
the British government has apparently
reconsidered its decision not to pur-i
chase any more mules in this country.
The New Orleans purchasing office
was reopened a few days ago and a
contract let for the purchase of 1,500
mules, the order being apportioned
among the stations at St. Louis, Kan
sas City and Bonham. It is supposed
that the purchase of mules in the
United States will continue indefin
itely until the transportation depart
ment of the British army is fully
equipped, not only in South Africa,
but in all of the colonies.
a a a
"Zebroifls"—that is to say, a hybrid
between the zebra and horse—are the
subject of a report by the United States
minuter to Brazil, says a press report.
Theii inimals are already In use on a
small scale in the Transvaal, and they
are suitable for Africa, because the
Tsetse fly does not Injure them. They
have been tried successfully in Brazil,
and are found very strong, lively and
docile. The hybrids take after the fe
male horse, and are black, brown, grey,
etc., in color. The best horses for
strong hybrids are the Clydesdale, Suf
folks and "Percherons" of France.
Arab horses give excellent zebroids,
very swift and active.
m * *
English exchanges announce that the
Argentine republic has recently been
buying British horses. Clydesdales
appear to be favorites in these im
portations, and it is thought the In
troduction of that breed will have a
very beneficial effect. Its great activ
ity, excellent bone, feet and pasterna
are merits which will be valuable at
tributes when transmitted to their
progeny, while the increased weight
and susbtance that they will also im
part are bound to be such as, crossed
how tliey be, will result in the pro
duction of a far more useful and val
uable horse for export than those
which are at present being exported
from that republic, whose failing is
to a large extent want of substance,
weight and bone.
a • •
Guy Wilkes, son of the far-famed
trotting sire, George Wilkes, has just
died at the age of 20. He was put in
training when five years old and won
nine times his first season, closing it
with a record of 2:20. Two years
after he made his mark of 2:15^ as
the fastest son of a great sire. He
commanded a service fee of $1,000.
Three of his get got into the 2:10 list
Then the boom on trotters burst and
his owner, Mr. Corbett, a California
fancier, came to grief. The horse waa
so much neglected that he nearly died,
but still brought $5,000 in New York
in 1897. But for this period of neg
lect this great horse might have lived
several years longer.
* m •
It was generally thought that Eng
lish joclcoys could give pointers to all
the world in the matter of horse rac
ing. But Tod Sloan went over and
showed them a new style, by means of
which he beat the best jockeys in
England. He sat much further for
ward than the English riders, and It
has been found by actual test that a
rider so perched, besides being easier
on the horse's wind, enables the horse
to make from four to seven Inches
longer stride than If he rode in the
good old English style. The result of
this is that Yankee Jockeys have had
a great run of engagements and the
English are training their younger
jockeys to ride American fashion.
Pekh> Ducks.
This breed of ducks was imported
into this country from China in 1873.
S
Imperial Pekin Derek
They are a great acquisition to our
water fowls, being hardy, easily rear
ed, excellent table fowls, good layers,
while their yield of feathers is nearly
as great as of any ordinary goose.
They are creamy white in plumage,
with a medium-sized deep yellow bill,
and legs of a reddish orange color.
They are large In size, and their fluffy
feathers make them look still larger.
While swimming no other duck shows
so much body above the water as the
Pekin. The eggs hatch well, the duck
lings are easily raised and mature rap
idly. They are excellent foragers, and
can be easily raised where there is
only sufficient water for them to drink.
The one-time champion stallion Ax
tell, 2:12, was sold in New York re
cently to close the partnership which
has existed since 1889, when a syndi
cate of wealthy horsemen purchased
the horse for $105,000, after he had ac
quired a 3-year-old record of 2:12 to a
high-wheel sulky. Far several seasons
he stood at a fee of $1,000 and his earn
ings In the stud approximated $24u,000.
Frederick T. Moran of the syndicats
became the Individual owner at the
end of a sharp conteit tor 114,700.

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