Newspaper Page Text
iDAïfiY AN» POULTRY.
INTERESTING CHAPTERS FOR OUR RURAL READERS. How Successful Farmers Operate This Department of the Farm—A Few Hints as to the Care of Live Stock -and poultry. Dairy Exhibit. A correspondent of the Farmers' ^Review writes from Buffak» as fol lows: The exhibit at the Dairy Build ing for the month of September will take place on the 10th. The judges of butter for the next exhibit are W. T. Leonard of New York, S. Edward Davis, Elgin, 111., and Daniel Derby shire, Brockville, Ont. The judges of the cheese for the next exhibit in September are Hon. A. P. McLaren, Stratford, Ont; Hon. George Mc Adam, Rome, N. Y.,.and A D. Deland of Wisconsin. Entries are now com ing in rapidly from all over the Unit ed States and Canada. The result of the scoring of the exhibit made in May and July being so thoroughly pub lished throughout the country, has aroused great enthusiasm among dairymen. We shall expect a very large ex hibit -next month of a very superior quality. Letters are coming in from creamery men and cheese manufac turers of every section, making careful inquiries as to the beet methods of making, curing and shipping their product. They see that nothing but the finest quality will do to compete with the makers of other rtatea and Canada. The exhibit will be installed on the 10th and the Judging will be gin on the morning of the 12th on butter, and the 17th on cheese. This scoring is open to the public, and any person desiring to »ee the Judging done can do so by calling at the Dairy Building on those dates. The business aide of dairying is what Mr. Converse is endeavoring to bring prominently before the publie in his practical illustrations at the Pan-American. If he succeeds in awakening an interest in this sadly neglected side of dairying, he will have accomplished a great deal. It is not so much the results of this par ticular dairy, Important as they are, but the fact that the different breeds of cows may be shut up in a build ing on the fair grounds and every scrap of feed bought at the market price and a steady profit derived from each herd every week. The most care less farmer possesses advantages that these exposition herds do not have, and in summing up the totals account should be taken with this side issue. There arc critics who would like to see more rough feed used at the Pan American Dairy, but this would not meet the requirements of the case so well. This part of the work can be better supplied by the fanners them selves. Feeding Milk to Calves. Twenty head of grade Shorthorn and Hereford calves were purchased by the Kansas Experiment Station in the spring of 1900 and divided into two lots. One lot was fed on sterilized creamery skim-milk with a grain ra tion composed of equal parts of corn and Kaffir corn meal, with all the al falfa hay they would eat. The second lot was fed the same as the first, ex cept that fresh whole milk was used instead of skim-milk. In addition to these two lots the station secured the privilege of weighing twenty-two head of high-grade Hereford calves which were running with their dams in a pasture near the Experiment Station. Results with Skim-mllk.—For the twenty-two weeks under experiment the ten calves consumed 24,736 pounds of skim-milk, 1,430 pounds of corn chop, 1,430 pounds of Kaffir corn meal and 641 pounds of alfalfa hay. The total gain was 2,831 pounds, or a daily average of 1.51 pound3 per head. Fig uring skim-milk at 15 cents per 100, grain at 50 cents per 100 pounds and hay at $4 per ton, the total feed cost of raising these calves was $52.68, or $5.27 per head. The feed cost for each 100 pounds of gain was $2.26. Cows that are milked will produce larger yields than when suckling calves. Ac cording to the average yield at this station, ten cows (one for each calf) produced 55,540' pounds of milk test ing 3.93 per cent butter fat. With but ter fat at 15% oents per pound, this would amount to $338.52. The value of the skim-milk not needed by the calves would raise this to $374.24. De duct from this the value of the feed consumed by the calves and there re mains $321.56, or $32.15 per calf to pay for the expense of milking, feeding the •calves, and hauling the milk to the creamery. At 12% cents per hour, this expense need not be one-half of the above sum, leaving $15 to $16 clear profit for each calf raised on skim milk. Results with Whole Milk. —During ^t wenty-two weeks these ten calves con sumed 23,287 pounds of fresh milk, 835 pounds of corn chop, 835 pounds of Kaffir corn meal, and 835 pounds of Alfalfa hay. The total gain was 2,878 pounds, or a daily .average of 1.95 pounds per head. Charging butter ffct at creamery prices, the feed cost of raising these calves amounts to $157.19, or $15.72 per head. The feed cost fbr each 100 pounds of gain amountB to $5.46. Results with Calves Nursed by the Cows.—On May 28, 1900, twenty-two calves that were running with their dams averaged 174 pounds. On Octo ber 15, these same calves averagel 422 pounds, or an average daily gain per head of 1.77 pounds. The only ex pense attached to raising these calves was the keep of the cows, which was estimated by the owner to be $12 per head. Multiplying the average dally gain of these calves by 154, the num ber of days in previous experiment, gives a total of 272 pounds per head. With $12 as the cost of 'raising the calf, each 100 pounds of gain cost $4.41. Results in Feed Lot after Weaning.— In the fall all these calves were placed in the feed lot, where they were pushed for baby beef. During the seven months under experiment, the skim-milk calves gained 440 pounds per head, the whole-milk calves 405 pounds per head, and the calves nursed by the cows 422 pounds per head. This experiment shows that the feed cost of raising a good skim-milk calf need not exceed $5.25 in contrast to $15.75 for a whole-milk calf, and $8 for one nursed by the dam. The skim-milk calf becomes accustomed to eating both grain and roughness early in life, is handled enough to be gentle, and when transferred to the feed lot is ready to make rapid and economical gains.— D. H. Otis, Kansas Agricultural College. Egg Preservatives, The Montana Experiment Station thus tells of some of the experiments carried on there to test the keeping power of eg&s in various solutions: With a view of testing the relative value of lime and salt mixtures and water glass as egg preservatives, we pickled about sixty dozen eggs in two lots. The mixtures were: No. 1—Lime, fresh, 3% pounds; salt, 4% pounds; water, 8 gallons. No. 2—Water glass, 1 part water glass to 18 parts water. These eggs remained In the solution for about six months. When examined the water glass was found to be the best pickle, although the lime and salt served Its purpose very well; still the whites of the eggs preserved in this mixture were much more watery than the whites of those preserved in the water glass. These were difficult to distinguish from fresh eggs, since the white was quite firm and yolk stood up upon It just as though fresh. Another advantage In the water glass is that It does not seem to affect the shell of the egg as the lime mixture—eggs from the lime and salt mixture being much more liable to crack, either in cooking or handling. We consider this matter of preserving eggs of great importance in this state, t since prices are so high for eggs in the winter season. We do not for a moment advise the selling of preserved eggs for fresh-laid, but we have no hesitancy in saying that when the market finds that these preserved eggs seem almost as good as the fresh eggs, it will certainly be willing to pay a price which will leave a good cash margin in favor of pickling. Water glass or sodium silicate is a liquid of rather a smooth, slippery consistency, readily soluble in water. It may be obtained through any druggisrt at a cost of about 75 cents a gallon. In using It we would advise the use of stone Jars or cocks. The water used should be quite pure, and if not it must be boiled. Jar should be covered to exclude any dirt, and kept at the tem perature of a cool cellar. Sometimes the specific gravity of the solution is greater than that of the eggs, in which case the tendency will be for them to float, when they may be forced down by a plate or similar arrangement with a weight on top. Soiling and Pasture. The summary of soipe experiments carried on at the Nebraska station follows. 1. Leguminous crops with the ex ception of sand or dairy vetch induced a larger daily milk and butter fat pro duction than did any of the other crops. 2. Rye and sorghum were the crops affording the largest amount of pas 3. The experiments indicated that cowpeas produced an actually greater quantity of milk and butter fat from a given area of land than any otber crop. • 4. A comparison of the relative amounts of feed produced by several forage crops when pastured and when soiled indicated that the latter prac tice secures two to three times as much feed from the same area of land. 5. The same tests indicated that the average daily production of milk and butter fat was greater for the same feed when the cow was pastured than when soiled. This on an average amounted to 1.17 times greater butter fat production from the pastured than from the soileu crop. Dairr Notes. Precaution is necessary in the feed ing of sorghum. From time to tim* reports have been received of cattl» dying from eating the sorghum in certain stages of growth. All attempts* to find the poison have failed thu? far. However, the losses have been so small compared to the number of cows being fed that the use of this kind of feed has been continued. A recent communication from Professor D. H. Otis of the Kansas Experiment Station says: "During the time the Kansas station has been pasturing sorghum several reports have been re ceived of cattle dying in ten or fif teen minutes from the time they en tered the sorghum patch, but in every case where we have been able to get details, the cattle have eaten the sor ghum on empty or nearly empty stom achs. Cattle should have their stom achs so well filled that they feel com pletely satisfied before touching the green sorghum, and then allowed to eat only a few minutes at a time un til they are accustomed to it. If sor ghum can be pastured successfu ly, as has been done by the Kansas Experi ment Station, it means that the dairy men and 6tockmen can get an im mense amount of pasture from a small area, which is available at a time when their other pastures are getting short and dry. Pasturing will also be the most economical way of utiliz ing sorghum. The man that turns his cattle in a sorghum field, however must realize that he may be taking risks. He must weigh the evidence for and against its use and then de dde fQr himself whet i 1 er the* benefits will outweigh the risks." • If bromus Inermis is to be profitable, compared with other forage plants, it must be rightly handled. A report of the Nebraska station for 1899 says: "The amount of pasturage furnished was a little more than half as much as that obtained from alfalfa during the same part of the summer. It pro duced very little lees milk and butter fat than did the mixed grasses. It may be considered an excellent pasture grass for dairy stock." The writer saw It growing at the Wisconsin sta tion, where the verdict is much the same. It did not come up to the es pectations as a hay -producing grass this year, yielding less than some of the other grasses by a good deal. It grew in clumps and mueh of the ground was for that reason left bare. It matures later than blue grass, which should make it valuable for sowing in pasture« where mixed grasses are used. Fall pasturage Should be materially increased by the use of this grass. Poultry Briefs. A poultry raiser advises building the poultry house floor of dirt. He says that cement floors cause bumble-foot and that board floors are little better. We think that the gentleman has paid too little attention to the height of his roosts. There is no need of having the roosts so high that every time a fowl flies down it will result in bruis ing the feet. Board floors and cement floors are certainly advisable in many cases, and if the roosts are low there need be no damage from bumble-foot. The writer of this has used a board floor for years, with roosts only 18 inches above it." No case of bumble foot ever materialized. Moreover, it is entirely feasible to keep the floor covered, with dirt, dust or chaff. * • • The man that wants to show suc cessfully at the fairs and poultry ex hibitions should not expect to buy his breeding stock cheap. In fact, it will prove cheaper to pay a good price for birds in which certain types have be come well fixed. Cheap birds may show good points, but their progeny may have few of them, due to the fact that there has been too little line breeding to be effective. The man that pays a good price for his breeders shcftild demand information as to the ancestors of the birds. A dozen gen erations of prize winners is worth mora in the blood than one or two generations. In other words, pedigree counts in birds as certainly as in other kinds of live stock. It takes skill to breed up a flock of birds for any purpose. The brainless man will find It as Impossible to suc ceed in this as in any other undertak ing. It requires time, and the impa tient man will do well to keep out of the lists. Lastly it requires an expen diture of money at first out of all pro portion to the immediate results. The money comes back in the future re sults. * • • Dirt Is cheap and the hen should have an Inexhaustible supply of it. She needs it for her daily bath. Water for bathing has never appealed to the fancy of the hen. She conceives of dust as the proper medium and will bathe in that or nothing. By all means encourage her to bathe by giving her all the dust she needs. As this is the time of year when dust for winter v.se should be collected we call attention to the matter now. In a few weeks the fall rains will have changed the du^t into mud aud rendered It unusable THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER. Qneer Freaks of the Current Which is Easily Deflected. "I have been much impressed with the importance of small things In late years," said an old steamboat man to a New Orleans Times-Democrat re porter, "and the Mississippi river has furnished me with rather good exam ples. I can understand now why Cae sar looked out upon the Nile in such curious amazement and offered all that he stood for to the Egyptian priest if he would show him the source of that wonderful river. But the antics of the Nile look like insignificant noth ings to me when compared with the strange conduct of the stream that oozes out of the earth at Itasca and hurries on its murky and devious way toward the Gulf of Mexico. Towns along the Mississippi that once stood right on the brink of the river have been isolated even in my day, and there are, too, all along the course of the stream little empires in view where the river has encroached upon small centers of population, finally eating the earth away and forcing the In habitants to seek other quarters. There are hundreds of these places that are almost forgotten now, even by the men who are constantly on the river. What brings about these vio lent changes along the banks of the river? Not floods. It is just the ordi nary doings of the stream. In the first place the current of the Mississippi Is wonderfully swift, and the sediment deposited at any point where resist ance to the flow is offered is very great. Tie a string to the neck of . a bottle and sink it with the mouth of the bottle up and open. If held In one place .where the flow is normal, in an extremely short period of time the bottle will fill with sediment. Stretch a net across the river, a net so finely woven that nothing but the pure wa ter of the river can pass through, and on account of the rapidity of the flow and the greatness of the deposit of sediment, almost in a twinkling the river would be dammed at that point Experts have admitted this. This brings me to the point of my narra tive. The flow of current is frequently Interfered with by sunken boats, per haps by a jackstaff sticking up above the surface. The current is diverted by degrees, generally touching the far side of the stream, a mile from the point where it again meets resistance and immediately begins the building of a sandbar. I have seen a thousand examples of this sort during my ca reer on the river, and I have known of instances where the root of a tree or the mere twig of a willow have brought about similar conditions. These things have tended to make a riddle out of the river, yet the stream, after awhile, will be handled so as to undo all that it has accomplished." BRAINS BEAT MUSCLE. What a Scientific Farmer Did with Worn Out Land. A little over a year ago we made some extended comment upon an il lustration of what might be done on an abandoned farm by a man who knew his business, says the Boston Transcript. Such a farm has been purchased and redeemed in the little town of Paxton, about seven miles from Worcester, and away from the railroad, by a Long Island man, who brought with him a thorough know ledge of truck farming. His success the first year does not seem to have been exceptional. We have heard a great deal about the smallness of the potato crop this year, and undoubt edly the conditions have been less fa vorable than usual, but our Paxton farmer put thirty-seven acres Into the tubers, from which he expects to pro duce a crop of some 4,500 bushels, or from 125 to 150 bushels to the acre. In fact, he has now for some time been sending potatoes to Worcester, the nearest large town, and receiving from $4.50 to $5 a barrel. Even at the lowest yield mentioned this will stand him in a return of over $200 an acre from land that probably did not cost him a twentieth part of that sum. Of course, there is a considerable debt account, but allowing for all that the profits are fat. Farmers in his neigh borhood are beginning to think that their troubles are not entirely due to worn-out land and generally changed conditions. The fact that they do not know how to make the most of what they have had something to do with it. it Sagacious Dogs. The dogs in central Borneo seems, when wishing to cross a river have considerable difficulty in doing so, owing to the fact that alligators Snd them very toothsome morsels They therefore, collect on the banks and make a terrifBc noise by barking and yelping as loudly as they can. The alligators are attracted to the spot by the noise, and the dogs, as soon as they see that their bait is successful set off up the bank at top speed and cross higher up. A Borneo traveler states thr.t he has watched this maneu ver tinges without number. She'd Give Him One. "Madam," said the hungry tramp, "I haven't had a bite for a week." "How extremely careless of you," she replied, as she called the dog.—Denver Times. The Typewriter invention. A statistician has proved that the In vention of the typewriter has given em ployment to 500,000 people, but he falls to state how many cases of weak stoi îachs and dyspepsia it has induced. All people of sedentary occupation need HTostetter's Stomach Bitters. It is a wonderful med icine and helps nature bear the stratn which ensues from confinement. It also cures dyspepsia, Indigestion, constipation and flatulency. Be sure to try it and you will not be disappointed. KO DRINKS ALLOWED. Thus In the Utile of the Kin» and Queen of England oil Their Ewtate at SnmlrinKliain. The new king and queen of England are prohibitionists in dealing with the public sale of drink on their great Sandringham demense, embracing al most 8,000 acres. In all the Ave villages there is not one public house, drunkenness is un known, and the whole population is notably temperate. Should sickness arise where wine or brandy Is ordered by the doctor, a per mit for the same may be secured from the village vicars, each of whom has in his hands a sum of money provided by the king to treat necessitous cases in any required way. Each village has a well-equipped worklngmen's club, where ale may be obtained by members, but no onë may have above a pint a day. No More Buttons. clergyman's wife was A clergyman's wife was mending clothes for her boys, when one of her lady neighbors called In to have a friendly chat. It was not long before the visitor's eye was attracted by a large basket, more than half filled with buttons. Thereupon, the latter began to turn them over, and suddenly ex claimed: "Here are two buttons exactly the same as those my husband had on his last winter's suit. I should know them anywhere." "Indeed," said the clergyman's wife, quietly. "I am surprised to hear It. As all these buttons were found In the collection bag, I thought I might as well put them to some use." Before she had finished speaking, the visitor hastily arose and said she must be going. The story soon got about, and since then no buttons have been found In the collection bag.—Tit Bits. The Golden Hint. "I see that petroleum is being used for laying dust. Something new, Isn't It?" Scarcely. Petroleum has been 'laying dust' for John D. Rockefeller for near ly forty years."—Cleveland Plain Deal er. An Incomplete Honne. We run wild over the furnishings of the house: Its furniture, carpets, hang ings, pictures and music, and always forget or neglect the most Important requisite. Something there should be always on the shelf to provide against sudden casualties or attacks of pain. Such some like a thief'in the night; a sprain, train, sudden backache, tooth ache or neuralgic attack. There is nothing easier to get than a bottle of St. Jacob's Oil, and nothing surer to cure quickly any form of pain. The house Is incomplete without it. Com plete it with a good supply. Reasoning Prom Analogy. A toddler of five, who, a short time before, had been allowed to select one kitten from old Tabby's litter, the oth ers being drowned, was carried by hl» nurse Into the dimly-lighted room to take his first peep at his triplet baby brothers. He looked them over critic ally, and, turning to his mother, said: "Mamma, let's keep the blue-eyed one." "New York City, Jnne 12th, 1901.—1 heart ily recommend Garfield Tea for liver trouble. Our family physician prescribed your Tea, and after taking four packages my system is in perfect condition and my complexion has become clear." It ha« been demonstrat ed by years of use throughout the world that Garfield Tea cleanups the system and purifies the blood; from all reports it would seem that nothing can equal this simple herb med icme that cures in Nature's way. An Up-to-Date Criticism. Jim—Did you read that story about the Vassar girl on the train? She was on her way to school, and a handsome young man across the aisle offered her a box of candy. She took some, an ac quaintance followed, then came a cor respondence, she graduated, he was or dained for the ministry, and now they are married. Maud—How tame!—Cleveland Plain Dealer. Wlllins to Help. 'I am very careful of my digestion," Bald the star boarder, as he reached for the last piece of pie. 'I am willing to do all I can to help you take care of it," Interrupted the end man, who got to the pie before the star boarder.—Ohio State Journal. Hall's Cntarrh Cure Is • constitutional care. Pricc, 75c. r A Family Expos««*. "I never see you lounging In the hammocks, Mr. Subbs." "No; these gay, front-porch ham mocks are tor company and for orna- i ment; the old rope thing the foJks let me swing in Is around in the back yard."—Detroit Free Press. He Didn't . Fish—Are you a suitor for Miss Brown's hand? Sprat—Yes; but I didn't." Fish—Didn't what?" Sprat—Suit her."—Tld-Blts. -4