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17,170 GOPHERS DIE
IN THE FLATHEAD JULY CAMPAIGN UNIQUE METHOD OF WARRING AGAINST i STS BRINGS BIO RESULTS The Season's Total Gophers Killed Beaches 70,372 As Both Boys anti Girls Vic For Valuable Prizes Of fered For Kills. Reports from 20 district oi>air men, receive,! at the county a*< ,tV office in Kallspell, for the month of July, show a total of 17,170 gopher tails, and a new total score of 70, 872 gopher tails for the season. This represents the result of a un ique- campaign that has been wag ed in Flathead county, in which the children of the county play the im portant part. Bernard Clarldge of Helena Flats district was the high score boy for the month with a total of 1,4 99, win ning a special prize, a fly rod, given by the Bobbin Brothers' Hardware company. Elsie Mero of the Demersville dis trict won a special prize for girls for the month with a score of 289, which Is free tickets for her and fam ily, given by the Liberty theatre of Kallspell. The high scoring girl for the month was Doris Gonser of Birch Grove, with a score of 678 gopher tails but she is dis qualified for the special prize as she has already re ceived the special prize for the month of June. Laura Heath of Swan ri ver district was the next, highest, scoring with a total of 306 gupner tails, but she also was disqualified as she had received the special prize for the month of May. August will be the final month In the gopher extermination cam paign contest, and while many com munities will not pay bounties for this month, all boys and girls have been urged to continue their good work for the entire month, or as long as gophers can be seen. Hiber nation usually occurs from August 1 6 fo 20. The season prizes which are still open for compétition are: Grand prize, open any boy or girl, man or woman in Flathead county, .22 rifle, given by the Flathead Mer cantile company. All special prize winners for any previous month are disqualified from winning this prize. Cash season prizes are: For boys and girls, first, $10; second, $8: third, |6; fourth, $5; fifth, |4, for the highest number of gopher tails turned in by any boy or girl during the entire season. BEAN GROWERS TO SELECT BEST SEED r T a meeting of 25 bean growers and dealers held at Billings re cently plans for bean crop Im provement through the selection of seed from the best plants were dis cussed. A resolution was adopted asking the Montana State College for early experimental work with the Great Northern bean for the purpose of establishing a better yielding and more uniform type of the variety, and the development of beans of a uni form cooking quality. The main purpose of the meeting was to hasten every possible improve ment of the variety by the efforts of individual growers and to broaden, the experimental work through the help of the state colege. Very little has been done on bean improvement anywhere and the action taken a year ago in making a start toward es tablishing bean standards Is expect ed to give results in time throughout the bean growing sections. C. C. Staring, assistant horticul turist at the Montana State College, explained the possibilities of Improve ment of the bean crop by selection. He also told of the start made last year, when 35 bean types were sel ected and are now being grown on one of the ranches In the Billngs dis trict, and at the Huntley experiment al station for the purpose of develop ing a high yielding strain of the Great Northern bean of the size and shape most desired on the market. This scientific development, he ex plained, would be a slow process, not adapted to field practice by the practical grower, though It would develop eventually a better bean. However, selection of the best plants In the field by each grower for seed for the next year, would result, he said. In great Improvement similar to that resulting from the selection of the best ears of corn In a field for A seed. -o— LUCKY GRAIN FARMER NEVER USED A PLOW RUT HAS GOOD CROP Ole Anderson of Poplar Is har vesting his third volunteer crop of winter wheat from 320 acre wheal farm, a few miles cast of Poplar. Four years ago he pur chased the piece of laud from the Montana Farming corporation. It was then seeded to winter wheat, which was cut late, after a con siderable amount of It shelled out of the field. The first crop more than paid for the land anti un abundant vol unteer crop has be'tn harvested each year since. Mr. Anderson lias taken something like $«,000 from the 320 acres of land In win ter wheat, without turning a fur row or seeding a bushel of grain. Montana lx-ads In Ore Production Montana continued as the great est producer of high grade mangan ese ore during 1923 according to figures compiled by the Interior de partment. A total of 21,916 tons of ore. assaying 36 per cent, or more, manganese was produced. This was more than double the production of all tbe other states producing man ganese. WARNS FARMERS POSSIBLE DAMAGE FROM HESSIAN FLY ARNINGS have been issued by H. F. DePue, county agent fori Ilichland county, to tbe ef fect that the Hessian fly has arrived in that part of the slate and unless steps are taken to eliminate it, the matter will next year become a' ser olus problem. Regarding the situation. Mr, De Pue recently said; "The Hessian fly has appeared in the wheat fields of practically every section of Richland county. This is the first time that It has ever appeared in Montana, and it Is perhaps the worst insect enemy of wheat, often causing large damage in the east and south, "A survey of the county recently completed discloses tbe fact that the greatest damage has been found In winter wheat fields, although traces of it have been found in almost every spring wheat field visited. Damage to the extent of 30 per cent has been reported in a few instances, hut the damage in most fields runs from 1 to 5 per cent, amount of the damage this year will be of small account, It la feared that If they spread and develop next year w and while the total as they have the present season, the loss will become a very serious pro blem." Regarding control measures, Mr. DePue continued: "After the Hessian fly makes Us appearance on grain, there is nothing that can be done. The only method of control Is to try and prevent them the next season. The following steps should be taken: "Seed winter wheat late. The date Is not definitely known for Montana, but It is thought that after September 1, would be a safe date. "Plow under or burn off the stub ble of the wheat fields that were in fested this year as soon after harvest as possible. "The fly lives over the winter In winter wheat, volunteer wheat or old stubble The larvae of the Hessian fly does its damage by cutting off the stalks just above the ground. The pupa of the fly can usually be found on the base of the stalks that have been cut off, and It looks like a flax seed. The fly Itself looks like a mos quito, only It is very much smaller and is hard to find." They Scoffed In 60 9 § (Continued from the Featui and freak physical features were east ly recognized and I found many of the places where we camped, but some of the natural wonders had changed and some of them had entirely vanished. I have the impression that Nature has not yet completed Her work in the park. "One of the strangest things we saw 66 years ago was a mud geyser that hurled its discharge against the roof of a cavern with a roar that actually made the earth tremble. This has disappeared. Another feature that is missing Is a natural fountain that threw a thin stream of water from a fissure at an angle of about 20 degrees. The upper falls had worn down a bit and other features were slightly changed, but In the main it was the same land of marvels we had explored, while a number of new wonders had been added. One of the features we did not see 66 years ago was Old Faithful geyser, but we saw quite a number of others that now are extinct. "Wo were rather expert in pick ing camp sites those days and I not ed with some interest three years ago that one of the main tourist camps now Is located at the exact spot we selected for a stopping place. Two of the other tourist camps also are on our old sites. We kept a com plete diary of our measurements, of some of the region's surface fea tures. One of the things we meas ured was the Yellowstone falls and I am Informed that our data still stands official. to Find Tower Falls "Dense timber frequently Interfer ed with our progress and it was of- by ten necessary to cut trees to make a trail for the pack horses. Open spaces in the timber were welcome reliefs from the hard going and one day, as we passed into the timber after crossing one of these, I turned to see If the horses were following, When I turned ahead again I was standing on the brink of the Grand Canyon, almost directly opposite In spiration Point. I easily found the place when I visited the park more than 60 years later. "The incident marked one of our more important discoveries and we also were the first white men to see Tower falls. Some of the things we found had been seen by white men before, hut I think we are generally credited with definitely establishing the existence of many of the things which were known to the world only in discredited legends, if Indeed they had been heard of before. "Had ft been possible to start on the expedition the year before we would have been accompanied by an easterner who was greatly interested in the reports that were goinfe the rounds. It was necessary for him to return east before we made the start in 1869, but he took with him our promise that we would write him all about our experiences. This we faithfully did, but our first communi cation covered but a portion of the ex pedition. Back came a request for a complete account and this we sent as soon as we could prepare It. "The reception given our writings was a fair marker of the disbelief then existing in the wonders of the Yellowstone country. The account of a canyon with precipitate walls 1,500 feet or more in height, "atural fountains of boiling water that flowed and subsided alternately, roaring falls, geysers of steam, falls with a tremendous drop, pools of boiling stands as official. of Treasure State Farm and Livestock - HERE IS A REAL MONTANA FARM PAGE - The leading articles on this page are prepared by experts of the State Agricultural College at Boze man . where the state and federal governments are expending large sums of money in experimentation to determine the best tillage methods for Montana , and these articles are descriptive of the results of this work. Every farmer reader of this newspaper is urged to file these articles away. I | wtr-n rs* o , np, Mules City Will Qolv® The TTtv d Tl il» O n /T' Problems of Stock Grower New Experiment Station At , I cattle through the winter to be able to make a favorable report to the 1 owners In the spring. Today the margin of profit in the cattle busi ness even under favorable price con ditions has narrowed down to the point where the tremendous winter losses that the catleraen wer accust omed to 35 and 40 years ago would prove ruinous What was considered a favorable report then would be the first step toward banbruptcy today. . Thus the cattle Industry In Mon tana is confronted with problems to day which the old timers didn't even think of, and strange to say, up un til a few months ago, the United States did not have a single place where these problems of the range cattle business could be studied and solved. While the general farmers, dairymen, fruit growers, and men en gaged in other lines of farm business had their experiment stations in every state, and in some cases mare than one, the range livestock business which involved many millions of dol lars was receiving little more than such attention as was possible for the western experiment stations to squeeze in along with their regular work. Such work was limited be cause the ordinary state experiment station was not equipped to consider the range problems. (By R. B. Mlllln, livestock spe cialist, Montana State College Ex tension Service.) N THE middle of the last half of the Nineteenth century the ! range cattle problem In Montana j was largely one of bringing enough I At last, however the United States government, cooperating with the state of Montana has started a range experiment station and in so doing it has come about as close as possible to the biblical instruction to beat the swords Into pruning hooks. The military establishment in Montana known as Fort Keogh has become an experiment station for the study of range livestock problems, the first of Its kind In the United States. That the rest of the United Staes Is Interested in this project Is attested by the fact that eastern agricultural colleges are already planning on sending- special classes to the con verted fort to study the work that will be done there. Further national Interest appears from the following story sent out by the United States Department of Agriculture, announc ing the new experiment station and discussing the work that will be done there. The story follows; A want that has been felt for years for a suitable place to study and solve the problem of the western tion. The United States Department of Agriculture and the Montana Ex periment Station are preparing to tackle some of these problems on a huge scale. The old Fort Keogh Military Reservation at Miles City, Montana was recently transferred by congress to the Department of Agri culture for "experiments In stock raising and growing of forage crops In connection therewith." The sta tion is considered ideal for the pur pose. It contains 56,000 acres of grazing land and 2,000 acres of Ir rigated land. Two railroads and the Yellowstone trail cross It. Its geo graphical location and topography will make the results obtained useful to many sections of the country. Although the station was trans ferred without special appropriation by congress for its operation the first year, a fund has been created from money that has bee saved from other appropriations and work that could not safely be delayed has been begun. The reservation is being gradually changed from a military camp into an agricultural experiment station, Hay that used to feed cavalry horses In- is now being harvested for beef cat the tie and sheep feeding experiments, and soldiers' barracks will be occu pled by farm laborers. The animal our husbandry division of the United we States Department of Agriculture has see been made responsible for the man we agement and operation of the sta tlon, a water Immediately adjacent to cool water, catching of fish in one pool and boiling them in another without the fisherman changing his seat, and other things we had seen, was too much for the editor of the New York Tribune. "He turned down our story with a few pertinent remarks about the nerve of those who expected a news paper to publish it. Such things did not exist, and that was all there was to It. The editor of Harper's was tried, with the same result. After several other unsuccessful attempts to tell the world of or discoveries by means of the printed word, our friend found a small magazine in Chi cago that accepted it. It was the first printed description of what Is now the Interior of Yellowstone park." Mr. Cook located at White Sulphur Springs a few years after his ex pedition through the Yellowstone and since has made his home there. He engaged In ranching and continued that business until his retirement sev eral years ago. . conducted in cooperation with the Montana station ami other divisions of the federal department, be called the United Slates Range Livestock Experiment station. E. W. Sheets, assistant chief of the animal husbandry division, who recently spent several weeks at the new sta tion organizing the work, reports ex cellent progress made. The complete ha>-making outfits were purchased ami 800 tons of ex cellent quality alfalfa hay was made and stacked during ideal weather. Fifty acres of corn has been planted and Is doing well. Two silos were built. pumps water Iron: the Yellowstone river was put In operation In order to protect the buildings from fire, to Ir rigate the crops and to provide water foi; livestock. J. W. Swartz, who has been employed at the station by the War department for 16 years,was employed as farm foreman In charge. And plans are under way to stock the station with 1000 beef breeding cattle, a band of sheep, some hogs, horses and turkeys, some of the ani mals having already been placed on the ranch. The acquisition of the new station has been enthusiastically praised by the west, and the Department is be ing urged to consider many problems for immediate study. It will be nec essary to select wisely In order to concentrate on only those problems which are most important. Those who are forming these plans believe that this addition to tne nation's facilities for livestock research has great possibilities. There has long been a need hare taken place in the west since the days of the pioneer cattlemen and abundant range. Stockmen have suffered great losses In trying to adapt their methods to these changes. These losses have been felt not only on the range but in tbe feed lots of the corn belt, and by tbe consumers of livestock products. Careful ex periments and dependable results at this station will therefore have great possibilities for American agricul ture. It will The pumping plant that it Is for it. Manv changes Historic Landmark Is (Continued from Feature Page.) could be said that they almost consti tuted a new race of people. When that was over and the immense army which It had called together was disbanded; when President Lin coln had reviewed to the last man that army of Union soldiers who paraded day after day on Pennsyl vania avenue, like a never ending host, and the order disbanding the army had been put Into execution, these soldiers, contrary to all experi ence of European countries, took up the avocations of peace. There was no lawless banditti preying upon the unprotected but, with the same high •v Robert N. SutCcrlln, of Great Falla, who established the first newspap er at Diamond City, In 1875. purpose that had actuated their con duct as soldiers of the Republic, they took up their burdens and duties as citizens. The hardiest and most adventurous of them moved west and peopled that wonderful country embracing the Rocky mountain and Pacific coast region, bullded an empire, where, like the soldiers who garrisoned these forts, they met and conquered difficulties such as no generation of men had ever been called upon to meet and conqtter;and gave to their children and their children's children the blessings we now enjoy. Here they IHarlsm Is Believed To Set Top Record - bÄä::; Äe hl r s e C. Anderson property two miles west of Harlem, has discovered 12 row wheat in his field of pure strain Marquis. He had never paid much attention to his wheat until after the reports of eight-row wheat. He investigated to ascer tain whether or not he might find some of this variety in his field. He discovered that 8-row heads were quite common, and when he bad made a selection of the largest heads, of his field, he found that he had 10 and 12 row heads A few days prior to this dis covery, 10-row heads had been re ported 'rom the wheat section locat ed between Medicine Lake and Dag mar in Sheridan county, and this was the first 10-row wheat discov ered in Montana, and some reports state that it is the first In the entire wheat belt. Samples of the new discovery at Harlem have been sent to the exten sion service department of the Mon tana Slate College at Bozeman. The wheat is of the Marquis variety, pro pagated from the pure strain sent out by the agricultural College -at Bozeman a few years ago, and has been raised on this particular farm for the past three or four years. It was grown on ground that was plowed last fall and irrigated early this spring before the crop was sown. There has been no Irrigation since. "Camp Baker was established In November 1869 In Smith River valley near the Junction of Camas j creek and Smith river about 18 1 miles northeast of Diamond City, j lattltude 46 degrees. 39 feet 481 inches; longitude 34 degrees 7 feet! west. A short time later the camp j was moved to Its present site, in 1878 It was named Fort Logan. The Post was abandoned Oct. 26, 1880, and the troops stationed here were ordered to the present site of Fort Maglnnjs in Fergus county. The War department records show that Camp Baker was first garrisoned by Co. G., Seventh U. S. Infantry and was under the command of Capt. Geo. S. Hollister who arrived here June 30, 1870. This company re mained until May 15, 1872. There after, the Post was garrisoned by the following named organizations In the order stated. Co. A. Seventh Infantry May 16, 1872 to Nov. 8th 1875. Co. A. of the Seventh In fantry was a company of which Capt. Logan In whose honor this Post was named afterwards became command ing officer. The post was garri soned by Co. E. Seventh Infantry Aug. 10. 1874 to Sept. 17, 1878; Co. D Seventh Infantry Nov. 7, 1876 to June 12, 1879; Co. Q Third In fantry Nov. 11, 1877 to May 15, 1878; Co. K Third Infantry Oct. 20, 1878 to Aug. 12, 1880; Co. L Eighteenth Infantry Nov. 4, 1879 to Oct. 26. 1880. The successive com manding officers of Camp Baker and Fort Logan were as follows: Capt. Geo. S. Hollister Seventh Infantry June 30, 1870 to Jan. 2. 1871; First Lieut. H. M. Benson Seventh In fantry to Feb 13, 1871; Capt. Geo. L. Browning Seventh Infantry to May 16, 1872; Capt. H. B. Freeman Seventh Infantry to Aug. 10, 18V4 - Lieut. Col. C. C. Gilbert to Sept. 17 1878; Capt. Richard Comba Sev enth Infantry to Oct 30, 1878; Capt. Dangerfleld Barker Thirl Infantry to Jan. 24, 1879, and June IS to Sept. 4, 1879; Major Guido ilges Seventh Infantry Jan. 24, to June 12, 1879; and Major Henry L Chlpman Third Infantry Sept. 4, 1879 to Oct. 26. 1881k. "It will be noticed that in the main the Post was garrisoned by de tachments of the Seventh Infantry. The Seventh Infantry was one of the most famous regiments of the Unit ed States army. It was known In the army as the fighting Seventh and Us record upon the frontier and In the civil war was a brilliant one. It Is notworthy that Capt. Bonne ville. whose explorations from St. Louis to the mouth of the Colum bia in 1832 to 1836 were of vital im portance to the Government and peo ple of the United States, was a cap tain in this regiment. When Col. Liscum fell at Pekin at the head of his troops during the Boxer rebellion It was Lieut. Col. Coolidge, a former Lieut, in the Seventh Infantry and a veteran of Sioux and Nez Perce wars, who took command and plant ed the American flag on the walls of that ancient Chinese city. "It is great to be a Montanan; It Is glorious to feel that we are the successors of that hardy race, we have come to know as the old timers, ATARRH C the the of no«« or throat la mad* mor« endurable, soma» timaa greatly benefited by applying Viikg up noa trUa. Alao malt aoma and Inhale the vapor». WICKS W VapoRub Ommtf mrnmmJm-U—tYmm* the pioneers of this wonderful state. 1 Many of those who will read the in SrSffiÄÄfÄYir Ä S pride in the fact that they are the ÄttWÄSÄ But there are men and women still living within the borders of Montana whose emotions will be stirred to the uttermost—men and women who knew and for many years worked side by side with the gallant men who garrisoned this Port nearly half a century ago. To these, these ser vices will arouse fond memories of a day when life was still young and all that was grand and glorious in the illimitable West beckoned them on j a bfe happiness, prosperity and Ulysslan adventure. To these people ' the patriotism of the D. A. R. will mean much. "It Is easy to be a Montanan In the present day when peace, happi ness and prosperity reigns over our land. When the home Is safe from hostile attack, when palatial railroad trains carry one here and there. When macadamized and paved high ways open up avenues of Inter course among beautiful progressive cities, productive agricultural regions and mining and Industrial centers. This Is not the Montana that the men whom we are here to honor found. When after a toilsome journey across! the plains or up the Missouri river, they finally achieved the occupation of what Is now known as the State Every mile of travel was beset by perils and hardships whlch tbe present generation cannot begin to understand or appreciate. This was particularly true of the at It of Montana. _ Qi ^ ■:& More Business Results From Better Service •W I There are times when it is a good idea to "follow the crowd, is especially true when you are shipping livestock. The firm which does the big busi ness, you are apt to find, is the firm who gets the best fills, the top prices, and renders settlement promptly. Yes, we enjoy a large business. Try us. This n 'S' V-" -r tJk-\ WEILLER & WEILLER CO. Livestock Commission CHICAGO ILLINOIS SOUTH ST. PAUL MINNESOTA Send for Our Free Weekly Western Market Letter "EAT MORI WHEAT" USE REX REX IS KING Bread Ii the Best and Cheapest Food" 14 CORN MEN OF MONTANA MAY BUFFER SEED SHORTAGE A wed corn shortage la predicted for Montana till* year by O. J. Ogtfd, Htate agronomist. The con illtioD of the crop resulting from the late spring and the possibility of an early frost, and the fact that all Montana corn is about three weeks late, make a sect! situation that will require Immediate action. '•Farmers should get their seed corn at the earliest possible mo ment," said Mr. Ogaard, "and the pro|»er time to pick is when the dent corn begins to dent and the flint corn begins to glaze. Farm ers do not realize what a seed corn shortage would mean, and our ad vice to them Is to get their supply as early as possible. a little army of occupation sent here to establish the authority of the Unit ed States and protect her pioneer civ ilians, not less heroic than those who wore the uniform of the United States army. • • * "The last man to take command of this Fort as a military authority was Sergeant Ernst Rackovlcz, and his command consisted of a single private. When the troops were or dered from Fort Logan in the fall of 1880 to establish Fort Maginnls, Sergeant Rackovicz was left in charge of the Government property. He was one of the crack shots of the army, and had won laurels for his regiment at the Creedmore and St. Paul Rifle matches. ♦ • • "In times of peace mediocrity may rule; men of questionable standing or loyalty' may be elected to high of fice; the spirit of discontent may pre vail; disloyalty may be expressed; foolhardy experiments In legislation and in government may be the order of the day, but the moment our na tion's honor or safety is menaced from within or without, the sober common sense of our people may be relied upon to drive from office the incompetent and disloyal, and to place the destiny of the nation in I the hands of one hundred per cent Americans, and thus it will ever be. I "The story of our army from Val 1 ley Forge to Chateau Thierry will [never be lost to our people, but the \ inspiration of their achievements and | sacrifices will be a living red blood jed, dominating, controlling, undying I influence on the character of the people of this Republic.