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OF EUROPEAN FOUL BROOD IN COLONIES From Montana State College UTUMN days are critical days for the beekeeper in Montana, particularly where disease con ditions exist, according to O. A. Sipple, apiarist at Montana State College, discussing the treatment for European foul brood. This di sease of bees has not yet gained a very strung foothold in the state, says Mr. Sipple, but beekeepers should be on their guard against It and should know how to treat it when It does occur. While the disease is most preval ent in the spring, it is during the fall that the precaution should be taken against it, as the disease is most prevalent In colonies that em erge from the winter la a weakened condition. In the case of American foul brood, infection starts just previous to the time that the brood is sealed over. In European foul brood, however, Infection takes place in the early stages of larvae development. Ob servations show that the majority of the young larvae die when from two to four days old, although some may be found dead in the cap ped over stage. The cappings of diseased cells show the sunken and perforated characteristics of the Am erican foul brood. Instead of ly ing in their natural position on the floor of the cells, the larvae assumes various unnatural positions. In the early stages the larvae are a dirty lemon color. As the decay progress es this turns to a brownish color which gradually deepens. As decay goes on, the larvae molt down Into a greasy mass but do not show the characteristic ropyness of American foul brood. Very little, if any odor accompanies European foul brood, although in severe cases there seems to be a slight odor, which, however, should not be taken as a sure means of diagnosis. In the final stage the melted down mass dries up and be comes a grayish black scale which unlike American foul brood, may be easily removed. These scales may he found in any position In the celt. Drone and Queen larvae are fre quently affected and this may be a means of aiding In the diagnosis. Probably the most common meth od of spreading the disease Is rob bing and the practice of equalizing. The manner in which European foul brood is spread cannot be de finitely accounted for, but some think the virus may be carried on the mouth parts of bees that drift into healthy colonies. This, how ever, is not certain. As black bees are more suscept ible to European foul brood t bun Italian bees. Beekeepers, where this disease is prevalent, should have all colonies headed by Italian queens of vigorous and resistent stock. Not all strains of Italians are equally re sistent; therefore, the beekeeper should make observations as to the ability of his colonies to resist di sease. Queens whoso progency show resistent qualities should be used as breeding stock to re-queen all other colonies. As European foul brood is a disease of weak colonies, bee keepers should take every precau tion to secure strong colonies of bees. The disease is most prevalent during the spring and early summer months, hence colonies should be properly prepared the previous fall. They should be put into winter quarters with a goodly supply of food, a large number of young bees, and a vigor ous, prolific young queen. They should also have the proper winter protection. Colonies that come through the winter In a weakened condition should be united as early in the spring as is permlsable in or der to secure strong colonies. According to Mr. Sipple, frequent failures In treating may be account ed for by the fact that the beekeep er attempts to treat colonies that are too weak to be saved. It should be emphasized that only reasonably strong colonies should be given treat ment, and all weak, diseased colon ies should be united. The treatmen given to colonies af fected with European foul brood does not cause a great loss in equipment as Is the case with American foul brood. The guiding principle to be followed in the treatment for this ! disease Is to see to It that condi tions are made favorable for the bees to remove as much as possible of the diseased material during a time Ï time when there is no new brood ; coming on. If a colony Is badly dl- j «eased it is advisable to kill the 1 queen immediately, since it Is evl-1 dent that her progency are not cap-1 able of resisting the disease. In about j a week aftét the queen has been re- i moved the colony should be exam- | ined and all queen cells destroyed so that the colony may become ab solutely queenless. The colony Is allowed to remain in this condition until most of the diseased material has een removed, and then re-queen ed with a vigorous, resistent, I young, Italian queen. In treating and coûtrolling Euro- J peäii foul brood it is not nêfessary] to destroy the brood combs unless they are too foul to be of further service. Hives that contain foul brood colonies need not be disinfect ed and may be used again without danger. A - 6 - The Cheyennes Harvest Big Oops., The wheat crop In thb Cheyenne reservation this year Ik estimated at 50,000 bushels, approximately 15, 00 bushels more than the 1923 pro duction. The highest yield per acre reported was 61 bushels lor fall wheat and 56 for spring. It is also estimated that 60,000 bushels of oats were raised this year. Corn on the reservation was hard hit by the frost, but good crops of potatoes and beans were raised and credit able corn was produced by some members of the tribe. Treasure State Farm £? Livestock Her« I« « real Montana farm page. Th« leading article« on this page are prepared by experts of the Stat« Agricultural College at Bozeman, wher« the state and federal governments are expending large sums of money In experimentation to determine the best tillage methods for Montana, and these articles are descriptive of the results of this work. Every farmer reader of this newspaper is urged to tile these articles away. a i Tests Show Frosted Corn Makes A Profitable Silage It I " 1 1 X From Montana State Oollege. HE late corn season in Montana caught many fields still uncut when the first frosts came, and this brings up the problem of what to do with frosted corn. Livestock authorities at Montana State Coll ege advise that such corn may be put In the silo and will make a de sirable feed. It has been found that corn that is mature and frosted makes a better silage than that made from corn that has been cut too early. A study of results of ex periments on this matter in other states contlrms the opinions of Mon tana authorities. In South Dakota where feeding experiments have been carried on for two years with silage made from corn cut at different stages of ma turity, It was found that steers made quite satisfactory gains on. silage made from matured frosted corn. In these experiments, four differ ent silos were used, and these were filled with the same variety of corn for two consecutive yeads. The corn for each silo was cut at a different had stage of maturity. In one case the corn was cut when in the milk stage, another with corn in the dough stage, another with corn that statrted to dent or glaze, and the fourth with matured frosted corn. It was found that the last mentioned corn made good silage but that it had to be cut fine and a considerable water-added. Each year, five steers were fed from each of the silos. The first year the experiment lasted 119 days and the second 90 days. No other fed was given, the silage con stituting the entire ration. It was found that silage made from corn in the blister stage pro duced average dally gains of 1.94 pounds; sikigo made from corn in the dough stage produced average dally gains of 2.27 pounds; silage from corn in the dent or glaze stage « À How's Your Blood? Do You Need a Tonic? Helena, Mont.—"Dr. Pierce's Gold en Medical Discovery has no equal as a blood tonic or as a liver and stomach medicine. I was in very bad physical condition, due to having liver trouble and gastric stomach con dition. My food did not digest properly, would ferment, and would form, giving me great distress. I also suffered with severe bilious headaches and my blood was in an impoverished state. By the use of the 'Golden Medical Discovery' I relieved of all these conditions which had caused me so much trouble and distress. My liver became active, ray food digested well, my blood was good and I felt like a new man."— Joseph A. Widmer, 307 Hoback St. Obtain the Discovery in tablets or liquid from your nearest druggist or send 10c for trial pkg. to Dr. Pierce's Invalids' Hotel, Buffalo, N. Y., and write fo 4 vce medical advice. gas v as ! Ï ; j 1 j i | I J Two Grazing Tracts Bordering Lolo National Forest 25,000 ACRES und 10,000 ACRES AI 3 PER ACRE Splendid araM, water, hroase and shade Has s southern slope giving early pasture Railroad spar teaches the land Terms; down, balance divided Into 10 yearly payments. j 10 per cent BLACKFOOT LAND DEVELOPMENT CO. Drawer 1S0O, Missoula, Moat. produced average dally gains of 2.28 pounds; and silage made from the matured frosted corn produced av erage daily gains of 2.09 pounds. The steers consumed dally 76 pounds of the first silage, 73 pounds of the second, 72 of the third and 56 of the fourth. The average num ber of pounds of silage consumed for each pound of gain in the order named was 29.8 pounds, 32.1 pounds, 31.4 pounds and 26.9 pounds. The dry matter in this feed was 8.3 pounds, 8.6 pounds, 8.1 pounds an 10.7 pounds. Thus the corn that was cut In the dent or. glaze stage produced the best results. The average dally gain was 2.28 pounds on a consumption of 72 pounds of silage daily and each pound of gain cost 31.4 pounds of silage or 8.1 pounds of dry matter. Corn cut in the milk stage produced the poorest results. Steers fed the matured frosted corn silage made their gains on tho smallest amount of sllago—a pound of gain for each 26.9 pounds of silage fed—but the | average amount of dry matter for each pound of gain was highest in the case of this silage. Frosted grain,therefore, while not giving the best results, did give good results, and silage made from such corn is much to be desired over that made from corn cut in the milk stage. GETS A BIG CROP FROM SEED SECURED FROM ANCIENT EGYPTIAN TOMR R. H. Johnston, n farmer near Forton, Wash., In the Taeoina ter ritory, lias recently harvested a bumper crop of wheat that lie says came seed taken from an Egypt ian tomb. Mr. Johnson states that lie got tlie seed four years ago ami tills year the increase was enough to plant 15 acres. The crop netted 720 bushels for an average of 48.(1 bushels to the acre. The grain is white ami very bard, the straw short ami the heads prolific, and Sir. Johnston states that it is one of the best varieties of spring wheat ho has ever grown, if was not heard from what tomb it was taken. Glimpses of lediasni Days Befor TJh® White Maim Invaded Plains (Continued from Fee, ire Page.) those who heard them all agree that often their prayers were most touching. McClintock cites one which gives an idea of their char acter. It was made by Chief White Calf, during a sun dance. "Father, the Sun, I am praying for my people. May they be happy In the summer and live through the cold of winter. Many are sick and hungry, Pity them and let them live. May we go through this ceremony right. The way you taught our people to do in the days of long ago. If we make mistakes, pity us. Mother Earth, pity us; may the grass and berries grow. Morning Star, shine into our lodge 'and give us long life. Father, tho Sun, bless our child ren, relatives and visitors. May our trails lie straight through a happy life; may we live to be old We are all children and ask these things with good hearts.'' "During this prayer, the Indians sat silently and with heads bowed reverently; and at the close, they united in a long-drawn 'ah-h-h-h-h to express their aproval, while some added a few words of prayer." -o Weekly Market Letter By WFULLER ft WEILLER CO. Tuesday, September 23, 1924. T were only partially successful. We Bold morning trying to cheapen routs, but HE packers started off yesterday one load of 1300 lb. steers for $8.00 per cwt This was et htop sale on gras** wes terns yesterday. We also sold consider able numbers at from $0.75 to $7.50. The packers ore rea lanxlous buyers for the choice ones. We sold consignments this week for the following Montau« shippers: M. Tunlck. Big Sandy; Fred Scott, Bear Paw; Lee Boss. Dodson; Chnuncey Flynn, Chinook; D. L. Murphy, Lloyd; John Thompson, Lloyd; Fred Brackway, Har lem; Frank Klrkaldle, Brookside; Cox A Zlebarth, Chinook ; J. E. Miller, Vanandn. In addition to these we sold numerous North and South Dakota shipments, well as other ftmaler Montana consign* uiçuts. The storkep and feeder market has been rather pep less during the last few day«, and there are still a considerable number of Canadians In first bonds from early yesterday, but we look for the trade to come bock. SHEEP AND V.AMDK—'Trade Is a little better In this division, with very few wes terns coming, and prospects of n good de mand for the coming week. Judging from Inquiries, there Is no question but that any kind of breeding ewe« or feeding lambs win sell t«* good advantage time this full. to start after the fîrnt of the month. market is slightly hlgh • ton for choice bogs: $8 R r . for sows, and pigs mostly around $ 8 . 00 . Bl any We look fur the big run HOGS—The hu er today with *!>.7! Saturday, October a, 1924 . Poultry I'rb-es IV-llvereO Heps Broilers, under 2 1 2 lha — — .20 Springs, over 2 12 lbs. Bens. 4 lbs, and over_ Hens, tinder 4 lbs_ Roosters old .. NORTHERN rSMkEkr CO. Ore»' Fall«. Must»»» .«■ .11 . 4 « WHEAT SAW-FLY IS LATEST ENEMY OF MONTANA FARMERS HE wheat saw fly has appeared In parts of Pondera and Gol den Valley counties, and prob ably in other unreported sections of the state during the last year, ac cording to R. A. Cooley, state ento mologist. Farmers are urged to be on guard against this new Insect pest and to report its appearance to the office of the state e-.tomologlst at Bozeman. While losses in Mon tana have not been very serious as a result of the -activities of thlp Insect, sections of Canada and states to the east have seen serious infes tations that have caused consider able damage. The state entomologist describes the adult fly as being of a bright yellow and black color, albout one half au Inch in length, with trans parent fly-like wing The'.adult ap pears in the spring, lays itls eggs In a small hole bored into the w stems. These egs batch, ;at)d whitish, grub-Hke larvae amend the entire growing season of thé summer feeding on the inside of Jit wheat stem but not emerging. Albout the time the grain ripens, thjp larvae cuts a ring around the Inside of the stem, about an inch above y he sur face of the ground, and tl^en re treats to the small section bellow the ring and seals himself in. wheat stem breaks off where the ring was cut and the short tyiece of Inch stubble containing the 1 larvae remains standing. Tho larvae re mains in his snug home over!winter and the adult fly emerges lii the spring to lay more eggs on tae next wheat crop. The life history and the ihethod of the fly and larvae suggest the damage that Is done and also a me thod for control. Damage occurs chiefly when the flies are sojnum erous and enough wheat stenlis are affected so that a large part olf the stems break of before harvest Itime. This, of course, causes loss and it also makes harvesting difficult. Fields of wheat Infested with the fly larva should be harvested Just before tho stems start breaking off in damaging numbers. Cutting the grain at the earliest possible date will usually avoid much damage by the saw fly. The best way of control is to plow up the grain stubble immediately after harvest. This turns the wheat stems containing the larvae under and if the plowing is well done so that the furrow slice is turned com pletely over, the insects are effect ively trapped so that they cannot es cape. When this is properly done, wheat may be again sown without fear of loss. T heat the The 9 Liffe om Western Plains (Continued from Feature Paire, ) actually come again. Tho gulch was filled with pine trees. FHour at that time w«|i worth $1.26 a pound. In the meantime work had started on the mining claim and It was op erated and worked out during the early part of the season. Gold Kept Them In Comfort. The pay was not much, but It served to enable the emigrants and miners to live In comfort. The clean up, which ocurred every day after work had ceased, amounted to $40 to $50 in gold dust. The claim was Children Cry f° r -y i >. r v /j ft If I I I V MOTHER:- Fletcher's cri Castoria is especially pre- v pared to relieve Infants in arms and Children all ages of Constipation, Flatulency, Wind Colic and Diarrhea; allaying Feverishness arising therefrom, and, by regulating the Stomach and Bowels, aids the assimilation of Food; giving natural sleep. < To avoid imitations, always look for the signature of Absolutely Harmless - No Opiates. Physicians everywhere recommend it. MONTANA STOCKMEN Are yon familiar with the «avantages offered by the Spokane Llreatock M « r »et to »took growers of your statet Whether your annual turnover la limited to a carload or but a,few head Tour aale« will I* moat aatlafactory on the open market. Community ahlpplnk »olTe» (he miukeiiuK problem« of the «rower of stock In amall Iota and this method of selllntt places the open market at hla door. Assemble a trial ship ment of Mock owned by varions members of yonr community and realize first hand the benefits therefrom. Machet Information by Request SPOKANE UNION STOCK YARDS SPOKANE. WASHINGTON PROJECTS OF STATE HAVE GOOD CROPS, SURVEY INDICATES HOP conditions on the Montana reclamation projects as reported to the department of the Inter ior are as follows: "Sun River Project: On the Fort Shaw division the second cutting of alfalfa Is In excellent condition and a good yield is asured. are above the average years. alfalfa fields have made a fine show ing. The principal crop is wheat, and the yields have run from 4 0 bu shels down to crops not worth har vesting. c Grain crops of former On the Greenfields division "Milk River Project: The second cutting of alfalfa has been complet ed and blue joint hay is in the stack. Threshing is well under way. A large per centage of the beet crop is In excellent condition. "Huntley Project; Harvesting of grain has been completed and the yields are above normal. Beets have done well, and the average crop Is expected. A storm damaged an area of about two square miles northwest of Worden, resulting in a total loss of the bean crop there and reducing the beet yield about two toss per acre. "Lower Yellowstone Project: All crops are In excellent condition. Two cuttings of alfalfa are in the stack. Peas and beans have been harvested. Corn was much later than usual and many fields did not mature except for fodder and silage. The sugar beet crop Is larger than ever before. Grain crops are all harvested and threshing is being finished. The yield of wheat averaged from 20 to 40 bushels to the acre." severe hall the lowest of the series In that tlcular locality that paid. Below It for upwards of 1,600 feet no gold of consequence was found, while above It on the adjoining claim, $400 to $500 a day was an ordinary day's work with the sluices. Shannon & Ashley, at the junction of several side gulches had an exceptionally rich claim. Shannon gulch, which runs through what is now Park City, was prospected and found to be rich in lead gold washed Grizzly park. In this gulch the Wil kinson family secured claims In the upper end towards the park deal, and It was while working tho ground that they uncovered the Pedro lead bedrock. par down from on Starts To School. In the fall of 1865 the Wilkinson family removed to Helena and lived in a log cabin on Broadway where the courthouse now stands. The writer was then 14 years of age and being Imbued with the idea that it would be very desirable have an education, he at once began attending a private school on the hill where the St. Vincent Academy now stands. The school was taught by Professor Patch, a highly educat ed man, and his assistant was John Corum. From being almost a man, the writer became once more a boy and Indulged In all the sports and recreations that are dear to boys in all countries. Afterwards he at tended the public schools, which, in their corriculum were more like col leges. They taught higher mathe matics, trigonometry, geometry, veying and greek and latin. Thomas Campbell was the first teacher and the school was located on Rodney street about half way between Broad way and State street. ii- .1 r to ■ar CORE THROAT qjf tonsilitis or hoarseness, gargle with warm salt water. Rub Vicks over throat and cover with a hot flannel cloth. Swal low slowly small pieces. I WICKS w VapoRub Over / 7 Million Jan Used Yearly In the meantime the writer was engaged in learning the printing j business in the Rocky Mountain Ga ' zette office which had been estab He also lisbed in the fall of 18C6. farmed one season with his parents in the Prickly Pear valley, in 1866. The farm was one of the few that were improved. It possessed a good fence and had buildings and some ground broken to the plow. The property had been Improved by two men named Gray and Acres. After leaving school and engaging in the business of making a living the writer followed such avocations Ov v& Yf> Two Facts of Interest To Stock Shippers ! « Among those who ship to us here at South Saint Paul, a large per centage are old friends. That means that we must treat 'em right or they wouldn't come to us time after time. Another fact is that our business is steadily growing. Our satisfied customers are recommending us to their friends. interesting story, doesn't it? '&J é % * - H A eg That tells another ^, / WEILLER & WEILLER CO. Livestock Commission SOUTH ST. PAUL MINNESOTA CHICAGO ILLINOIS Send for Our Free Weekly Western Market Letter VACCINATE DURING ANY WEATHER WITH lederle Blackleg Aggressin, Safe 100 Per Genf One Dose. Costing Iß CENTS. Protects During Life oil by Montana State Veterinary Department. Vnlted ncluntry, nil Veterinary Surgeon« und nil cuttle ord in lltuuk AffKrpHftin Is Staten llu of Animal men who have u«ed it. LEDKRLB AGO HESSIN I» the la«t l-eic taue inution. Mr«. M. E. K leu, Helena, Monta \ VCCI NES. Aggro««}», Anthrax, Abortion, Ilemborratie. Heptlu.»i*nil», Hog Cholera, White He . «täte dUtributor for I.KDKRI.E r«—ail preventative and curative Biologic«, to your veterinary Surgeon the u«e of LEDEKLK product«. ID, 20 and flO-do«e packages. Suggc«t A Kail « « l n ill ATTENTION! Western Cattle and Sheep Shippers Consign your stock to this real live commis sion firm—no shipments too small—none too big Don't forget we handle sheep as well as cattle, having two cracker-jack salesmen, Aubry Wil liams at Chicago, Ed Nolan at Omaha, and well represented at Si. Paul. CHICAGO CATTLE SALESMEN Charles O. Robinson A. W. Thomas Fred Patterson OMAHA CATTLE SALESMEN James L. Lush Chris Hansen E. W. Cahow L. C. Robinson ST. PAUL CATTLE SALESMEN Alexander (Scotty) Smith C. W. Vassau MARKET INFORMATION GLADLY FURNISHED ON REQUEST WHEN SHIPPING, HAVE YOUR AGENT CONSIGN YOUR STOCK TO Charles 0. Robinson & Company UNION STOCK YARDS OMAHA CHICAGO ST. PAUL as seemed him best. Among these were prospecting, exploring and llv ing in the high mountains, where the snow fell deep. His experience is not much dlferent than that of many ■* hundreds of others. B. S. Wilkinson knew what to ex pect on the great plains as he had gone by that route to the gold dig gings in California 1849, re turning by way of Panama. Raleigh F. Wilkinson remained a resident of the vicinity of Helena for the remaining days of his career, passing to the Great Beyond, at that city, a few weeks ago.