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it XJear Indi an" War ? «1 m ■ il|; il I m in . a m V-; v* . m . is«# , i i:' & ] m mm I fM * n m PJ ft Wf m m <: Secretary Ickes and the Seminole5 m u '''''"■'A ; m m X mm l Qsceola, Chief of the SeminoTes ï S ie Dade \ onumervt -, at West Point By ELMO SCOTT WATSON IE other day a press dispatch from West Palm Beach, Fla told the following story : Squatting haunches in a circle on the shores of Lake Worth, Sec retary of the Interior Har old Ickes and seven Semi nole Indians today revived negotiations to end the^ 100 : Chief Tony Tbmrmj their on m ; x year "war" between the tribesmen and the United States. Through an interpreter, the representatives of a majority of the 500 Seminoles surviving in Florida asked a do main of 200,000 acres In the Everglades and $15 a month each from the government as indemnity for seizure of the rest of the state I by "our white friends." In return they offered to recognize the United States and obey its laws, except the game laws. "The Seminoles," replied Secretary Ickes, "are a proud and independent people. I do not know w'hether it will be possible to give them all they ask, but in co-operation with the state of Florida, the administration in Washington will do all in its power to give them the land and the game they require to live the lives of their forefathers." It was a colorful scene with ranks of Na tional Guardsmen and huddles of Seminole squaws and children in bright festive garb forming a background along the sparkling lake waters. Loud speakers carried the nego tiations to several thousand spectators, mostly winter visitors from the North, in boxes and bleachers. "There Is no game left for me. I ask for provision for my people," said Sam Tommie, the chosen spokesman. "Formerly I had many grounds to hunt on. Now I ask the white people to deed me land," said Charlie Cypress. After the council the tribes in their many pieced and many-colored dress danced the green corn dance while the fashionable audi ence applauded. Not only did many newspapers print the story, or one similar to it, but some of them editorial ized at length on it. Others, however, ignored the story or the opportunity for editorial com ment. Perhaps they considered it Just another "press agent yarn." Or they may have remem bered that eight years ago this same "war" was going to be "officially ended." At least, that was what press dispatches from Miami said at the time. Those dispatches told how Chief Tony Tommy, "ordained leader of all the Seminoles in Florida," was going to Washington "to make for mal peace with the United States government and ask for citizenship for his people." All of which made good copy for the newspa pers and good publicity for Miami and that part of Florida. But a short time later this press dis patch from Fort Myers, Fla., appeared in the papers : Nuck-Suc-Ha-Chee, chief of the Florida Seminoles, vigorously denies that the glade tribesmen seek American citizenship or rec onciliation with the government of the United States. The position of "our little nation" is made plain In a letter from Stanley Hanson, secre tary of the Seminoler Indian association of Florida, to Judge George W. Storter of Col lier county, a life long friend of the Indians, in which the Indian chief repudiates state ments made by Tony Tommy of Miami, "self styled leader" for the Seminoles. "All news dispatches carried out of Miami recently," the letter continues, "have been unauthorized by Seminole leaders and there fore without foundation. When the Seminoles take action It will be through a duly consti tuted council which governs the little na tion." _ So that was that, and nothing more was heard of the propo sal to "end officially" a non-existent "war" until recently when Secretary Ickes, on vacation in Florida, was reported to be making "peace medicine" with the Seminoles. The fact that he and "seven Seminole Indians," among them "Sam Tommie, the chosen spokesman,'' had "revived negotiations" may have reminded newspaper editors of the negotiations started by Chief Tony Tommy eight years ago. Perhaps they remembered also that as far back as 1917 arrangements were completed for acquir ing land for those Seminoles who had been wan dering around in the Everglades as a kind of "lost tribe"; that in 1924 they came under the provisions of a congressional act which made them citizens of the United States and that in 1926 a reservation, divided between Lee and . . pi ■ A Group of Seminoles Broward counties, was established for them with an outpost agency half-way between Miami and Fort Myers and that, under the direction of Maj. Lucien A. Spencer, special commissioner, these Seminoles really began to travel the white man's road. So the picture of a group of savages smoking the peace pipe to end a 100-year-old war, as painted by the recent press dispatches didn't seem so authentic. But whether this was a press agent stunt by some enterprising white men or a bid for notori ety by some publicity-minded red men, it has served to bring back into the news the name ot a famous Indian leader and to recall to Amer leans the tragic story of his people, although they cannot be very proud of some parts of that story. Even If the war with the Seminoles wasn't really a "100-year war," it was the longest and costliest ever waged by this nation on a tribe of red men. In reality there were two Seminole wars. The first one was a comparatively short affair. It took place In 1817-18 and lasted less than a year. An aftermath of the Creek Indian war, it was a minor incident In the larger field of diplomacy and international relations. After the defeat of the Creek Indians in 1817. many of those tribesmen sought refuge among the Seminoles in Florida, then held by the Span ish. To the Seminoles also had fled many run away negro slaves. So there was constant fric tlon between the Indians and slave-catchers, of ficers of the law and settlers on the southern border of what was then the United States. After a number of Indians and whites had been killed In the spasmodic warfare which fol lowed, General Gaines was sent with a force of regulars to demand the surrender of some of the Seminoles accused of killing white settlers. The Indians refused, claiming that the whites were responsible for the first aggressions, which was probably the truth. So Gaines, attacked a party of Seminoles at Fowltown just north of the Florida border, ano stirred up a veritable hornet's nest, which re suited in an attack by the Indians on his gar rison at Fort Scott. The War department then ordered Gaines to continue his offensive against the Indians, pursuing them into Spanish terri tory If necessary but not to molest any Span ish garrison. The department next ordered Gen. Andrew Jackson, the hero of New Orleans and the Creek war, into the field and gave him ex tremely vague instructions as to the course he was to pursue. With his usual high-handed methods "Old Hickory" invaded Florida, captured the Spanish post of St. Marks, sumfmarily executed two Eng lishmen named Arbuthnot and Armbrlster, whom he accused of stirring up the Seminoles against the Americans. He fought a few minor skir mlshes with the Seminoles, who promptly scat tered like quail, making pursuit impossible, and then pushed on to capture the Spanish town of Pensacola. Of course, Spain protested at this unwarranted invasion of her territory and the United States placated her by censoring Jackson in a manner that was something of a polite slap on the wrist. The upshot of the whole affair was that Spain, seeing the handwriting on the wail, agreed to sell Florida to the United States. And that, more than any great desire to punish the Semi noles for their depredations, was what the Amer lean government wanted. But in thus making the Seminoles pawns in a game of diplomacy the United States was storing up trouble for itself. It broke out soon after Florida became our territory. Friction between the settlers and the Seminoles continued, mainly because the settlers wanted the lands held by the Indians. By the ... treaty of Fort Moultrie ln 1823 the Seminoles ceded most of their lands except one small res ervation. But the land-hungry whites began crowding in upon them there and demanding that they be removed across the Mississippi as had other southeastern tribes. So another treaty was made at Payne's Land ;ng in 1832 by which the Seminoles, at least a part of them, agreed to migrate within three years. The majority of the Indians, however, re pudiated the treaty. Matters came to a crisis in November, 1835, when Amathla, a chief who had signed the treaty and received his share of the money for doing so, was shot by a party under the leadership of Micanopy, the head-chief, and Osceola, n half-breed war-leader. Gen. A. R. Thompson, agent for the Seminoles. exerted all pressure possible to get the Semi nolcs to agree to the removal and during a coun cil became so angry with Osceola that he ordered the Seminole leader arrested and held In irons. Enraged at this treatment Osceola, while agree ing to sign the treaty, plotted revenge on the agent. Removing ids people to places of safety, Osce ola and his warriors began attacks on the white settlements. Troops were concentrated in Flor ida to protect the settlers and force the removal of the Seminoles. On December 24, 1835, an ex pedition of 108 officers and men, commanded by Maj. Francis L. Dade, set out from Fort Brooks to meet a force from Fort King for a punitive expedition against the Seminoles. Four days later Dade's force reached the banks of the Withlacoochee river. What took place there—and tragic thougli it was, It is one of tales of high heroism in the annals of the American army—Is recorded on the side of a monument which stands on the grounds of the United States Military academy at West Point, N. Y. It reads: "To commemorate the battle of the 28th of December, 1835, between a detach ment of 108 United States troops and the Semi noles of Florida In which all of the detachment save three fell without an attempt to retreat." On the same day Osceola made a daring raid against Fort King, killed and scalped General Thompson and four others who were dining at a house outside the fort and made his escape. As the result of this and the Dade tragedy a great outcry went up all over the country for the extermination of the Seminoles. But officer after officer sent against the Indians failed to crush them and at last General Jessup, spurred on by this cry, forever sullied his name as a soldier by seizing Osceola while holding a con ference with him under a flag of truce and send ing him away to prison. Osceola died in Fort Moultrie, Fla., on Janu ary 30, 1838. But even the loss of their leader did not break the spirit of the Sominoles. The war dragged on for four years more before the Indians finally acknowledged defeat In August, 1842. It had lasted for nearly eight years at a cost of the lives of 1,500 soldiers and nearly as many civilians, not to mention a money cost of $20,000,000 ! The Seminoles who were removed to Okla homa became known as the Seminole Nation, one of the "Five Civilized Tribes.'' Even with the removal of nearly 4,000 Seminoles In 17 dif ferent parties betweep 1836 and l s 42, some 300 remained in the fastnesses of the Kverglades at thè close of the war. There was still some trou ble with them later and in 1858 Chief Billy Bow legs and 160 of his followers were sent west. But there still remained approximately 100 Sem inoles who refused to leave their ancestral home and from these are descended the 160-odd Semi noles who live in Florida today. © by Western Newspaper Union. Plan Pharos of Columbus Move to Create Monument to Great Sailor in World He Discovered; Island of Havti Selected as the Most Appropriate Site. Some briqf descriptions have come down to us about one of the Seven Wonders of the ancient world, the Lighthouse of Alexandria. It was built on the Island of Pharos In the harbor and was connected with the city by the Seven Furlong bridge. Accounts placing the height of its tower at 600 feet are believed to be overdrawn and 400 feet is re garded as more probable. Built by Sostratus of Cnidus, It was begun un der Ptolemy I of Egypt and was fin ished under Ptolemy II, its cost being placed at 800 talents, which by some valuations might be the equivalent of as much as $1,600,000. From the Pharos of Alexandria is traced an addition to languages and an influence on lighthouse and also on other architecture. The word Pharos came to be applied to light houses generally and with some change in spelling is of common usage in certain modern tongues, while pharology became a technical term for lighthouse building. The first of the lighthouses in western Europe, built by the Romans, was called the Pharos of Dover, while the minarets of Mohammedan mosques symbolize lighthouses and in the earlier ones we possibly may see what their model, the original Alex andria structure, looked like. Some Influence on the steeples of Chris tian churches is discerned by writers. An example of special dignity and worthiness is accordingly followed in elaborate plans for creating. In the western hemisphere, a like wonder of the modern world in a monument to Christopher Columbus. Its site will not be at any modern Alexandria— at any of the great ports of the New world he discovered, but on the is HIGHER SHOULDERS—WIDER, DEEPER NON-SKID TREAD-MOR E RUD DER ON THE ROAD These Truck Tires Will Cut Operating Costs for You Firestone has constantly / O ■ been the pioneer and leader in the development of balloon tires for trucks, and in the New Firestone Truck Tire for 1935 we have incorporated improvements that enable you to maintain uninterrupted schedules at higher speeds—at lowest cost per mile. A new tread compound has been developed, which is tougher and longer wearing. The tread has been specially designed with higher, more rugged shoulders and wider, deeper non-skid, with more rubber on the road. 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Let him show you how these amazing Mew tires will help cut your operating cost and give you more dependable service. r j ÿV ■ j •i See your noarosi Firestone Scrvico Store or Firestone Tiro Deafer 1er today's prices on these tires \ SPECIFY FIRESTONE TIKES ON YOUR NEW TRUCKS m Gat today's price en this fire Gal today's price en this tire FIRESTONE SENTINEL TYPE Volume production Nr* for light truck* OLDFIELD TyPE The lire that taught thrift to million* FIRESTONE AUTO SUPPLIES FOR TRUCKS AND BUSES v. i FIRESTONE HEAVY , DUTY JC SPARK JR plugs Hr FIRESTONE FAN BELTS EXTRA POWER BATTERIES S0% MORE STARTING POWER FOR EVERY TRUCKING SERVICE ★ ★★★★ Listen to the Voice of Firestone-featuring Richard Crooks, Gladys Swarthout, or Nelson Eddy—every Monday night over N. B. C.—WEAF Network , A Five Star Program FIRESTONE BRAKE BLOCKS AND LINING RADIATOR HOSE ■: V,. - V: ' I : *:*>■ : : i « i M © 1931, F. T. b B. Co. jï » land of Hayti, on which he landed during his very first voyage, where he established the first American col ony and where his remains were bur iéd in 1536, 30 years after his death. During the partial occupany of that island by Americans of late the proj ect has been advanced to a stage where success seems certain. If the plan is carried out as con templated, no other undertaking will be representative of the New world in as complete a sense, for it is pro posed that every western national government, large or small, shall con tribute to its $2,000,000 cost. A de sign for a noble structure has al ready been made, embodying special precautions against a Caribbean peril, the original Pharos having been de stroyed by an earthquake in the Thir teenth century. To some it will seem important to know whether the remains of Colum bus still rest in the ancient cathe dral of Santo Domingo, in the island's second repu'Llic, and some recent works of reference print as authoritative the version of the Spanish government ns to their re moval years ago. The bare state ment that the wrong tomb was opened and the bones of one of Columbus' sons taken away, and not those of Columbus himself, does not seem very convincing, but if the data preserved by those called in as observers during an examination at the cathedral som years ago are accurate, a mistake was made by the Spanish. Insignia, lettering, other small evidences indicated that the tomb which had been opened was undoubtedly that of the son and that another tomb now holds the few fragments of Columbus' bones and the observers were men of Intel ligence, including high ecclesiastics, officials and others. But whether or not their opinion was correct, this is an appropriate site for many other reasons, and what could be a more appropriate; form for a' monument to the great est navigator of all than a splendid pinnacle carrying a perpetual light for the guidance of his successors on the seas? This will be more than a flame seen afar for directing those who ply the ocean. It is also de signed for those plying the upper air. Aviation Is now farther ad vanced than was the lore of the sea in Columbus' time. Probably air routes along the short parallels of latitude in the Inclement North will always be followed, but distance is much less important than safety to aviation, making miles by the hun dreds in an hour. May we not believe that the favor ite routes of the future will be along the warmer, milder, safer parallels to our southern ports; that the skies to be "whitened" by flying craft will be skies to the south and that the Pharos of Columbus. looked for by many an eye on dark nights and stormy nights, will be a wonderland preserver vouchsafing in the Carib bean blessings to the imperiled greater even than those of Its predecessor of the Mediterranean.— St. Louis Globe-Democrat. Rubber Turf for Racers Tested at a stadium near London, rubber turf is being used to surface the track on which greyhounds race. It is claimed that the material gives better footing after a rain than grass. The rubber turf also will be tested on football fields.—Popular Mechanics Magazine. Russian Auto-Sleigh A worker in the Molotow automo bile factory of Russia has invented an auto-sleigh that runs oir spokes or fe^t instead of wheels, and in stead ' wheels at the back there are two pairs of skiis that move along special grooves in the chas sis and then press at the snow and ■ shove the car along.