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-WEEKLY NEWS ANALYSIS
Bid for Early Ratification of United Nations Pact in Senate; U.S. Spending Hits Peak for Year - wpioacoH by Western Newspaper TTninn — (EDITOR'S NOTE; When opinions arc expressed In these columns, they are those of Western Newspaper Union's news analysts and not necessarily of this newspaper.) r ft ■ y m mm y : ; : V v i ' £ : il ■■■■■ .jSKSSJÎ.?, H ■.* X ' > I I li ii ' v. ■ '■ . PI 0C5 n ip! m ;v *111 : x. x ; * I 1 l£x At renamed Truman park in Dusseldorf, Germany, 96th infantry di vision holds G.I. horse races. For want of thoroughbreds, Yanks ride shaggy nags to wire for takeoff. UNITED NATIONS: Pact to Senate With indications of overwhelming approval the senate moved to con sider ratification of j the United Nations j postwar security or f ganization, with __none of the bitter debate expected which marked the rejection of the League of Nations after World War I. Back from San Francisco, where 800 delegates from 50 United Nations mapped the histor i Sen. Connally ic pact, Sen. Tom Connally (Dem., Texas) bid for early ratification, de claring that although no effort would be made to railroad the thing through, "I don't want to see the senate dilly-dally, shilly-shally and honey-swuggle all through July and August just because some mem bers want to make speeches for con sumption back home." A member of the American dele gation at the San Francisco parley along with Connally, Sen. Arthur Vandenberg (Rep., Mich.) also was prepared to throw his full strength behind the move for acceptance. Known for his efforts to reconcile Ü. S. sovereignty with international co-operation, Vandenberg said that although the security organization was not perfect, it represented a step toward effective world collabo ration to outlaw future war. With no major battle looming, dis cussion of the power of the U. S. representative on the security coun cil to vote for use of armed force without prior congressional approv al may be academic, with propo nents suggesting later legislation enabling congress to instruct the representative on the course to be pursued in such cases. Under the present provisions of the security organization, however, there is little likelihood of armed force being employed against any of the major powers, since anyone of the Big Five — the U. S., Brit ain, Russia, France and China—can veto military measures against themselves. By permitting the ü. S. to retain conquered Pacific possessions for defense bases on the discretion of congress, the framers of the se curity organization also steered clear of vigorous objections which might have been raised against the trusteeship phases of the new char ter. Big Job for Ed As congress prepared to ponder ratification, former Secretary of State Edward R. Stettinius, who played such an im portant role in shap ing the new organ ization, was as ■>. m signed the equally important job of representing the U. S. on the all-pow erful security coun m ciL As the U. S. rep Smil resentative, ing Ed will have the power to cast America's vote in the settlement of disputes, the applica tion of economic pressure against potential aggressors to bring them in line, or power only will be limited by what may Edw. Stettinius the use of force. His reservation congress ever make. Big Business's Personality Boy, Stettinius has risen high in U. S. politics since leaving the U. S. Steel corporation to first take over admin MEDICAL BILL With the nation's medical bill in 1944 totaling 4 billion dollars and a capital investment in hospital plant and equipment of six billions, medi cine today is one of the big busi nesses of America. of medical care paid 3 bil The direct con sumers lions of last year's bill, expenditures by federal, state and local govern ments were 800 millions, and the balance was contributed by indus I try and philanthropy a survey re vealed. istration of lend-lease and then move into the state department as its head when the ailing Cordell Hull retired. With Smiling Ed's departure, for mer U. S. senator, supreme court justice and war mobilizer, James F. Byrnes, was prominently mentioned as his successor. A southern Demo crat, Byrnes long was a leader in national politics, first stepping into the international picture when he accompanied President Roosevelt to Yalta. Pointing up talk of Byrnes' succession to the secretaryship of state was announcement that he would attend the forthcoming Big Three conference in Berlin. OPA: Extended for Year Giving Secretary of Agriculture Clinton Anderson veto power over food pricing orders, including proc essed farm products and livestock, house and senate conferees agreed to a one year extension of OPA. In granting Anderson pricing supervision, the conferees knocked out the senate amendment calling for the payment of cost plus a rea sonable profit for farm products. Though backed by the agricultural bloc, the measure was strongly op posed because of its displacement of the parity system, designed to create a balance between what pro ducers get and what they must pay for goods. In addition to granting Anderson power over food prices, house and senate conferees sought to improve the tight meat situation by permit ting non-federally inspected packers to increase production and ship be tween the states, relieving the pres sure on federally-inspected slaugh terers whose civilian supply has been sharply cut after army set asides. Reports Japs Seek Peace Backed to the wall, with V. S. superforts pounding their cities to rubble and American armed forces drawing a noose around the home land, the Japanese have advanced peace terms to this country, Senator Capehart (Rep., Ind.) said. Although declaring he was not at liberty to veal details, Capehart, indicated that the enemy was willing to surrender all conquered territory, including Manchuria. Little could be gained over the proffered terms from conditional surrender, involving at least a two-year war in China, the senator opined. re un U. S. SPENDING: Sets Record Ending June 30. fiscal year 1945 found the U. S. collecting more, spending more and running into debt more than in any other similar riod in the nation's history. pe Though revenues rose to almost I 45% billion dollars for the year, expenditures rocketed to almost I 100 billion, leaving a deficit of 54 billion. As a result the nation al debt soared to more than 255 billion dollars. Standing at about 90 billion dol lars, war spending constituted the greatest portion of outlays. While expenditures for military produc tion, supplies and services were up, contracts for construction, subsidies and other obligations of government corporations dropped off to less than one-half billion dollars. As fiscal 1946 got underway, less expenditure and less income ap peared to be in order. Military penditures have been cut to reflect the decreased cost of a one-front war and revenues are expected to drop because of less wages and reconversion layoffs. ex overtime Waterfowl Drop According to estimates of Dr, Ira N. Gabrielson, chief of the U. S. Fish and Wildlife service, the waterfowl population of the U. S. stands at 105 million. This is approximately 20 million less than the 1944 figure. The apparent decrease may not be exact, Dr. Gabrielson points out, as the population may have been overestimated in 1944. SAVINGS: Nest-Egg Grows Despite heavy payments due on income tax installments for the final quarter of 1944 and an increase in inventories of unincorporated businesses, individuals' savings for the first three months of this year totaled almost $8,500,000,000. During the period, individ uals' deposited almost $5,000, 000,000 in banks: bought almost $1,500,000,000 of government bonds, and paid up $ 1 , 000 , 000 , 000 in national service life in surance and $900,000,000 in pri vate premiums. At the same time, individuals strengthened their position for the postwar period by reducing con sumer debt $ 200 , 000,000 exclusive ol mortgage obligations. POLAND: Neiv Government With the formation of a new gov ernment designed to be repre sentative of tlie whole country, the troublesome Polish question ap peared resolved, thus removing a bone of contention between the Al lies. Including political leaders who had fled abroad as well as those who had remained behind or found sanctuary with the Russians, the new regime is based on the Moscow sponsored Warsaw provi sional government to assure the Reds of a friendly buffer to west ern Europe. Though U. S. and British recogni tion of the new regime loomed, the Polish government in exile in Lon don assailed it as a "self-appointed political body composed of com munists and foreign agents." As long as the Red army and police occupy Poland no freedom can ex ist, the exiles said. PACIFIC: Hara-Kiri "Twenty-second day, sixth month, twentieth year of Showa era. I de part without regret, fear, shame or obligation. Army chief of staff, Cho Isamu. Age of departure, 51 years." Inscribed on a white silk mat tress cover found in his grave at the base of a cliff on Okinawa, the above phrasing constituted Lt. Gen. Isamu Cho's own epithet writ ten before he committed hara-kiri in typical Japanese warrior style be fore the island's fall. American troops were within 80 yards of enemy headquarters on a seaside cliff when Cho and Com manding Gen. Mitsuru Ushijima knelt down on a narrow ledge over looking the Pacific and plunged knives into their naked abdomens while aides stood by to slash their spinal columns to assure death. With the two Jap chieftains, over 100,000 enemy troops also met their death on Okinawa in the savage fighting. fTOAn . * Fat, OH Pinch In revealing another boost in the point value of margarine, the inter agency committee on foreign ship ments warned American house wives that fats and oils will remain in tight supply until the spring early summer of 1946 because they are among the top requirements of hungry Europe. committee's announcement was made as OPA revealed that civilian meat supplies would be 5 per cent greater this month than 01 The last, with the largest increase in beef. Reflecting smaller hog numbers on farms, pork stocks will fall below June. Over 90,000,000 pounds of beef will be available weekly for civil ians compared with 73,530,000 pounds last month; 85,100,000 pounds of pork as against 91,240,000; 24,180,000 pounds of veal as against 23,040,000; 10,030,000 pounds of lamb as against 9.950,000, and 2,790,000 pounds of mutton as against 2,190, 000 pounds. STRIKES: Plague Officials With the victory in Europe remov in § previous restraint, the wave of strikes sweeping the country has taxed the resources of the U. S. conciliation service and War Labor I board, and created anxiety among ( government officials concerning pro duction for the Pacific war. As the officials looked to Pres ident Truman and Secretary of Labor Lewis B. Schwellen bach to correct the situation, latest reports put the total of idle at 86,000. Though the ber of requests for strike votes had been rising since March, actual walkouts were checked until V-E Day. num Wages have not been as important a factor in the strikes as union rival ry and struggle for leadership in the unions themselves, officials said. Another source of unrest has been unsettled grievances in war plants, with workers striking to force action. TRANSPORT RISE Total volume of freight*and pas senger transportation of all types of carriers has shown a steady expan sion during the war period, rising in 1944 to the highest level on record. Airplane transportation showed the greatest increase during this period, rising 421.4 per cent. While railroad traffic increased 171.4 cent; pipelines, 137.7 per cent; tor trucks, 123.5 per cent, gains made by these carriers more than offset a curtailment of 29.9 per cent in water transport. per mo The n CO-HMD OP(W 'ON NEW WHITE HOUSE TEMPO Harry Truman has now been President of the United States for a little over two months—two of the most historic months in the nation's history. These two months are suf ficient to get a fairly accurate gauge of how the new President will func tion for the rest of his term. On the surface there is a new at mosphere in the White House when you walk into it these days. If, for Instance, you drop in on White House Secretary Charlie Ross, he is cordial, courteous, but brief. There is no invitation or inclination to sit down and gossip. This business-like atmosphere prevails throughout the entire White House staff. If you go on in to see Ross's boss, you get in on time. There are few waits. And the little man on the ather side of the big, broad, shiny desk listens intently. He wants to sear what his visitors have to say. These are two definite innovations. Truman gives the impression of naving a firm grasp on all domestic problems. He knows them thorough ly—undoubtedly better than Frank lin Roosevelt during his latter years, when he was devoting all his time to the war. One of Truman's frequent replies to callers when they urge sanction an some special idea is: "I realize that, tint it takes time to do all these things, and seldom save so many important things confronted us all at one time. I'll get around to that just as soon as 1 can." One thing that worries him most Is our foreign affairs. The new Pres ident frankly realizes it is his main weakness. He does not have Roose velt's international background, therefore has to rely almost wholly on his diplomats. Truman's method of running the government is that of pick ing good men and giving them free rein. This is a good sys tem, and we could have had more of it in the past. But it breaks down when the President is not sure he can rely on the men picked to perform the most important job we now face — building up the peace after the war. Truman told Stettinius, for instance, that he was to be his own boss at San Francisco. But he found that Stettinius called him on the phone once or twice a day to get his approval of al most every decision. Unlike Roosevelt, Truman does not hesitate to fire a man who doesn't produce. He let Leonard Reinsch go back to his radio job in Atlanta the day after he handled himself badly in a press conference. He transferred Edward D. McKim, his administrative assistant, after it became known that the genial and likeable McKim seemed too en grossed in Mrs. ''Hope Diamond" McLean's dinner parties and the so cial whirl of Washington. MacARTHUR ONCE FIRED EISENHOWER Sometimes it is from quirks of fate or personal jealousies that heroes are born. Old army friends of General Eisenhower couldn't help but re member this as they gathered to pay him tribute. For, if it had not been for a per sonal row with General MacArthur in the Philippines, Eisenhower prob ably would be in a Jap prison camp today instead of receiving the plaud its of millions. When MacArthur retired as chief of staff and began the reorganiza tion of the new Philippine army, he took with him to Manila one of the bright, up-and-coming men of the army, Col. Dwight Eisenhower. But, after some time in the Philippines, things didn't go well, and Mac Arthur fired him. Eisenhower went back to the U.S.A. to climb to fame and the top command of the Ameri can army. If he had remained with Mac Arthur, he probably would now be with Gen. "Skinny" Wainwright and the 16 other American generals taken prisoner by the Japs. BASEBALL AND UNITED NATIONS In San Francisco, a delegation of Philadelphians called on Australia's External Affairs Minister Herbert Evatt to ask that the city of broth ly love founded by William Penn become the seat of the United Na tions in the future. Dr. Evatt listened carefully. Then he replied: "I can't vote for Philadelphia un til the Phillies get out of the cel lar. I'm afraid it would give the United Nations a defeatist attitude if both Philadelphia baseball teams were at the bottom of their leagues." CAPITAL CHAFF C. New Hampshire's one-time isola tionist Senator Tobey has got reli gion. He is so anxious to avoid an other war that he has become one of the most ardent advocates of inter national co-operation. Tobey even blasted (indirectly) his old friend and colleague, ex-Senator Danaher of Connecticut, who, while an execu tive of the Republican national com mittee. used his position as ex-sena tor to. go on. the senate floor and lobby against the reciprocal trade agreements act. White Eyelet, Sheers, Organdy. For Exquisite Summer Frocks By CHERIE NICHOLAS , I : ^1 1 ! * c iÆ tï & k ' ■: ¥ 'i p I * : : ■ ss ■X (■S' p is m \§ I ;.p. Ç yt: m n p s p x £ I ■ X il ' I 'HERE'S a tremendous vogue on for all-white this summer. You'll find in the current collections a table snowdrift of white dresses made of beautiful materials, ranging from exquisite filmy sheers, organ dy, lawn, dainty voile, swiss and the beloved eyelets to classic piques, lin ven ens and various other of the firm weave whites. Stroll around to the accessory dis plays and you will become increas ingly conscious that designers are playing up white magic for all it is worth. Your eye will glimpse a vast showing of white jewelry with em phasis on white earrings. You will find an intriguing showing of white handbags many of which are of the new white washable plastic. The new white footwear plays up shoe artistry in such thrilling de sign, glamorous white shoes become a necessary luxury this summer. The same may be said of white mil linery, the supremacy of the white hat in the summer mode is style news of utmost importance. The newest gesture in white headwear is the hat made of phantom-like filmy white sheers or white horse, hair. Then too white flower hats and trims are beguilingly lovely this summer, and you can get the smart est sailors ever in various type white straws. White gloves add their dainty touch to the picture. In the illustration we are showing a trio of lovely gowns that bring message of the outstanding impor tance of white eyeleted de luxe cot tons for this summer. You will find the gown to the right made of white eyelet pique will prove a beautiful buy for party wear and for gay sum a Narrow Silhouette r x ; ' M* 5 xS v .'1 4: : i \ 9 x % ■< V i < v i ■: ■ii An interesting thing this sea son's print frocks is that they are styled in such versatile ways in* troducing new silhouettes that give zest to the mode. A glowing in stance of the trend to launch "some thing new" and strikingly distinc tive in styling technique for the summer print is seen in the attrac tive model pictured. In this gown selected from a collection of mid summer styles by Chicago Fashion Industries the emphasis is on a nar row silhouetted skirt contrasted by a decided tunic flare about the hips. This lovely-lady print frock will be outstanding wherever it goes. i. mer dances. The chic cardigan line of the jacket and cap sleeves are bound with pinwale pique. Vary the jacket with a black skirt to show its wartime versatility as a double-duty dress. The lovely bolero dress of sheer eyelet cotton, centered in the pic ture, passes all tests for smart summer wear. Doff the jacket and you have a bareback dress for sum mer dances. Ruffles of pique soften the neckline and add a modish touch to the slim skirt, achieving a chic side effect. The ribbon belt is pale blue grosgrain. Capes register an exciting style innovation this season. A jaunty little cape makes a star appearance in the versatile cotton pique dress shown to the left. This is a type frock that is a first choice with party girls and furlough brides. The wide ruffle of eyelet pique conceals a row of buttons, making it possible to re move the capelet for sunning and dancing. The vogue for white expresses it self not only in sheer and lovely wash fabrics, but this summer great stress is being placed on perfectly charming dresses and two-piece styles made of white spun rayon, gabardine and wool sheers. These are styled to a nicety with emphasis placed on beautiful trimming detail, such as allover braiding in matching white on novel pockets, or an all over embroidered effect. Especially attractive is the handsome trapunto design that enhances many of these smart fashions, many of which are in beguiling off-white tones, the new white-wine shade being first in fa vor. Popular with the young set is the simple full-skirted white dress that is lavish with colorful embroidery, worked to simulate an apron front. Favored for practical summer wear is the bareback dress with bolero made of nicely tailored linen or sharkskin, which is noted for its im maculate whiteness. Released by Western Newspaper Union. There's News in Hat That's Merely a Brim Designed especially for summer comfort are the new half-hats made of starched pique. The unique part of it is the hat isn't all there. The crown is missing, and for a good reason. You have all the appear ance of wearing a hat, without the discomfort of too much hat on a tor rid summer day. These little head pieces are one of the big success fashions of the season because of their practicality as well as their flattering ways. Some are so de signed they can be laid out flat for ironing. They certainly keep pace with "the style" being designed in cloches, off-face types, Dutch bonnet effects, and other becoming versions. One of the smartest half-hats has no brim at all in front, but at the back there is a down-over-the-hair flange flaring from the fitted headband that shows the influence of the favorite fisherman type. .New Frocks Featuring Braidwork, Embroidery Braidwork and embroidery is be ing artfully featured on thin spun rayon dresses also summer jacket suits. The modes are in lovely pas tels or even more to be admired— subtle off-whites. Enormous patch pockets, all-over braided in exact tone of the dress, are seen on many a stunning frock. Sometimes the bow tie at the throat also is cor respondingly braided. Too lovely for words are frocks of fine chambray, the jackets or bodice tops of which are all-over braided in white. son in the campus group i* the broomstick skirt. Girls with seam two large print squares to Broomstick Skirts One of the biggest fads of the sea an eye to fashion and thrift are making their own this summer. The skirts are usually made of pastel chinte, but any light-weight curtain mate rial will do. Another trick is to gether, gathering the top into a belt < JUecttame * 1040*1 R&pjosiieSL in WASHINGTON By Walter Shead : WNU Correspondit Explosive Agricultural Front WNU Washington Bureau 621 Union Trust Building. p* VENTS of an explosive nature ^ erupted on the agricultural front this week, events which threat ened to rock the foundations of the entire agricultural program and the economic life of farmers and, as a result, of every rural community. First was the fight made against senate confirmation of Claude R. Wickard, secretary of agriculture, to be director of the Rural Elec trification administration. Second was the action of the sen ate committee eliminating the 50 per cent tariff cut provisions from the reciprocal trade extension bill and Senator Tobey's subsequent charge of "Five fat lobbyists with round bottoms and round heads" perched outside the senate doors, and. Third, and probably amaz ing, the annexation of a rider on the senate bill extending the OPA price control bill for another year, which would scrap the parity principle of fixing farm prices and institute a cost-plus plan instead. All three of these events were of vital interest to the farmers of the nation . . , vital In that they affected the every-day and economic life of every farmer in America . , . hit at his pocket book and his way of life. The fight on Mr. Wickard devel oped into a party fight and, after three days of hearings, the sen ate committee voted 11 to 6 for con firmation. The Wickard appoint ment by President Truman was ex pected to be a routine affair, when Senator Shipstead, (R-Minn.) and a member of the senate agricultural and forestry committee, asked that hearings be held. There was plenty of testimony in the three-day hear ing, but no evidence against Secre tary Wickard. The witnesses either didn't like him, didn't think he would make a good director, didn't like his politics, but could offer no specific evidence against his ap pointment. Co-operatives Concerned Some two dozen witnesses repre senting approximately 75 farmers' co-operatives, serving some 80,000 farmers were present to testify against Wickard out of a total of 835 farmers' REA co-operatives serving 1,250,000 farmers in the nation. Of those tesitfying, one witness repre sented 51 REA co-operatives serv ing 65,000 farmers in Iowa alone. The others were scattered. The re sult was that Senators Shipstead of Minnesota, Capper of Kansas, But ler of Nebraska, Bushfield of South Dakota, Wilson of Iowa and Cordon of Oregon, all Republicans, voted against Wickard. Two Republicans, Willis of Indiana and Aiken of Ver mont, voted with the solid Demo cratic delegation on the committee. The Rural Electrification adminis tration is probably more important in raising the living standards of agricultural life in the nation than any other agency. A measure intro duced by Senator Lucas (D-Ill.) passed by the senate, and now pend ing in the house, separates REA from the department of agriculture, placing it on an independent basis and provides $585,000,000 for loans to co-operatives for the extension of rural electrification. One of the charges against Wickard was that he had "no vision for the future of REA" and that he was against its independence as a governmental agency. In a recent interview, how ever. Wickard declared he intended to bring electricity to 3,665,000 farm homes in the immediate five-year period after the war and that in stead of building short "dead-end" electric lines, he planned surveys of "20 counties or more at one time and the construction of lines to reach every farmer in the area." Wherry and Cost-Plus Senator Shipstead, together with Senator Wherry (R-Neb.) engi neered the cost-plus farm price amendment to the OPA measure. It is likely that by the time this is in print, the house will have elimi nated this amendment, but its sen ate adoption caught the administra tion leaders asleep and is an indi cation of what could easily happen in a legislative jam. There has been considerable talk lately about this cost-of-production procedure ta measure farm prices, but this is the first time it has appeared in the open. Edward A. O'Neal branded the amendment as "unsound, unwork able and highly inflationary." Although President Truman also indicated his disapproval of the rider, as long ago as 1939 he him self voiced approval of a cost-plus system for handling some farm products under certain conditions. Addressing the Missouri state legis lature March 21, 1939, he is quoted as saying: "Cotton, wheat and meat are world products and require world markets for their distribution, and if the world markets cannot be re stored, these crops are going to have to be handled on a domestic al lotment or cost-of-produotion basis."'