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Greenbrier independent. [volume] (Lewisburg, Va. [W. Va.]) 1859-1980, January 27, 1922, Image 6

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Department of Public Health
and Civic Welfare.
? o
11Y Jl'l.l.V M r.i.i.ic HAM I', li. N., 1't'ltl.lC mi:ai.tii Musi:.
(Nolc: ? The following art
icle is taken, by permission,
from the December issue of
School Lite. It is commended
to the earnest consideration of
teachers, parents, and Hoards
of Education.)
Rv Edgar 1*. Down,
Principal /'. Willarti School.
The unit-room plan, as worked
out in the Francis E. Willarti
School, Highland Park, Mich., is
an attempt, lirst, to correlate
more closely the work done in
the kindergarten with that of the ?
primary grades; second, to sub
stitute for the so-called "busy
work*' other activities, in the na
ture of problems or projects:
which have educational value '
and develop in the child inilia-j
tive and the power to pursue a
problem through to its end,
whether that end is satisfactory j
or not to the individual; and,
third, it is an attempt to plan
rooms and space for the pupils
in the primary grades so that
they will have an opportunity)
equal to pupils in upper grades,
making it impossible to crowd |
too large a number into a room, i
It is evident that there is need
of a closer co-operation between
the kindergarten and the fust
grade. When a child comes |
from the kindergarten to the first ,
grade it is a great change for him, |
because he has been unused to;
the restraint placed upon him in j
the formal first grade room. It I
is difficult for him to adapt him
self to these conditions. He does
not feel at home and often be
comes tired and disgusted with
the school almost upon his first
introduction to it. No one will
contend that the ordinary class
room for first grade work is
properly arranged or equipped.
Let us compare the work of
the kindergarten with that usu
ally done in the first grade. The
up-to-date kindergarten is usual- j
ly located in a large, airy room, |
well equipped with chairs, tables,]
material for handiwork of var-j
ious soi ls, large blocks, and ev- 1
erything that tends to develop in- j
iliative and freedom for indvid- !
ual activities. The child passes!
from the kindergarten into the|
first grade. In this* room he finds
an entirely different plan. In the
first place, the room is usually I
smaller. The primary teacher
generally has more children to)
look after. It is not unusual to
find a primary teacher attempt
ing to handle as many as 50 chil
dren. In place of the equipment
of the kindergarten for hand
work the child is given "busy
Let us look at the lirst grade j
room to sec how it is conducted.
Suppose thai the teacher has, not j
f>0 pupils but 40, which is not j
far from the average in first j
grades. In order to hold the at- I
tcntion of this large number it is; I
necessary to separate them into
two sections, usually designated '
as section A and section 11. After
morning exercises section A is!
called to the front of the room,
where the teacher undertakes tcj
have a class, say, in reading. A I j
the same time she passes out |
"busy work" to the 20 little cliil-j
dren in their scats, who came |
from the free activities of the
kindergarten only a few weeks
before. She expects these chil
dren to keep busy and quiet while
she teaches the 20 children in the
front of the room to read.
This busy work usually con- j
sists of number builders* word
builders, colored sticks, lentils,
crayolas, paper for cutting, scis
sors, possibly large pencils. The
skillful teacher may provide a i
few other forms of busy work !
other than those mentioned, but t
they are the ones usually found |
in primary grades. If number!
builders are passed out the teach- 1
er probably has placed on the j
board certain numbers and the j
children are to find the proper
number squares and place them
on their desks to make these
particular numbers. Or if word
builders are passed out, words
are placed on the board and the i
child is expected to search thru
these squares for the proper let
ters to make those words. I' I
sticks are passed out, he is asked !
to place them according to some
designated plan or he may be
given scissors and paper for free
hand cutting. Hut in all there is
#io project or problem. There is
nothing in particular to be ac
complished by the work th.il he
does; it is simply to give him
something to do, so '.hat lie v ill
not bother the teacher and the
class that is up in front attempt
ing to do real work.
The children who are at their j
seats doing busy work are get-,
ling very little of real education.
There is no incentive to develop
their initiative; there is no pro
ject to pursue to a conclusion.
In fact, the work that they are
doing during the busy-work per
iod has not only very little edu
icalional value but is stagnating
! to the life of the child. This liap
; pens not only one period a day
j t)iit several periods every day. At
; least four or live times a day each
i section in the primary room is
i given busy work to do. Day al
ter day, four or live periods a
day, 200 days a year, these chil
dren are given the same thing
over and over. It is a wonder
j that children like school as well
i as they do. Kindergartners ami
| primary teachers have been con
scious of these faults for years.
I At every convention held where
there is a primary or kindergart
en program these problems are
The main thing thai seems to
I stand in the way of correction is
the proper arrangement of the
rooms to handle primary chil
dren. It is surprising to look at
; the plans of new buildings erect
ed throughout the country an?l
note the similarity of classrooms.
.Much improvement has been
1 made in planning buildings, but
| very little change has been made
i in the plans of primary class
| rooms.
| The primary unit as devised in
the Willard School occupies the
isanie space that would be occu
! pied by two regular-sized class
I rooms. In the unit that space is
I divided into three rooms, one in
i the center being about the size of
the usual classroom, and each of
the other two being about half
| that size. We shall see how the
lunit plan works out if we think
of the children in two regular
classrooms as being divided into
two groups, one of these two
groups in each room up in the
front for recitation, the other at
the seats doing their busy work;
then take these two groups who
are up in front in these indvidual
classrooms and place one in each
one of the small rooms of the
unit and put the two groups who
are having busy work into the
large room. One unit occupying
the space of two ordinary class
rooms will thus accomodate 80
children, 20 children being in
each of the small rooms and 40
children in the large room.
( It takes three teachers for a
i unit. This may be looked upon
| by some hoards of education as
[involving unnecessary expense,
but why should a teacher attempt
I to handle all day long 40 cliil
jdren who are not old enough to
I set themselves to any certain task
| when a teacher in the high school
| who has pupils who are able to
I work by themselves is required,
and reasonably so. to handle on!v
I 20 or 2.j students?
In the two small rooms of the
! unit all the academic work is
[carried on. The teacher of each
of these rooms is not interrupted
by those who are doing busy
| work. She has only the small j
igroup that she would have at the j
j front of the room under the old j
| custom and can give these chil
| dren her undivided attention,
j The children also are not dis
j traded by the sight of work of a
I different character going on in
[another part of the room. Ac
cording to the program thai is
j now in use, all groups work from
[8:30 till the 10 o'clock intermis
sion in some one room of the uni'..
After recess two groups go from
the two small rooms into the
large room divide into two sec
tions and have the last half of
the morning in the small rooms.
The afternoon is divided in the
same way.
In the large room we use tables
and chairs similar to those in the
kindergarten. There is a black
board along the front wall. Along
the side wall in the place of a
blackboard is a display board ex
tending between the "two doors.
Along the back wall there is a
large cupboard, the bottom part
ot which contains pigeonholes
by f 1 1 b.v 15 inches, where si'
child may keep anything that he
has been working on until il is
finished. There 'is a pigeonhole
lor every child in the unit. Abov ?
this there are cupboards for ma
terial to be used in the large
room. In this room we have t\v >
sand tables, two work benches
six hammers, three planes, brae,'
and halt-inch bit, half-inch chis
el, clay for modeling, paints of
various colors, hand looms, tools
erector sets, two sets of rubber
printing outfits, together with
many other things that children
bring for their own use. Wood
is obtained from the manual
training room and sewing mater
ial from the sewing room.
Constantly in this large room
some project is worked out.
I here is always something dur
ing the year which suggests some
special kind of work. Many chil
dren have projects of their own.
boys are very ;ij?t to have some
thing that they wish to mak<\
and will work and plan for days
until what they have in mind is
accomplished. Some excellent
little pieces of furniture have
I ;ecn made. One boy made a very
good doll bed, because his little
sister did not have one and Ihc
little girl with whom she played!
did have one. The girls dress]
i An attempt is made to correlate }
I the work done in this room with
i that accomplished in the small
! rooms, which is of a fnore aca
demic nature. In the small
rooms the children are not con
fined to desks, although movable
desks are used. They have con
siderable board work and shorl ,
recreational periods so that there
is a change of position and no ?
weariness is experienced for llie
hour and a half that they are in J
[the small room. Drawing, inn- 1
sic, and much of the language, !
dramatization and calisthenics, j
are all taken in the large room, j
The children in the large room >
of the unit who were under tin* j
?>1?1 plan sitting in their seals do- j
ling busy work are given an op- j
Iportunity for self-expression sim
jilar to what they have had in Ihe !
| kindergarten. In fact, the large j
room is much more of a kinder- j
Igartcn room than it is of the old
type of classroom. The children i
are at home when they cornel
from the kindergarten into these!
activities. They break into the'
more formal work of the school |
gradually. They are able to de
velop that self-expression which
has been started in the kinder
garten and is. under the old plan.
[ so quickly cut oil' by the first
This plan is more economical,
for under the old plan only half
of the grade is getting the benefi!
of the teaeher's instruction at any
one time. In this way every
group of children is getting the
benefit of some teacher's instruc
tion all of the time. At first, il
seems more expensive on account
of the equipment, but this equip
ment does not wear out in one
year, and we believe that the re
sults obtained are far greater
than the cost of equipment.
The children who have an op
portunity to go to these unit
rooms arc delighted with the
school work and the teachers are
pleased with the results that they
get. We believe that we have
taken a step toward the correla
tion of the kindergarten and the
first grade which has been sought
for years bv both primary and
kindergarten teachers. We have
been able to east aside the busy
work which for years has been
thorn in the llesii of the primary
Tnnlne, tin' remarkable remedy
that cvervbedy is talking about. U
sold by The Lewislmrg Drutf Store.
Possibility of Saving Coal.
An ordinary passenger .locomotive
consumes a pound of fuel for every
.r>2 feet it travels. Kach unnecessary
ctop. made with a heavy freight 01
passenger train, represents a furl los?
of from .".(Hi j o 7~>0 pounds of coal. do
pending on the weight of the train,
the length of the stop and the grade
conditions. A brake-line a?r leak on
a train of .">0 freight cars has heen
known to eituse n loss of as much as
2, ."to pounds of coal in a ten-houi
period. The loss of coal each time a
modern locomotive pops of. for livi
minutes is ahout 7." pounds*. If loco
motive firemen were to save a Jittlr
more than one shovelful of coal out
of each ton used, the total savin? '
would he equal to nearly one per cmt
of nil the coal handled. ? Floyd W.
Parsons, in World's Work.
He Cured Her.
The iihsent-mindcil hn>hand v,a<
prone to forget the mailing of impor
tant letters given liitn hy hi* wife
when he started on* for the ofliee in
the morning. So she had resorted to
the olil trick of placing n postcard ad
dressed to herself among the enve
lopes. When she didn't receive the
card in the late afternoon mail she
could r?proa?*h ldm at night.
I? was very embarrassing. S?> the
absent-minded husband decided that
lie would have to stop it. One day
be wrote :< message on the buck of
the tale-tellinir postcard. It read:
?No. dearot. I didn't forget to mall
Ihe lei |c:*s." After that his wife aban
doned the scheme. ? Milwaukee Jour- 1
THESE \<=,
Have You Pains?
Feel Nervous and Cross ?
Huntorsvllle. VV. Va. ? "After I
K?>t over the influenza 1 was all run
down and suffered from functional
disturbances. I suffered with bear
ing pains and was so nervous I felt
?b if 1 would po to pieces. 1 was so
cross and easily irritated fh.it my
husband said I was as bad as a
spoiled child, nothing pleased me.
My breath was so short that I could
not walk up hill at all or hardly
walk up stairs. Having U3od Dr.
Pierce's Favorite Prescription with
Kood results when I came into
womanhood I derided to try it
spain. I have taken three bottles
and am feelincr line again ? helped
my husband ip tho fields all sum
mer." ? Mrs. Nellie J. Husch.
Write Dr. Pierce. Pres. Invalids'
Ho'rl in HuiTaJo, N. Y., for freo
medical adviee. or send 10c for trial
pkv. of tablets.
Time to Plant
i.nu the best v;ivirik's uf vegetable
iirui lie- Id mtos ;o plan: l' -r each
jjuvco^e is t* id In the
11*22 Catalog of
X nv reaJy lo be r.icilcu, fYco
m jcq';cst.
Ktduecd pricey :.rr quoted *. :i
r^ce'r. Poultry Supplies, and
lYcd:-. Garden Tot-ls :;r.d Spr.vy
Mai .rials.
\Yr;te for vour copy today.
17 S. 11th St., Iliehmond. Ya.
g , x
r__> ' r
IFT1 i
F v C3
C3 .-V
T. H. JAUlsKTT. President.
lOl.'N* HiNCIIMAN, Vire-Prcsio' t
0. P. M \SSKY. Cashier.
C- 12. rlLDiilClv. Asst. Cashier.
i Undertaking.
A Licensed Embalmcr:
Day Phone 40.
Night Phone X 45.
I C. E. COX & Co.
Lewi sburgW. \ a.
Danish Headaches
^EGLECTF.D Headache* and CcMi ir? ?
triotf ?f*intt health end family wel
fare. D?a't be a ?laee to winter complaint*.
Drn't make yourjrlf u'.eleu and endscter
other* by allowing Cold* to rua their course.
Alway* b?Te HiM'j Caxara Bromide
Quinine Tablet* haod). For Cold*, Head
ache* arid la Grippe th.'y are be?t by te?!
? qoickett lo art and end Cold* in 24
hourr, la Grippe in 3 day*. Safe, depend
able. No bad alter effeel*. No "bead
nontt " Convenient and pleavant lo tak?.
A I All Druggists? 30 Crnts
*'ii i:;u company. rtTRcrt
Feeling "At Home.'*
One of our ambitions is
to have folks feel at home
in this Bank;
to cultvate geniality and good will;
to promote that feeling that the
Bank of Greenbrier
is a home Institution, ready
to serve our home people ai
all times.
You will always find a welcome
here. You are entitled to our time
and attention whether you bank
here or elsewh ere.
Speed Waqon Equipped With
Dump Bodtj and Road Tloater
A REO "Speed Wagon,
j Kquipped with a Koad Floater and Dump l?ody, will replace tip !<?
!six team> of horse? in doing lio.nl work. It lias demonstrated its
| ability t<> do better and farter work than horse-drawn equipment,
ill will .handle gravel at a speed of from ten to fifteen miles an
? hour. At this speed it will spread the gravel more evenly and lill
; up the little cups ami ruts. It has proved equally elective in
i maintaining the ordinary type of dirt, road/'
The Floater, or leveling apparatus, can he hung on either side
jnf the Speed Wagon. It is adjustable to different pressures on the
i road. With. -'a Dump Kody the Speed Wagon will carry practi
i cally a yard of gruvel, '?floating*' the road as it goes along.
I Tin- Floater can be easily removed and the truck used for other
J pu rposes.
Parker Reo Agency,
Reo Motor Car Co., LcwisfcurgJ W. Va.
Lansing, Mich.
! Of (ii'cciihiicr County. Y* est Virginia
Revised January J, 19251.
j Judge Circuit Court ? S. H. Sharp, of
? Prosecuting Attorney ? S. M. Austin.
I of Lcwisburg.
i County Commfssioners ? Tlios. W.
i Shields, Pres., Frankford; E. W.
j Sydenstricker, Lowisburg ; II. E.
| Williams. Trout.
j Circuit Clerk ? W. F. Richardson.
! County Clerk ? l'aul C. llogsett.
Deputy County Clerk ? -Earl C. Watts
! Sheriff ? L. L. Graybeul; Deputies:
S. II. McDowell, W. R. Hunt, J. W.
! Miller.
j Surveyor ? G I>. White.
! Assessor ? E. B. Miller; Deputies:
j W. A. Bivens, J. A. Drown. S. N.J
I Erwin, J. W. Crickenberger.
{State Senators- J. S. Lewis; K. II. |
j House of Delegates ? C. F. McClintic
j II. W. Bivons.
Superintendent of Schools ? L. O.
; lloynes, of Sinoot.
j Jus/ices of the J'carc ?
J Anthony's Creek District? W. S.
Waid; J. N. Foster.
Blue Sulphur District ? A. M. Mc
j Falling Spring District-? M. M.
Purr; W. P. McK?ever.
Fort Spring District ? p. H. Mc
Grath; J. W. Fink.
Frankford District ? Thoo. Brink
loy; A. E. rirant.
Lev.ishurg District ? W. It. Bur
dette; F. M. Arbuckle.
Meadow Bluff District ? Alban Mo ;
Clung; O. D. Rucknmn.
White Sulphur ? It. Lee Harper; J
N\ A. Beckner.
Constables ?
Falling Spring District? -B. T. .
| Fort Spring District ? R. H. Brown j
Frankford ? J. R. Fleshman.
Irish Corner ? W. G. White.
White Sulphur District ? W. O.
? Leach; J. E. Forren. I
! Overseers of Poor ?
! AntV.or.v's Creek District? W. S.
| Waid
Blue Sulphur District-I. D. Bivena.
t Falling Si?i-liiR District
j Fort Spring District ? II. L. Coff
j Frankford Dintrict ? J. F. Bright,
i Irish Corner District
Levisbug District? -J, M. Cunning
Meadow*Biuff District ? W. A. An
"White Sulphur District? J. K.
Williamsburg District ? F. L. Wal
j lace.
Commissioners of Account.'* ? John
I \V. Arbuckle, F. M. Arbuckle,
' Samuel Price and A. M. Tressel.
j W. B. Blake, Jr., of Honceverte,
General Receiver.
Times of Holding Courts:
[ Circuit Court convenes on tho
! Third Tuesday in January; Second
i Tuesday in May, Second Tuesday in
j September.
The County Court convenes on the
I First Tuesday in each of the months
i of January, February. March, April,
[May, June. July. September, October
(November and December; and on
i the Second and Forth Tuesdays in
] Beman Produce Co.
1 (Deuniiig I.iverj Building,)
Roncevcrte. \V. Va.
O/Tera the Best Market
and the Highest Cash
i Price tor your Produce.
Hnttor, Chicken*, Turkoy?f
Wool, Hides, Kuffl, and OinscDg.
I_. XJ 1VA B B R.
? f figuring on Building or Repairing I can Save you Money
Planing Mill Products Aider son. We*! Vpn:ir.?,

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