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THE FREE PRESS.
^ TUESDAY, JANUARY 8, 1822. V . ~T it, A proposition, it will be seen, has been introduced into the Senate, for an inquiry ito the expediency of reducing the com pensation of the members of Congress, j’here is, we think, little probability that ;n0lny reduction will be made, since it is ounce ted with a proposition also to re duce the salaries of the executive officers, pjlany of the members, like some of the jttate legislatures, feel a peculiar delicacy lifn acting on such a subject, unless the of O'cers of the government, and others who Perform the most laborious part of the jtublic duties, are made to yield to that parsimonious spirit which reduced to a ,nere shadow an army which had shed a team of glory on its country, and which aught our enemies how potent is the arm ind how invincible the soul inspired by ,’reedom. It is painful to witness such a ackly spirit of economy pervading the representatives of a nation, which should be as distinguished for its liberality and beneficence as it is already renowned for the valor of its sons and the wisdom of its institutions. Our readers doubtless recollect the ce lebrated General D’Evereaux, the Irish patriot, who raised a corps of his coun trymen for the purpose of aiding the cause of freedom in South America. It appears that he has been recently tried at Carac oas for an alleged offence against the Vice-President of Venezuela, in a letter, containing an expression which gave it the appearance of a challenge. This let ter, it would seem, was dictated by the generous feeling of desiring to protect a lady who was his countrywoman—a feel ing characteristic of Irishmen. The High Court of Justi kquit the General of &ny intention ^ d the Chief who then ruled the ic, and conclude by “ declaring his r? ration and fame to be perfectly unsullied by the affair, and that it is hoped he will continue in the service of his adopted country.” The proceedings in this case are high ly honorable to the parties concerned, and evince that magnanimity of soul and mo deration of conduct which cannot fail to secure to them the high boon for which %iey have been so long and so gloriously contending. An arrival at New-York, in 16 days from Port-au-Prince, brings information that news had been received at the latter place, stating, that the Spanish part of the Island of St. Domingo had been taken by the Patriots, with very little opposition. A New-York paper of Dec. 24 says :— 11 Accounts were received yesterday from Havana, stating that Iturbide, leader of the late revolution, had declared himself Emperor of Mexico.” VIRGINIA LEGISLATURE. THURSDAY, DEC. 27. An engrossed bill “ incorporating the trustees of the Martinsburg Academy,” was read a third time and passed. An engrossed bill “'to extend the act, passed on the 23d day of February, 1820, intitled an act to authorise the notes of the Bank of the Valley in Virginia, and its branches, and of the North Western Bank of Virginia, to be received in pay ment of the revenue of this common wealth,” was passed with a rider propo sed by Mr. Minor. The bill was sup ported by Messrs. Rust, Blackburn, Bar bour, Page, and Shannon, and opposed by Mr. Crump, of Cumberland. FRIDAY, DEC. 28. Mr. Eppes from the armory committee presented a long report, concluding with sundry resolutions; which recommend, 1st, that the operations of the manufac tory be continued on a limited scale ; 2d, tha a portion of the armory be used as (irsenal, instead of erecting an addi nal one as provided for by law ; 3d, it artificers enough be kept employed work up the component materials now hand, to repair such arms as are now the^ armory, or may be returned from ...; dfiilitia ; 4th, to dispose at public auc tion of muskets in repair and unfit by their calibre for field service, &c. ; 5th, to cover the cupola with zinc or tin, and to paint the exterior wood work ; and 6th, to put in order, and then put up in boxes the arms fit for field service. These,reso lutions were severally agreed to by the ^°use. The report also suggests the pro priety of converting part of the armory tnto barracks for the public guard, C7c. REMARKS ON EDUCATION. CONTINUED. FOR THE FREE PRESS. In the thirteenth century appeared Bo naventure, another Scholastic Doctor, a native of Tuscany, and of the Order of St. Francis, who had a seat given him among the Cardinals. He was distin guished by the angelical title of “ The Seraphic Doctor.” The next Scholastic was Roger Bacon, born at Ilchester in England : he studied jurisprudence and medicine, and, contra ry to the custom of the period in which he lived, he employed his time not in the idle speculations and controversies of his contemporaries, but in experimental phi losophy: and was more indebted to his own genius and application to science, than to any academical instructions. To prosecute his studies without interrup- ; tion, he entered a Franciscan monastery. ; He received the appellation of “ The \ Wonderful Doctor,” which, above all the | Scholastic Doctors, he truly merited ; but ! as little curs commonly bark at the rising j moon, without preventing her shining, so i his silly and ignorant contemporaries j barked at him the heinous charge of prac tising witchcraft, and kindled a spirit of envy and jealousy even among his frater nity, who circulated the report that he held converse with evil spirits. We now come to take notice of John Duns Scotus, an Englishman, one of the most subtle Scholastics and a scholar of Thomas Aquinas ; but differing from his master in some particular tenets, he form ed a different sect. Hence came the de nominations of Thoinists, or the followers of Thomas Aquinas ; and of Scotists, or the disciples of Duns Scotus. He pos sessed the art of perplexing things alrea dy too much perplexed, with more chi mseras, fictions and bombast of words. On account of his quibbling dexterity in disputation, he was honored with the title of “ The most Subtle Doctor.” The 14th century produced William Durand of Clermont in France. He pur sued his way through the wilderness of scholastic terms and notions with such perseverance, that he obtained the title of “ The most Resolute Doctor.” In the same century appeared William Occam, born in England, who had been trained up in the school of Duns Scotus, whose disciples professed the doctrine of the Realists, but Occam, in order, no doubt, to become the leader of a new sect, opposed the Realists and revived the doc trine of the Nominalists. He was inimi cal to the See of Rome, and maintained the independency of the civil power, to which the body of ecclesiastics ought to be subject; for which reason he was ex communicated ; but the power of the em peror Frederick protected him. He af terwards received the title of “ The In vincible Doctor.” Amongst the disciples of Scotus we also find Walter Burley, preceptor of Ed ward III. king of England. He obtained the appellation of “ The Perspicuous Doc tor.” Not to detain the reader with a detail of the dogmas, whims and dreams of Ray mund Lully, a visionary adventurer, who was called “ The most Enlightened Doc tor,” we shall proceed on to notice a dis tinguished character, who stepped for ward to point out and correct the perni cious errors of the Scholastics, and ex pose the misconceptions and pride of the Thomists, Scotists and Occamists. This was Herman (Vessel, born at Groningen in Holland in the beginning of the 15th cen tury. He had acquired a great fund of learning and taught philosophy and phi lology in the university of his native place. To John Ostendorp, a young man, who consulted him on the best method of prosecuting his studies, he said :— “ Young man, you will see the day, when the doctrines of Aquinas and Occam and of all the other disputants will be explo ded, and the Irrefragable and Seraphic Doctors will be rendered contemptible.” Facts soon verified his predictions so full of good sense and penetration. The 16th century approached, and with it the revi val of letters, which immortalized the name of Herman Wessel. The Scholastic Labyrinth far exceeded that of the Isle of Crete, and the quibbles of the Scholastic Teachers surpassed in extent the Iiercynian Forest in Julius Caesar’s time. What could a traveller do without any trace of a path to walk in ? Surrounded by leafy trees, bearing no fruit to live upon, and between them brushwood interspersed with thorns and almost too dangerous to pass through. Quiddities before, Haecceities behind— Realities on the right, Formalities on the left; and these filled up with intentions, in termissions, individualities, proportions, degrees, abstractions, infinity, and innu merable other terms of nonsense—all dic tated by the unerring master Aristotle, who according to the Scholastic Dialec ticians, was to form a triumvirate with Christ and Paul his Apostle : and in this there can be no doubt as Vives and Me lanchton, whom we shall have occasion to mention hereafter, declare, “ That Aris totle was read and preached in sacred assemblies instead of the Gospel.” Such then was the education of youth during those periods. Rut is it to be wondered at, that there were so many proselytes made, and so many competi tors arose, when we consider that this art of trifling Was not only sufficient to pro cure the high titles of “ Most Profound, Irrefragable, Universal and Angelic, Se raphic, Wonderful, Most Subtle, Most Resolute, Invincible, Perspicuous, and Most Enlightened ;—but that it was also lucrative in being created Professors, Ab bots, Bishops and Cardinals. Is it won der that the Scholastic Philosophy al most universally prevailed ? We now come to see some twinkling stars, indicative of the morning-twilight, ushering in the ever memorable and glo rious day of the Reformation. A Dante Alligeri, a Florentine, is ob served to lead the way, who as a poet and philosopher was inferior to none. He stands in the first rank of the revivers of learning, and left behind him one of his pupils, Francis Petrarch, a Tuscan, who devo ted himself to the study of the Belles lettres. His father, for lucrative purpo ses, removed from Florence to Avignon in France, and endeavored to persuade his son to study the law, but did not suc ceed. Petrarch chiefly resided in the de lightful vale of Vaucluse near Avignon, where he died universally esteemed and regretted by all those who possessed the powers of appreciating his elegant and useful works. Petrarch might have arisen to the high est preferments, if his noble mind had not disdained all dishonest and humiliating compliances. The most alluring pros pects of advancement and its attendant advantages could not, in the least, shake his integrity. His love of truth had be come proverbial: for when he lived in the family of Cardinal Colonna, a quar rel took place among his domestics, which arose to a serious height. The Cardinal found it necessary to examine the whole, and took a solemn oath of every one to declare the truth ; from which solemnity the Cardinal's own brother was not ex empted ; Petrarch in his turn presenting himself to take the oath, the Cardinal closed the book, and said : “ As to you, Petrarch, your word is sufficient." A serious dispute now arose between the followers of Plato and those of Aris totle, with regard to the merit and au thority of their respective masters. Pletho, who had an unlimited veneration for Plato, violently attacked the dominion, which Aristotle possessed in the schools. Georgius Scholarius, on the other hand, undertook with great zeal and vehemence the defence of Aristotle, and maintained, that the opinions of this philosopher were consonant to the truest and best doctrines of Christianity, and were even more true. He was supported by another of the same school, whose arguments consisted of low words and vulgar phrases, virulence and rudeness, to make impressions on the vulgar and inflame their passions, on which all the truly learned looked with the utmost contempt. [to be continued.] -im Mil INTERESTING FROM MEXICO. MEXICO, SEPT. 28. “ The General (Yturbide) entered this city yesterday, at the head of 20,000 men. The provisional junta is now assembled, and a regency will be formed in the course of a few days. Every thing is perfectly quiet, and every prospect of its remaining so. I send you some public documents, which will convey you some ideas of the state of things here. It has been a most extraordinary revolution, effected with out bloodshed, and has been precipitated altogether by the vile policy of the be loved Ferdinand. It is now well known, generally, that Ferdinand had sent secret orders to Apodaca to overturn the con stitution in New Spain, and re-establish the despotic regime of the Bourbons. Apodaca confided the secret to the seve ral chiefs, among others to Yturbide, who, finding the country determined to main tain constitutional government, hoisted the tri-colored flag, and adopted a policy calculated to deceive Apodaca, who at that time might have crushed him in the bud; but Apodaca allowed it to spread abroad, and it ran through the country like wild-fire. Three-fourths of the Eu ropean troops joined the independents, but had it not been for the opportune ar rival of O’Donoju, Mexico being then garrisoned by 4000 resolute troops, might have shed much blood, and held out a considerable time.”—[Juro7'a. ARKANSAS, NOV. 10. Indian Murder.—Just as our paper was going to press, a gentleman arrived here from the Mississippi, who informs us that a most horrid and unprovoked murder was committed about the last of October, in the new purchase^ in the Choctaw Na tion, on a party of United States’ survey ors, consisting of ten persons—only one of •whom escaped. The murder was com mitted on the lower line, and about 150 miles from Fort Gibson, by Choctaw In dians. The quarrel, we understand, ori ginated in consequence of some trivial af fair. Oiir informant received the above information from Col. Nichols, who pass ed up the Mississippi a few' days since, on his way to the Chickasaw Bluffs, with the Chickasaw annuity/ 'Jt'O THE EDITORS. The belief that the same individual wa& concerned in the composition of the two pieces (“ Remarks on Education” and the “ Inquirer’s” farewell,) was not produced by the circumstance of their appearing at the same time in your paper of Dec. 18, but from the similarity of style and views exhibited in those pieces ; and above all, from the knowledge which the Remarker on Education appears to have had, previous to the publication of the Inquirer's piece, that the Inquirer intend ed to attempt a vindication of himself, and “ to prove himself a native of one of the United States.” The fact communicated in your paper of the 25th ult. that those “ Remarks oti Education” were received a week previous to the receipt of those signed by an Inqui rer, will not remove the general impres sion, that the same person was concern ed in the production of both pieces; on the contrary, it has a tendency to confirm it by proving the Remarker’s knowledge of what would appear over the signature of an Inquirer to be a week earlier than it at first appeared to be. These things, together with some others, which it is not necessary at this time to mention^ have produced, in the minds of many, convictions, which can only be removed by the most unequivocal testimony. Will the editors of the Free Press, who, it i6 presumed, know all about the matter, un dertake to say, without reserve, that th& same person was not concerned in the pro duction of both pieces? fair flay. [We can assure “ Fair Play” that it is no part of our business to pry into the concerns of others, or to trouble ourselves with removing the doubts of every skep tic who may choose to present his sage suspicions to the public. We had sup posed that a solemn assurance would have been sufficient to convince every candid reader of the truth of our assertion in regard to the authorship of the prof ductions to which he alludes. We feel as little obligation to produce what he might deem “ unequivocal testimony,” as we do to state our opinion, that, so fa? from it being his wish to show “ fair play,” he can only be suspected of a spe cies of double dealing. He must conse quently forgive us for declining to gratify his curiosity—since it would be folly to attempt to convince so profound a judge of style of the error of an opinion from which he appears determined not to re cede.]—Editors. DOCT. W. BALDWIN ’M/H’OST respectfully tenders his medi 1?JL cal services to the residents of Har pers-Ferry and also to those of the adjoin ing country. He has taken up his resi dence at Mr. William Graham’s Inn, where, on application, he may be found. FURTHER. He has just received and opened a ge neral and extensive assortment of fresh DRUGS and MEDICINES, all of which he will sell on terms highly accommodat ing to purchasers. Said drugs and medi cines will be exhibited and sold in a part of the store room, on the batik of the She nandoah, lately in the occupancy of Mor gan & Shutt, merchants. Jan. 8. TO TAILORS. THE subscriber wishes to employ tw& or three Journeymen Tailors. None but steady men and excellent workmen, will be received. To such, constant em ployment and the highest wages will be given. URIAH A. NORRIS. Harpers-Ferry, Va. Jan. 8, 1822. |CP The editors of the National Intel ligencer will please insert the above three times, and forward their account to this office for settlement. SALE OF NEGROES. THE subscribers will sell, at private sale, to good masters, Thirty or forty Valuable Slaves, a part of the estate of Adam S. Dandridge, deceased. A liberal credit will be given. PHIL. C. PENDLETON* IT. St. G. TUCKER, JOHN R. COOKE. Jan. 8. NEGROES FOR SALE. WILL be sold, on Thursday the 31st inst. at Robert Fulton’s Hotel in Charlestown, Four Negro Men, one Woman, and two children, belonging to the estate of the late George Washington. One of the men is a first rate blacksmith, and the others are well acquainted with farming. The terms will be made known on the day of sale. JAMES STUBBLEFIELD, Agent for Thomas Todd, Esgr Jan. 8. AN ESTRAY. CAME to the subscriber’s, on Tues* day the 1st inst. trespassing as an estray, a BARROW SHOAT, with an under-bit and a slit in his left ear, and a crop off the right. The owner can have him again, by proving property, and pay ing charges. J, HARDING, Jan.’ 8.,