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THE FREE PRESS.
TUESDAY, JANUARY 22, 1822. VIRGINIA LEGISLATURE. The House of Delegates of this state have been principally engaged, for the last two weeks, on business of a private nature, a detail of which would not inter est the reader. Three new counties have been formed ; ®ne bearing the name of the celebrated Indian princess, Pocahontas ; one named Smith, in honor of the heroic leader of the first settlers of Virginia ; and another to be called Alleghany, On the 8th instant, on motion of Mr. Sherrard, leave was given to bring in a bill to amend the act, entitled “ An act concerning the Potomac river, and for other purposes.” The house spent some time on the re port and resolutions of a select committee on the subject of the petition of the sure ties of John Preston, late Treasurer of the Commonwealth, which rejects the prayer for a release of the interest, and part of the principal, upon the judgment render ed against them by the General Court at their last term. Mr. Morris, of Hanover, moved a refer ence of the resolutions to a select com mittee, with leave to report by bill or otherwise, which was finally carried. Bills have passed both houses “ to in corporate a library company in the town of Hillsborough, in the county of Lou doun,” “ incorporating the trustees of the Martinsburg Academy,” and “to incor porate the Academy in the town of Straws burg, in the county of Shenandoah.” Gen. Joel Leftwich, of Bedford, has been elected major general of the first di vision of militia, to supply the vacancy occasioned by the resignation of General .John Pegram. Gen. Robert B. Taylor, of Norfolk, has been chosen major general of the fourth division, to supply the vacancy occasion ed by the death of Gen. Alexander Parker. Col. Bernard Peyton has been elected adjutant general of the militia of the state, to fiil the vacancy occasioned by the re signation of Claiborne W. Gooch. William G. Pendleton has been re-elect ed register of the land office. The Enquirer thinks the session will be a protracted one. REMARKS ON EDUCATION. CONTINUED. FOR THE FREE PRESS. While the Swiss Reformers made this bold attack upon false philosophy and cor rupted theology, an obscure individual arose on a sudden in the year 1517, who became the great leader in the long ex pected Reformation: this was Martin Luther, who was born at Eisle ben, a town in the county of Mansfeld in Upper Saxony, in the year 1483, and be longed to the mendicant order of the Au gustines, and at the same time held a pro fessorship in the academy of Wittenberg, which, a little before that time, had been erected by the elector Frederick, surnamed the Wise. In a letter to Jodocus, a pro fessor in the University of Erfurt, a zea lous defender of Aristotle and his former preceptor, he stated his aversion to the philosophy of Aristotle and Porphyry, lodocus looked upon the contents of this letter as innovating and dangerous, and was much offended with Luther, who 'soon after wrote him a second letter, in which he boldly declared, that the Scholastic Philosophy and Logic must be exploded, and a new system introduced. Luther in his youth had studied the writings of Augustine, the founder of his Order, with great diligence, and made himself thoroughly acquainted with the doctrines of Aquinas and Duns Scotus, and had attached himself to the Nomi nalists ; but on mature inflection and de liberation, he changed his opinion. He considered the Scholastic Philosophy as pernicious to liberty, and as the source ot innumerable evils. He expressed the greatest contempt for Aristotle and his admirers, and declared with more pro priety than that philosopher had done: £< I respect Socrates, I respect Plato, but Truth I respect much more/’ What busi ness have we, he often exclaimed, with the trifles and cavils of Aristotle, concerning matter, form, motion and time ? for they cannot contribute any thing towards our knowledge either in theology or philoso phy. Was Luther then an enemy to phi losophy ? No, indeed 1 for we have suffi cient testimony from his own words, that he was a real friend to sound philosophy. The qualities and talents that distin guished Luther were not of the common or ordinary kind His genius was truly great and unparalleled ; his memory vast and tenacious ; his learning extensive ; his magnanimity and fortitude invincible and independent of all the vicissitudes of hu man life. His fortitude was put to the trial, when he appeared before the Diet, assembled at the city of Worms to plead his cause. Promises and threatenings were employ ed to shake his firmness and weaken his resolutions, but they were employed in vain. Neither the power of the emperor, Charles V. the presence of the German princes, nor tile archbishops, bishops and abbots, who composed the Diet, could in fluence or intimidate the intrepid mind of this Reformer to change his purpose, to make any concessions or abandon the cause he had undertaken. He declared in the presence of that whole assembly, that he would not recede one single step from the positions he had maintained, un til the Diet would convince him by the true Word of GOD and the dictates of right reason, that his opinions were erro neous and his conduct unlawful. In a few words, vast was the extent of his learn ing; irresistible the energy of his argu ments ; unshaken his constancy; and all his views were disinterested. He was superior to all selfish considerations ; a stranger to the luxuries of life and every sordid, avaricious feeling; and as he con sidered every thing as subservient to truth, so he expected submission to it from eve ry body. His constancy did not, for a moment, forsake him even at the approach of death. He died in the year 1545, the 62d of his age. He had begun the Re formation in his 34th, and was engaged in it 28 years. The elector of Saxony ordered his fune ral to be celebrated with the ereatest so lemnity. - His doctrines affected and interested not only Germany, Europe, and the age in which he lived, but the world and pos terity. Another illustrious instrument of the Reformation and Luther’s colleague in the University of Wittenberg was Philip Me lanchton, horn in the town of Bretten in the former palatinate of the Rhine (now Baden) in the year 1497. At the age of 12 years he was sent to the city of Hei delberg' to commence his studies in the academy. He there distinguished,, him self by his great capacities, his politeness and mildness of temper, that he eiroved the friendship and confidence of his pre ceptors and many'learned men. Such was his proficiency that, at 14 years of age, he wrote “ Rudiments of the Greek Lan guage,” and paid particular attention to rhetoric and ancient history. From Hei delberg he was sent to Tubingen in the duchy (now kingdom) of Wuertenberg, where in his 17th year, he received the degree of Master of Arts, and became a teacher of the Latin language and rheto ric. In the Scholastic controversy he at tached himself, as Luther had done be fore, to the Nominalists. From Tubingen Melanchton was, through the favor of Frederick, elector of Saxony, removed to the new academy of Wittenberg, which had been erected by that prince, and af terwards formed into a university, where he was made a professor. At this time the. Reformation was in a progressive state. Luther immediately embraced this favorable opportunity of entering into friendship with this young but extraordinary man. The happy ef fects of this union were soon experienced. The Reformation received in Melanchton a strong and ornamental pillar. His knowledge in the humanities and theolo gy was extensive; his comprehension of the most abstruse things, quick ; his ge nius fertile. To Philosophy and the Belles lettres he rendered great service. By purging literature from the dross mixed with it, he was able to rouse in the most persuasive and powerful manner the youth of Germany to adopt the cause he recom mended, and thousands flocked to his standard. Throughout all the schools of Germany a spirit of emulation was exci ted by his useful writings. Flis whole design in all his labors was to free the schools from the puerilities, froth and nugatory arguments of the Scholastics. His warning voice extended wide and far: “Students, trifle not your time away in philosophical nonsense, lest you loose even commonsense.” Melanchton had purged the Aristotelian philosophy from errors in.such a manner, as to produce a new system, which after him was called, the “ Philippic Method.'” It may he asked, how can two men of opposite dispositions and different natu ral tempers be supposed to unite ? and if such a union should happen to take place, it could not, on any ground of reason, he of long continuance. Luther zealous, hold and of an independent spirit—Melanchton circumspect, timid and yielding, it might reasonably be thought, that there could not he any congeniality of spirits between them : the case, however, was different. Melanchton moderated Luther’s zeal by his circumspection, and restrained, in a certain degree, his boldness by his own mildness and timidity. Luther’s zeal, on the other hand, roused the languid spirit of Melanchton ; and his boldness changed Melanchton’s timidity into heroism : for when certain and just occasions demand ed and the time of danger approached, then this wonderful man, whose timidity bordered on cowardice, was totally chan ged. Protected by the shield of truth, he wielded the sword of argument to great advantage. He had a delicate constitu tion, but his temperate mode of living enabled him to struggle a considerable time with his bodily infirmity. Fie had the pleasure of seeing his labors prosper in his hands, and died in the 63d year of his age, leaving behind him an immortal name. [to be continued. 1 Caesar A. Rodney, now a representa tive in Congress, from the state of Dela ware, is elected a Senator of the United States, from that state, for six years from the 4th day of March last. FROM THE WEST INDIES. NEW YORK, JAN. 8. By the arrival last evening, of the brig Mattewan, Scribner, in 16 days from Cur racoa, we have received from our atten tive correspondents, regular files of pa pers to the 15th ult. inclusive. By this arrival, we learn that the U. S. brig of war Spark, capt. Elton, has arrived at Curracoa on the 9th Dec. from a cruize to windward. The second expedition of general La 1 orre, consisting of the Hercules brig of war, and 10 other vessels, with between 5 and 600 men on board had made a land ing at Los Sagos, in the gulf of Maracay bo. A curious sight must have present ed itself on the landing of the troops; every soldier having in addition to his baggage, a pig, a turkey, or some other description of live stock, slung over his shoulder. A felucca belonging to La Torre’s ex pedition having a great quantity of arms and ammunition on board for the use of the troops, ran ashore at Cumarcbo, and was taken possession of by the Indepen dents. Bolivar is reported to be in Maracaybo with six thousand men, and was about to proceed with this force for the reduction of Puerto Cabello. By this arrival we have received the IMPORTANT INTELLIGENCE OF THE INDEPENDENCE OF SPAN ISH ST. DOMINGO, being a confirma tion of what we published a few days ago. It appears that the whole of the Spanish part of the Island of St. Domingo, had de clared its independence of Spain on the 1st of December, by the unanimous voice of the people, not a drop of blood having been spilt, nor any excess committed on the occasion. The ACT OF DECLA RATION consists of 39 articles, but from the late hour it was received at Cur racoa, they had only time to translate it as far as the ninth, which, however, are said to contain its principal features. Extract of a letter, dated HAVANA, DEC. 14, 1821. “ The cruizers are again plundering the vessels of the United States, as soon as the latter leave the coast, and there are now three out from Regia, full manned, who board every vessel they fall in with, and have this week ransacked several, and maltreated the crews. We do not know where the vessels are who were sent out here for our protection, as none of them have appeared for manjfc^iys^ nor entered the port. “ The Cabildo of Guatemala has invi ted the Cabildo of this city to follow their example and become independent ; to which the latter have given an angry re ply, and have published the letter and answer. The captain general has added an address to the loyal and constitutional people of Havana and the island. “ A new election has taken place; the deputies illegally elected to the Cortes are left out, and new ones chosen in their stead. “ Our market offers no encouragement to ship any thing to this place at present.” The following intelligence is extracted from a letter received at Annapolis by the sch’r Mary & Ann, capt. Gates, arrived there in 14 days from Aux Cayes : PORT AU PRINCE, DEC. 7. “You have no doubt ere this heard of the energetic measures taken by the Pre sident to compel the inhabitants to indus try—-he has given orders throughout the republic to put the whole military force in requisition to enforce his orders that every planter should cultivate all his plantations to their full extent. “ News has arrived here to-day, of the taking of Carthagena by the Patriots, which gives a fine opening for specula tion. Flour is selling there at 30 to $>35. “ The city of St. Domingo had also de clared itself independent. The Patriot flag is now flying on its walls.” As Dick and Tom in fierce dispute engage, And face to face the noisy contest wage; Don't cock your chin at me, Dick smartly cries; Fear not—Tom's head's not charged, a friend replies. 'IThe next number (26) will com plete a half year of this paper, (exclusive of the period of its suspension.) Those who feel disposed to discharge their sub scriptions are respectfully informed that the payment of TWO DOLLARS, at any time previous to the first of February, will be considered in full for one year's sub scription, and will very materially aid the establishment as well as subserve the inte rest of our patrons. Distant subscribers may transmit the amount in any of the notes of solvent banks. Persons indebted for advertising and job work will confer a favor by discharg ing the same. The number of deaths in Baltimore da ring the year ending the 1st of January, 1822, were 2015, of which 423 were of colored persons-—935 were under 20—892 under 60—and 188 above that age, of whom 15 were between 90 and 100, and 5 above 100 years of age. There were 173 persons died of yellow fever, and 336 of consumption. FIFTH CLASS WASHINGTON MONUMENT LOTTERY, BEING for the completion of the no* bie work,in the city of Baltimore bearing the above name. SCHEME. 'IL 1 prize of §30,000 is 1 prize of 20,000 is 1 prize of 10,000 is 5,000 is 3,000 is 2,000 is 1,000 is 100 is 50 is 20 is 10 is 2 prizes of 2 prizes of 2 prizes of 20 prizes of 50 prizes of 100 prizes of 500 prizes of 6000 prizes of 830,000 20,000 10,000 ■ 10,000 6,000 4.000 20,000 5.000 5,000 10,00.0 60,000 §180,000 6,679 Prizes—13,821 Blanks. 20,000 Tickets. Stationary prizes as follow: First drawn 3000 blanks each §10, First drawn number - §300( First drawn number 4th day lpoo First drawn number 6th day 1QO0 First drawn number 8th day 2000 First drawn number 10th day 1000 First drawn number 12th day 1000 First drawn number 14th day 1000 First drawn number 16th day 10,000 First drawn number 18th day 1000 First drawn number 20th day 1000 First drawn number 22d day 5000 First drawn number 24th day 1000 First drawn number 26th day 1000 First drawn number 28th day 20,000 First drawn number 30th day 1000 First drawn number 35th day 30,000 This lottery will commence drawing o?i Friday the 22d of February, the birth-dajfl of Washington. Tickets are now selling at §10 ; shares} in proportion. Punctual attention will be paid to ders (post paid) from all parts of tV ted States, addressed to W. C. CONINE, No. 32, Market street, Baltim |CjP Prize Tickets in the di_ teries, and most kinds of foreign notes received in payment for tick Ail lottery information given gratis. Baltimore, Jan. 1822. Great Gain ! Little Risk ! THE Lottery for the benefit of the UNIVERSITY of MARYLAND is regularly drawing, in the city of Balti more, once a week. Twenty drawings are over—-ten more remain to finish it. No prize has yet been drawn over g> 1000. Prizes undrawn are*— 830,000, 10,000, 3 of 5,000, 11 of 1000, 4 of 500, 60 of 100, besidefc numerous smaller ones. Tickets are now selling at 12 dollars, but will shortly advance to %15. Particular attention will be paid to all orders (post paid) addressed to Lottery & Exchange Office, 32 Market street, Baltimore. Warranted undrawn tickets will be furnished at the same price they are selling at in Baltimore at the time a letter directing tickets is mailed. Baltimore, Jan. 1822. FERRIAGES. I 4 LL persons indebted to me for ferri j\ ages are requested to settle the same immediately with William Cahill or my self. Those neglecting this solicitation will have their accounts placed in the hands of an officer, without respect to persons. JAMES B. WAGER. Jan. 22.. PUBLIC SALE. % %7^ILL be sold, at sheriff’s sale, on ff Saturday the 26th instant, at Jo seph Spencer’s tavern, at Mud Fort, all my HOUSEHOLD Sc KITCHEN FUR NITURE, amongst which are Beds and Bedding ; there will also be sold, a Milch Cow, and a quantity of Plank and Scant ling. The sale will commence early in the day. THOMAS THROPP. i Jan. 22. NOTICE. HAVING dissolved partnership with my former wife SUKEY, I feel it my duty to inform the public, that 1 will be responsible for no other debts, after this date, than such as are contracted by # myself, no person having authority to con tracts debts on my account. WILLIAM PRIMM, Who is ever ready to wait on gentlemen at their houses, or elsewhere, to dress their hair or shave them, in the most ap proved style. Jan, 22.