Newspaper Page Text
1 US' If Ml &.V t',A A Country of Many Revolutions and Numerous Political Changes. WAS ONCE PART OFVENEZUELA T&Zs 1 4 A *. IIow Her Liberator, Simon Bolivar, lrSnw ti'.Vrs W Future Importance of the Isthmus.—The Cities of Pan- ••••:, .:••• nina and Colon* |HE recent revolution and se cession of Panama from Co lombia enjoys the unique distinction of being the only bloodless revolution on rec ord among the chaotic and liot-blcoded people of the South American countries. Revolutions and uprisings are of frequent occurrence. The people are, as it were, to the manner born. They were brought up in the School of bloodshed and turmoil by their Spanish conquerors, and have never un learned the lesson so cruelly taught. The news that a revolution has started in a certain country excites no wonder and commands little attention. It is what is expected. The revolutions come and go with almost as faithful regularity as the changes of the moon. And the rev olution which has just severed the isth mian province from Colombia would be no more noteworthy than the dozens of other revolutions which have torn the nations of South America and changed the map many times, if it were not that in this instance not one drop of blood has been shed, and the United States in a peculiar way is involved in the po litical upheaval. It was only two years ago that Co lombia was kept desperately busy by Gen. Uribe-Uribe and his anti-govern nadagmait Jirpft hot on the isthmus at that time, and theunuea States was forced to warn Colombia to observe the international treaty and keep the traffic by way of the railroad across the isthmus open on pain of inter vention and 'the landing of marines to take charge of the railroad. In Novem ber of that year, after the revolution had been raging for over three-months, the insurgents captured Colo^i, the terminus of the transisthmian railroad on the At lantic ocean side, and the United States landed marines to preserve order and keep the railroad open. The close of No vember saw the retaking of Colon by the government troops, the surrender of the insurgents and the suppression of the rebellion. During the fighting on the isthmus the use of the railroad for the transportation of troops was denied both to the government forces and the in' surgents. tura, on August 14,3S19, the republic of Colombia was solemnly created. Two years later the battle at Carabcbo, near Valencia, which proved to be the Yorktown of the war of the patriots of the north of South America, was fought. Five days later Bolivar, the president of the republic of Colombia, entered in tri umph the city of Caracas, and the Span ish yoke forever cast aside. But anew tyranny arose in tiie republic thus formed—the tyranny of internal strife and bloodshed. The union between Venezuela and Colombia lasted only until 1831, when the former withdrew, and since that time the relations be tween the two countries has ranged from that of a state of cordiality to bitterest hate and antagonism. But the history of the- two countries is inseparably linked, and although Bolivar was born at Caracas and hencc a Venezuelan, he was the liberator and founder of the republic of Colombia. But following close upon the separa tion of Colombia from her union with Venezuela came almost a continuous war between the federalists and liberals for 30 years, and since 1863, when the present constitution was adopted, revo lutions have occurred almost faster than the historian could record. Back and forth, up and dow*. over the coun try has bloody, petty war raged, until the last outbreak in 1901 and the very re cent bloodless revolution, which gave to the world a brand new republic. Bolivar had large visions of the future of the countries of South America. And the important relation of the isthmus to the welfare of Colombia and Venezuela was realized even at that early day. He declared of it: "This magnificent posi tion between the two great oceans shall be in turn the emporium of the world. Its canals shall shorten the distances of THE CATHEDRAL AT PANAMA. The revolution of 1901 was marked by International complications, and while actual war did not occur between Co lombia and Venezuela, they came dan gerously near it several times, and both countries contributed to the cause of the insurrections in the two countries, for Venezuela was torn by internal strife as well as her western neighbor and former partner in government. In both countries there has always been a bit ter struggle between the liberal parly and the clerics. At the time of the troubles of 1901 the clerical party was in power in Colombia, and in Venezuela the liberals held control. Colombia was in sympathy with the insurgents of Ven ezuela and the Venezuelan government entertained a similar feeling towards the revolutionists of Colombia. Gen. Uribe-Uribe, of the latter country, sought and obtained the help of Presi dent Castro, of Venezuela, and in turn the revolutionists of Venezuela were ac corded active assistance by the govern ment of Colombia. Colombians led by the Venezuelan rebels invaded Venezu ela at Las Cambros. President Castro protested, and then, following the ex ample of the sister republic, he sent arms find men to the Colombian revolution ists at Cucuta. On another occasion 800 Venezuelans went to aid Gen. Uribe Uribe at Rio Hacha. Thus it went back and forth until the final suppression of the insurrections in both countries. The spectacle of these two countries so bitterly antagonistic to each other would never suggest that once they were joined in the close bonds of political unity. But history brings to light many ^g^sntrasts, and we find that in 1819 under the" patriot Bolivar the two countries •were welded into one republic. Co bia Wa.3 then known as New Gran- Ti name given it by the Spanish con qeuror Quesada in 1538 in remembrance of his native province of Granada. After a bloody struggle of years, which is only equaled by the efforts in Peru and oth er South American countries to throw off the yoke of t/ie rrael Spanish op pressors, New Granada succeeded in gaining her liberty under the leadership of Bolivar, who then proceeded with his army to Venezuela, where, at Angoa- the earth. How grand it would be if the isthmus of Panama could be to us what Corinth was to the Greeks'." This was written by Bolivar in 1815, in what has been called his "prophetic letter." As early as 1828 a survey was made of the IbtUliltlO ww Several others followed during the suc ceeding years, and in 1872-75 th'e Unit ed States completed the most complete survey of any which had been made. The Colombian government graf ted in 1S77 a concossion to a Frenchman named Wyse for constructing a canal. This was the concession hich later was bought by the Panama Canal company formed ly De Lesseps, and in the Hay Herran treaty which the CoJombian congress refused to ratify the United Statee proposed to purchase these con cessions for $40,000,000, and to pay to Colombia 110,000,000 for the privilege of constructing the canal, and securing po ssession of a strip of land on each side of the proposed canal. That Colombia now realizes her loss in the secession of Pan ama is evident from the desperate efforts she is making to bring the province back into the Colombian union. The republic of PanaVna which has been formed by the revolutionists is about 450 miles in extent from east to west and in width varies from 30 to 70 miles—an area jf about 31,500 square miles. The population, as estimated by the statistical'bureau of the department of commerce at Washington, is 300,000. It is chiefly the seacoast that is inhabit ed, most of the interior being dense jungle and is for the most part unex plored. The city of Panama is credited with having a population of 25,000, and Colon, the other chief city of the new re public, is much smaller, having only 3,000 people. This is accounted for by the fact that Colon was founded at the time of the building of the railroad across the isth mus in 1850-55, while Panama was founded in 1519 by Pedrarias over 300 years earlier. Morgan's bucaneers burned the place in 1G71, and two years later it was rebuilt. It is a cathedral city, and cn Sunday the bells ring clam orously, and the people quite largely go to church, but the rest of the day is spent in anything but a Sabbathlike way, for cock and bull fights and other sports fill the remaining hours of the day. Colon is distinguished by the fact that it contains the palaces erected by Ferdi nand De Lesseps and his son, who ex pected to see Colon become a mighty city when the canal had been completed. About their palaces, which are now go ing to ruin, the city was '.aid out on a grand scale. An iron market house, large enough for a town of half amillion inhabitants, was put up, and along the wide streets lines of cocoanut trees were planted. To-day, it is said, that Colon is as ragged as any town on the hemis phere. Carrying? It to Extrcnieiv. "How many eggs was in that btiskei you sold to the commission man?" ask ed the farmer. "I don't know," replied the hired man. "What?" shouted the farmer. "Didn't you count 'em?" "No, sir, I was always told never to 'count chickens before they were hatched.' "—Philadelphia Ledger. T* FAVORITE SONS "T .'.i/V-rtf Glimpse of the Possible Presidential Nominees of tKe Democratic Party. Hon. DeLVid Bennett Hill. Of the several men mentioned as possible nom inees of the democratic party for president few have, in many ways, a more interesting personality than Hon. David B. Hill, of New York. There are probably none who better understand the working of the political machinery than he does none who are so familiar with the uses of the small wheels in the party organization, a familiarity he has acquired by almost a life-long connection with politics, during which time he 'lias served the pub lic in many positions, ranging from near the bot tom to near the top. The general public scarcely realize that Hill has passed his sixtieth birthday. They are inclined to think of him more as sun a young man than one who is nearing the end of his allotted years. For more than one-half of his life he has been closely connected with the public service in some way or another. As alderman and mayor of Elmira, N. Y., he has delved into the mysteries of both ward poli tics and municipal government. As state assemblyman, as lieutenant gov ernor and as. governor of New York for six years he had every opportunity of familiarizing himself with the workings of the party machinery in the ytate, and this service gave him an opportunity for attaining a leadership In the party which he wielded for a considerable time, and which he still wields to a considerable extent. Hill was at the zenith of his power in 1892, and in that year was promi nently mentioned as the democratic candidate for president. He was then a United States senator, whi\h place he continued to fill until retired in 1897. Since that time he has not held any elective office. f'' *, Hon. Arthur P\ie Gorman. Senator Arthur Pue Gorman, of Maryland, the present leader of the democratic party in the upper house, has had a unique career, and has for years been one of the stalwarts in the party organization. Senator Gorman may be said to have entered public life in 1852, at 13 years of age, when he was appointed a page in the United States senate. Since that time he has spent over 33 years in the senate, 14 as a page, serving in that capacity until 1866, and nearly 19 years as a United States senator, serving first from 1881 to 1899, and being again elected last year, beginning his present term, which expires in 1909, last March. During this long service he has been familiar with the men and incidents which have made some of the most interesting pages in American history. Though Senator Gorman has devoted the greater part of his life to pub lic service, he is a leader in commercial lines and a power in the financial interests of his state. Three years after closing his career aa a page in the senate he became a director in the Chesapeake & Ohio Canal company, and since 1872 has been the jjresident of that eompany. Aside from this he has many other inteersts, from all of which he has derived a considerable fortune. From 1852 to 1899 Senator Gorman held public office of some kind prac tically continuously. When he left the senate as a page in 18G6 he was ap pointed internal revenue collector for the Fifth district of Maryland. He held this office until 1869, when he was elected a member of the Maryland house of delegates, where he remained until 1875, from 1873 to 1875 as its speaker. In 1875 he was elected to the state senate, and remained there un til chosen United States senator in 1881. Beginning life with nothing more elaborate than an elementary education in the public schools, Senator Gor man has certainly had a unique career during his 64 years of life, more than 48 of which has been spent in the public servicc. ,• Judge Alton Brooks Pa.rker. Judge Alton Brooks Parker, of New York, is the youngest of the men prominently mentioned as •a possible nominee of the democratic party for president. He is but about 61 years old, being born on May 14, 1852. Judge Parker has never figured in the admin government" to~ any 'con siderable extent in any capacity. His connection with the public service has been confined to the judiciary, though he has acquired some knowledge of the practical side of politics by having served as chairman of the democratic state executive committee of New York in 18S5, but he has not mixed in the workings of the party organization in a way that would give him experience with the minor details of ward politics. On the bench Judge Parker has earned an enviable reputation. For five yefirs he has been chief justice of the court of appeals of New York, the highest post in the judiciary of the Empire sta(:e. Previous to that time he had been in the appellate division of the court of general term, i\nd served as surrogate of Ulster county from 1877 to 1885. In 1885 President Cleveland offered him the post of first assistant postmaster general, a position which he refused. The year previous to that he had been one of New York's dele gates to the national democratic convention, and an ardent supporter of Cleveland for the nomination. As a boy Judge Parker .was favorable to the law as his life vocation, and his education was along that line. After leaving the public schools at Cort land, where he was born, he entered the Cortland academy, and from there went to the Cortland normal school, completing his education at the Albany law school. 6 Judge George Gra.y. Judge George Gray, Delaware's favorite son for the democratic presidential nomination, is best known to the general public as chairman of the coal strike arbitration committee appointed by President Roosevelt, and as a member of the Span ish war peace commission. In fact, in addition to Judge Gray's connection with the Spanish war peace commission, he has served the government on other occasions in the settlement of difficul ties with foreign nations. He was a member of the joint high commission which met at Quebec in 1898 and uadertook the settlement of tlie fish eries troubles and the adjustment of the Alaskan boundary, and in 1900 was appointed a member of the permanent court of arbitration at The Hague to represent this coun Much of the training that peculiarly fitted him for these duties was acquired while serving as a member of the foreign relations and the judiciary 'lommittees of the senate in 1896. The first public position filled by Judge Gray was that of attorney gen eral of Delaware from 1879 to 1885. In the latter year he was elected United States senator from Delaware, and remained in the senate until 1899, when lie was appointed to his present position of judge of the United States cir cuit court for the Third judicial district by President McKinley. At the time of the adoption of the silver platform by the Chicago con vention Judge Gray withdrew from the party and joined the gold demo crats, working for that ticket throughout the campaign. He was born May 4, 1840, and graduated at Princeton in 1859. He later took a special law course at Harvard, and was admitted to the bar in 1863, and began practice at New Castle, Del. His present home is at Wilmington. Hon. David Rowland Francis. Missouri has a favorite son to present to the democratic national convention next year in the person of Hon. David Rowland Francis, the presi dent of the Louisiana Purchase exposition. Throughout Missouri he is known as Gov. Francis, he having served as chief executive of the state from 1889 to 1893. That, however, is not his only claim to fame, for previous to his tern as governor he had served as mayor of St. Louis, and was for a time a member oi President Cleveland's cabinet as secretary of the interior. Outside of Missouri he is best known t6 the gor.eral public as president of the Louisi&na Pur chase exposition, and as such his reputation has extended beyond the boundaries of our own country and covers much of the civilized world. In the interests of the exposition he has traveled Lhrough Europe and was lavishly entertained by the crowned heads of that continent. Though he has filled important positions in the municipal, state and na tional governments, he is more business man than politician. Coming to St. Louis when but about 25 years of age, he engaged in the grain commis sion business, and out of it has builded a fortune. He is at present con nected with many of the industrial and financial enterprises of St. Louis, and with a number of charitable organizations as well. lie is not a native of Missouri, having been born at Richmond, ICy., in 1860. His education was acquired in the public schools and at Washington university, from wh'ch he graduated in 1870 W '"ja it BED OF AN EMPRESS. Empress Josephine Slept in It Daring Her Uncertain Reign at Pontaineblenu. Peculiar interest attaches to the luxu rious and beautiful bed, a picture of which accompanies this story, and for the reason that Empress Josephine slept in it while she reigned at Fontaine bleau. The heavy curtains with their fringes and tassels, and the catafalque like appearance of the whole arrange ment are not to our taste to-day, but the Interest of the piece is intensely human. Indeed, the bed, which is still at Fon- EMPRESS JOSEPHINE'S BED. tainebleau, is a simple piece of furni ture, and much less distinctive than sev eral other pieces which were fashioned during the epoch of the first empire. There are Roman fasces both at the head and foot, together with the pa terae and the gilded floral scrolls which are characteristic of the style of th/g day. The pillows have the wide apart stripes which are still a feature in the revived empire fabrics. While Josephine was in favor with DAINTY MAX OWEN, The Detroit Free Press describes the new flower sachets as daintiness per Eonified. be used to accompany other gifts, such as handkerchiefs, corset-covers, arti cles of a trousseau, etc., and as whist, dinner and cotillon favors they are in great demand. Appropriate ornaments on an evening gow.n, they are also for lingerie sachets—and may, in fact, be put to any purpose which an ordinary sachet can serve. Napol-eon this was the !ciperlal couch, but when misfortune crowded thick upon her it was deserted.—Detroit Free Press. ENEMY OF GIRLHOOD. It Ilulns the Complexion and Diges tion ol Sweet Seventeen and Doctors Call It Anemia, Health controls the complexion throughout the whole course of exist ence, but perhaps never more palpably than about the age of 17. Anemia is the greatest enemy of a beautiful complexion that girlhood can encounter. It results in pallor, in blemishes, such as spots and blackheads, and in that general appearance of deli cacy that should be a complete stranger to youth. Unfortunately just about the age now under consideration girls are so busy over their books and so eager to excel in their school examinations that instead of aiding and abetting their elders to improve their anemic state, and so to alter their muddy and unat tractive complexions, they do all they can to further the inroads of weakness by working indoors too much and stay ing up too late at nights. The anemic girl, whether she must work at her booka or not, must be dosed with iron for months and months. It is the paucity of iron in her system that makes her lack of color in her cheeks. There are several well-known preparations of iron that will suit the sufferer, but it is always well, if possible, to consult a doctor as to the most effi cacious one to be had in pills and in so lution. Iron can be taken in pills for the sake of the teeth, and in solu tion for the sake of the digestion. But while one girl can take three pills a day, and in course of time even eight, nine or ten, another cannot take more than two in 24 hours. That is why a doctor's advice is so necessary. The more open air the anemic girl gets the more quickly she will overcom« her weakness. She must live on fresh air just as much as on milk and fresb meat, and every other kind of nourish ing food. Not only must she take ex ercise in the open air. but her sleep ing hours must be supplied with it, and her sitting-rooms always have an open window in them. Rich food is not good for the anemic patient indeed, the simpler the existence the better.—Cin cinnati Commercial Tribune. Dainty Sachets for Daintu Women sachets in great number and variety have made their appearance among this season's holiday gifts of the more'simple type. Indeed,the present faB.CX._for. them amounts almost to a craze. Handmade articles of almost any description may nowadays be bought at :he stores, and this is a welcome fact to her who has not the time or skill or patience to make them. But girls who have acquired considerable pro ficiency with the needle, and even a fair amount with pencil or brush, may get up these very same things and it is they who are always on the alert for new and attractive ways to test their skill. But, simple as they are, neat ness and precision, are necessary for good results. These perfumed trifles make admirable Christmas souvenirs, and when sent as such should be placed In a tiny box and tied withjjold cord or with baby ribbon. They may also The narcissus and pansy sachets here pictured require one-inch satin ribbon. The narcissus petals, of white ribbon, are cut nearly an Inch and a half long, and the rounded portions, which end in very slight points, should start a lit tle past the middle of each strip. The square ends are then carefully turned under, preparatory to shirring. For the center a bit of ribbon half the petal's width Is used. The upper edge of it must first be outlined with a touch of yellow paint, or it may be closely over cast with yellow silk. The five petals and the center are then shirred together and fastened, firmly, to a tiny sachet, half an inch wide and about an inch long. It is made of white satin ribbon, of course, and Is solidly packed with sachet powder. In the pansy one's own Why ISycbnllN Arc White* The eyeball is white because its blood vessels are so small that they do not admit the icd corpuscles. ideas as to cclor may be worked out. The design illustrated has the two up per petals of lavender and the remain ing two of white ribbon. A single strip of lavender and one of white—each a trifle less than three inches long, are used for four of the petals, the lower one being single. The pansy petals are rounded consid erably. Place them as In the illustra tion, fastening to the sachet, and put ting in the center cither with paint or embroidery silk. A wild rose is made of pink ribbon and has fine crushed pet als, rounded as in the other flowers, but slightly indented at the top—somewhat resembling a heart. The center is yel low. The larger rose sachet Is used as a corset pad. A half yard of live-inch liberty satin ribbon, preferably pink or white, is gathered into five loops. Then a small center of gree.n silk is worked in, and from it are brought a dozen or more stamens of brown and yellow em broidery silk, each ending in a small jl French knot. The rose is loosely fas tened to the tufted sachet-pad, measur ing four by five inches, made of -ib bon and lightly wadded. A daisy mVy be fashioned on the same plan, in foul* inch ribbon, either yellow or white. Two strips of ribbon six inches long are used, the petals shaped like those of the narcissus. The heart-shaped corsage sachet ol white satin is to wear around the neck beneath one'e lingerie. The rolled rib bon edge and bow make a pretty fin ish and it is suspended by a ribbon. This should be placed in a dainty heart shaped box before sending us a Christ mas gift. Another corsage sachet on this order consists of two pads about two inches square with a small bow in the center of each. They are fastened to the ends of a strip of baby ribbon. For the Japanese sachet make of Jap anese silk a bag two and one-half bv thre3 inches, and in the top fasten a Japanese (foil head. Around its neck a ribbon is tied, stock fashion. The most popular sachet odors at present are sandal wood, orris and tht Japanese perfumes.