Xhe Body of James Smithson Is at
Rest in Washington.
THE INSTITUTION HE FOUNDED
I*«t Important Center of Scientific
tteaearch in This Country—Re
tlliement of Secretary Hoot—
National Capitol Gossip.
Washington.—James Smithson, the
English founder of the Smithsonian
saw the United
States while he was
living and it ia fit
ting that his body
should be brought
here now 75 years
after his death to
rest for all time in
the shadows of the
as his real monument.
Smithson was the natural son of
James Smithson, the first duke of
.'Northumberland, and it was not until
after his father's death that lie assumed
bis father's family name. Up till that
•time he had gone by his mother's name
and was known as James Lewis Macie.
He had an ample fortune which, he de
voted to scientific research. He was
•graduated at Oxford and then spent the
•rest of his life traveling on the continent
•engaged in scientific observations.
Wherever he went he carried with him
portable laboratory and a large col
lection of gems and minerals.
He was a member of the Royal Society
•of England and of the French Institute.
He died in Genoa in 1829 at the age of 65,
:and left his entire fortune of ?600,000
•to a nephew, with the proviso in this
will that if the nephew should die with
out heirs the entire property should be
"left to the United States for the pur
.pose of founding an institution at Wash
-$ngton to be called the Smithsonian In
stitution for the increase and diffusion
»of knowledge among men."
The nephew died in 1835, and the prop
erty, amounting then to ?50S,318.4G, came
Into possession of the United States gov
ernment,. resulting in the establishment
-of the Smithsonian Institution in 1846.
Smithson's body has rested ever since
Siis death in the cemetery at Genoa, and
Jtere it mighthave remained indefinitely
bad it not been for Alexander Graham
Sell, who started a movement to have
the body brought to the United States.
He enlisted the support of Secretary
Moody and other officers of the adminis
tration, with the result that atter the
arrival of the body at New York it was
brought to Washington on the steamer
Dolphin, thus giving to the transaction
tie official flavor which it deserved.
The Smithsonian IiiHtltiitlon.
It-may be doubted whether Smithson
Siad any conception when he put the al
in his will to what
extent his bequest
would grow, end
the far-reaching re
suits it would have.
His original be
quest has multiplied
like a grain of mus
tard seed. Under
the direction of the
S it so an
government in the
£a*t half century
lias expended millions of dollars in sci
entific research, and some cl the most
eminent scientists in the world have
been in its employ. Last year th •.
amount appropriated lor the support of
the institution was $678,400, a sum sur
passing the entire original becuest. Tins
year estimates have been laid before
aongress calling for an appropriation of
The institution has become the most
Important center ot scientific activity in
isjsfchc United States, and there is nothing
$«4anywhere else in the world that sur
tWspaases it. The original institution build
.Wfivfng—one of the most beautiful structures
ft:, .architecturally in the United States—is
w©*the nucleus for a greaj. and constantly
^'.texpanding system. The ethnological
m.\i: bureau costs $50,000 a year. The govcrn
f-:?aieiit is at an expense of nearly halt a
'^million dollars a year to sustain the
'^national museum. The zoological
cpark on the outskirts of the city, con
staining one of the finest collections ol
vanimals in tne world, costs $100,000 a
#ia»year to maintain.
Smithson gave his money to a coun-
try which seemed to him to be poor and
struggling simply because he was enam
Mfc&ored of the principles upon which the re
IfeigMiblic was founded. His body will rest
•pfc'iwider the shadow of the institution
which bears liis name, in the midst ot
A?.- ooe of the most beautiful cities in the
:%^*rorld and one of the wealthiest.
,• Retirement of Hoot.
Secretary Root retires to private life
... the first of February more generally
regretted than any
official of the gov
ernment who has
left its service in a
is hardly another
instance of a man
coming to Wash
tively unknown ex
cept for a local rep
utation who lias
won for himself so
high a place in so
short a time. The
nearest approach to it in rcccnt years it
•Olney, who came into Cleveland's cabi
net with no national reputation at all
•and who was regarded simply as a suc
cessful corporation lawyer of Boston,
ftifiked up by Cleveland for som? particu-
lar reason of his own. Olney became
the strong man of the Cleveland admin
istration, both as attorney general and
as secretary of state.
Root came here with more of a reputa
tion than Olney, because he had played
on the larger stage of New York life and
had been more or less conspicuous in
local politics in a somewhat academic
way. Few realized that he had in him
the stern stuff he has developed. Even
before his retirement he was recognized
as one of the two greatest secretaries ot
war in the history of the government,
and there are some who believe that if
he had been confronted with the momen
tous problems Stanton had to solve he
would have shown qualities superior even
to those of Lincoln's great war secre
There is no doubt that Root's experi
ence in Washington has broadened him
and ripened him as he has risen to meet
each new emergency. He knows more
about men than he did, and is less char
acteristically the corporation lawyer
than he was. He will go back to New
York to take unchallenged his place at
the head of the New York bar, a dis
tinction which he seems to prize more
than any other that can come to him.
Gov. Taft, who will succeed him at
the head of the war department, is a man
of perhaps equal
ability, but of ail
temper. He is
younger for one
thing, and he is
personally more ot
the hail iellow well
met. Taft was so
licitor general in
tration and he was
then one of the
most popular offi
cials in Washing
ton. He is remem- Secieiarj Taft.
bered even now for his genial qualities,
as well as for his official success. He is
a big fellow physically, with a face not
altogether unlike that of Cleveland.
Taft has great courage, as Root has,
but it may be that he will be more in
clined to listen to argument than Root,
and there may not be the up and down
determination which has characterized
the proceedings of the war department
during the past four years.
Root has been the trusted adviser of
two presidents of opposite tempera
ments—McKinley and Roosevelt. It ia
hard to say which leaned, on him most,
and it is certain he has been intensely
loyal to both. Taft at the beginning can
lvardly hope to fill Root's place in that
regard, wnatever may come later.
••-•A CnrrtiiKC Qnc«tion.
The burning question as to whether or
not assistant secretaries and chief clerltg
shall have car
riages at the gov
has been agitating
the bosoms of the
house of represen
George II. Wil
liams, former attor
ney general of the
United States dur
irg Grant's at'min
istration, and still
a man ot tonse
quence Oregon, must chuckle to him
self if he ever reads the Washington dis
patches. Vi llliams, one ol the ablest
men in Grant's cabinet, and nominated
by Grant to be chief justice of the su
preme court, was lampooned irom one
end of the country to the other tne
democratic press and gained tne nick
name ol Lancauict" because Mrs. W il
liams trove about in a handsomely up
holstered lanuaulet iurmshed by the
government when she made her social
calls. For some reason that was regard
ed as reprehensible :n those days, eve
though Williams wis a member ot tlio
cabinet. But now, 30 years later, the
carriage habit has become so lixed that
very little excitemnut is created outside
ot congress when the question arises as
to the advisability ol allowing the privi
lege to chiet clerks in the uepartments.
The house of representatives very
properly voted that no part ot the ap
propriations sl'ould be used for carriages
unless t.lie» were specially provided in
the legisla ivc bill, and tor a time that
will do away with carriages except lor
members of the cabinet and two or three
others but, as a matter ot fact, the car
riages in very many instances are really
a necessity, and they will gradually
creep back one by one through legiti
There is not a government official in
Washington below the cabinet ranic
who can afford to keep a carriage on his
LOUIS A. COOL1DGE.
Lucky Stngrc I'rlfillt.
One of the most striking anecdotes
told in Hermann Klein's "Thirty Years
of Musical Lite in London," relates to
Anton Seidl's first interview with Wag
ner, in the library at Wahnfried. Seidl
found the room dark and, imagining
nobody was there, lie pulled out his
letter of introduction and began silent
ly rehearsing the speech he had pre
pared. Suddenly, from out of a gloomy
corner, Wagner appeared, and Seidl
was so nervous that he could not bring
out a sentence of his speech. This
proved to be his salvation, for Wagner,
declaring, "11 you can work as well as
you can nokl your tongue, you will do,"
engaged him on the spot.
SuiTffis of K!MftrocuHo«.
Attorney General Cunnen, of New
York, has received a communication
from a man in Michigan, who inquires
whether electrocution is an effective
punishment lor the crime of murder,
The attorney general iu reply stated
that so tar as he is awaru no man who
has suffered tnat punishment ever
again committed murder or iny »thei
By HON. C. W. RAYMOND
Jadge United States District Court for Indian Tei»
ritory. Late Vice-Prcsideivt Illinois
In all the years of civilization his name will be a beacon to lovers of lib
erty and government by the people.
He believed in law, and license to do wrong was chief among his hates.
He believed in liberty, and gave a life in proof of his belief.
He believed in justice, and strict constructionists were ever making ac'
cusation because he leaned too much to mercy's side.
If precedent stood in the way of right he pushed it from his thought
and signed a bill of rights giving liberty to black as well as white.
His heart was kind to his fellow men.
Forgiveness was the motto of his daily life.
Charity was the prayer which led the business duties of the day—and
love as wide as earth gave tone to all his deeds.
He played no game hurtful to moral life.
He signed no law not sanctioned by honest thought.
He made no speech which after years did -not applaud and praise.
He did no act which brought the blush of shame to face of friend or foe.
He did what none have yet accomplished—fought a civil war of fright
ful magnitude and forced the vanquished by sheer love and charity to gather
at hrs bier and tomb and there she.l tears over the silent heart they had
helped to break.
To the Great West the ideal man in
politics is the great war president.
"Lincoln is the typical American. He
worshiped at the shrine of liberty. His
Book was conscience. His creed was
justice. His text was truth. His speech
was honor. His prayer was for the pub
His music was the Battle Hymn of
the Republic, and from his benediction
the sweet incense of charity perfumes
the century and the world. God was his
ministering angel and he a willing sub
Like the great Moses of Israel, from the top of fame's lofty mount he
was permitted by the Almighty to view the promised land and Era of peace,
but not permitted to enjoy the fruits of his great labor and wisdom. He
left us to finish the journey alone, an. id cheers for the return of peace, amid
universal sorrow tor the departure of his great spirit.
His life is the marvel of a marvelous century.
Born in a cabin as lowly as the Saviour of man, he saved a nation.
Reared in obscurity, the light of his noble deeds shines in every corner
ot our world.
Surrounded by bitter poverty, "ie passed on life's highway every favored
man of the century.
Passijig his youth among the ignorant and lowly, he achieved, a dis
tinction, the just pride of the Anglo Saxon race.
Coming to manhood with few ot the graces of education he led easily
the most gifted of his countrymen.
As a river boatman he touched elbows with the meekest of the Republic.
As a merchant he earLfcd the title of "Honest Abe."
As a lawyer he ran tad with the leaders of a bar noted for its dignity
As a politician he leaves to posterity a rich legacy of consistency and
As a legislator in Ilhnos he laid the foundation of an endless fame.
S As a member of congress honor and character gave prophecy of future
lovalty and integity.
As a private citizen he was the political leader of his state.
His first inaugural address is now a part of the world's choice literature
and stands side by side with the Declaration of Independence.
His speech at Gettysburg will live as long as the oration of Demosthenes
on the crown.
His second inaugural should find place in the text books of our schools
and colleges and be read with Washington's farewell address to the American
His humanity will ever keep his liame in the list of the world's heroes.
Ten thousand years may come and go, but the fame and face of Abra
ham Lincoln will stand out in history then as clearly defined an.l noble as
it does to-day.
Stand as securely fixed in manly politics as Shakespeare stands in litera
Stand as heroic rn the nudst of times full of conflict as Alexander or
Caesar stand war.
Stand as steadfast and true in lessons of patriotism as shine the names
of Kossuth and Washington.
Stand in deeds of nor.or and valor as imperishable as Cromwell or
Stand as strong in statecraft as stand Pitt and V, ebster.
Stand as noble character and performance of duty as live Luther
and the Martyrs.
Stand as a doer of imperishable deeds as stand the names cf Wellington
He was a genius without allow
Slis Iteply to Committee.
Lincoln day this year brought out
several characteristic stories ot the
martyred president, some ot which
may be new, all of Which are good.
One relates to that extreme, correct
ively critical attitude which Secretary
Seward always maintained toward the
Mr. Lincoln and the secretary had
managed to escape from a man who
had been boring them, and, as Un
reached the house, the president
threw himself into an armchair, and
"I3y jingo, governor, we are here!"
Mr. Seward replied by asking, a
Mr. President, where did you learn
that inelegant expression?"
Mr. Lincoln immediately turned to
several young men who had entered
the room in time to hear the exclama
tion, and said:
foung gentlemen, excuse me for
sfi-' Iring before you. 'By jingo' is
swearing for my good old mother
tauglii me that anything that had a 'oy'
before it is swearing. 1 won't do so
LINCOLN'S SHREWD ADVICE.
lie Dlsplnycd the W ixiloin of Solomon
in bottling (tdarrei lie
I ct-n Neinil bor*.
Abraham Lincoln, the lawyer, was
one day confronted by a complaint
against the trespassing chickens of an
indifferent, neighbor. Because ol ihe
lnendly relations existing between the I
two families, the client did not lavor a
lawsuit lulling the chickens might
cause a loud, and a higher tence would
be an insult.
"A hopeless case," said Lincoln:
"you are taking the remedies from
nie. However, come back tomorrow."
The next day Lincoln learned from
A patriot without pride cl self.
A true American whose life and conduct should b? example lor us all.
In God's great gallery he is nature's master piece.
WHY LINCOLN QUIT BY JINGO. his client that he had two children,
and his offending neighbor tliree.
(ircni 'War I'rexiiiciii Ad sis it Jus- "Go home," said the lawyer, after
»t sern'tar)1 si'wani'* iiriirouf grave reflections, "boil a dozen eggn
hard, and color them alter the manner
ot Easter eggs. Alter each visit from
your neighbor's chickens place one
ot the eggs in the yard. Your chil
dren will find them, and when they
question you, credit the eggs to the
A few weeks later the client entered
Lincoln's office and said in explana
"When my little ones learned the
source ol those colored eggs, they were
wild with glee, and with them tanta
lized their little neighbors.
-"Then the neighbor's children tried
to keep the chickens at home, and my
little ones tempted them away. After
each visit there was a colored egg, and
"Those children worried themselves
sick, and made their parents frantic.
This morning a load ot palings and
barb wire arrived at. my neighbor's."
"I thought the plan would work,"
I,i.hoolit'm lluy Crop.
A story of Abraham Lincoln would
have to be older than the one "oelow
to lose its characteristic savor
In the summer ot 1857 Mr. Lincoln
was sitting in lus ofhee, when he' was
visited by one of his neighbors, an
excellent farmer, but. one inclined to
increase the size ot his crops, even
after harvesting. He had given iin
this particular morning a skillfully
padded account, ol the hay he had
"I've been cutting hay, too," re
marked Air. Lincoln.
"\vhy, Abe, are you larming?"
"What von raise?"
"Good crop this year?"
"Mow many tons?"
"Well, I don't know lust: how many
tons, Simpson, but my men stacked all
they could outdoors, and then storvt'
the rest in tlio barn."
THE LITTLE HEART.
A little Heart hid a thought ot spfte
Deep in its innocent white away
And It whispered when tt knelt to pray:
"Nobody knows, for it's hid from sight."
But the little Heart was wldft av*ke,
And the silence spoke to It and said:
"O dear little Heart, the thought is red.
Like a danger sign tor saftty's sake."
The little Heart heard, but heeded not
And it nursed tile thought, and kept It
Safe from the tempest of inward storm—
And thought: "In the morn 'twill Oe lor
But the blue sky wept: the sun was sad
And the roses hune'Taeix Jaint heads,
Dropping tears on the viotet beds
And the little Heart was tar from glad.
So the ugly thought was thrown away.
And a lovely one came In its place
Then smilc-s arose In ea-ch flower face—
The sun came out, and the Heart was gay.
—Etta Wallace Miller, in Youths Com
CARLO, THE DOG HERO.
Broke Away from Tramp Who Had
Molcii Him and Saved Hi» Mau
ler from Drowning*
Carlo was Frank McMillan's dog, and
a fine specimen of the canine lie was.
Mr. McMillan had brought him from
Scotland. He was a Scotch collie, and
was only a few months old when he
landed in America. Carlo was a favorite
with the whole family, especially
with the two boys, William and George,
who had not yet reached their 'teens.
They delighted to speak of Carlo as "a
gift from Uncle George, of old Scot
The pup was strong and healthy, and
soon developed into a large, muscular
dog. His intelligence seemed to be
above that of the average. No pains
were spared to teach him, and as a
result his training almost equaled that
of a performing dog. Mr. McMillan
lived near a river, and' the boys' great
est delight was to throw sticks and
other small objects that would float
into the water, and liave the dog swim
in and bring them to the shore.
When Carlo was about two years old
these boys went to visit their Uncle
Harry, who lived about 30 miles dis
tant. When on the point of starting
they each extended a hand to Carlo,
and he in return extended his paw to
"shake" as intelligently as a human
being would have done. The boys
charged their parents to "keep him
company" while they were gone.
Now it was midsummer, and as Mr.
Raymond had a son between the ages
ot William and George, they spent a
great deal of their time in outdoor
sports. The nver was only a few hun-
CARLO, WHO SAVED IliS ilASTlCli.
died yards away from the house, and
the boys had a boat in which tlicy took
a row each day. One day, while they
were out rowing, George's hat dropped
into the water, and in frying to reach
it he lost his balance and was precipi
tated into the stream. I-Ie could r.ot
swim, and the other boys set up a great
cry for help, but were so excited that
they could do nothing themselves.
George soon disappeared beneath the
water, but as the stream was of no
great depth at thatpoir.t he almost in
stantly reappeared at the surlace. Then
the two boys in the boat saw some
thing resembling a dog seize their
drowning companion by the collar of
the coat, so as to keep his head above
the water, and make for the shore,
which he soon gained, never relaxing
his hold on the boy till he had him
safely on terra firma. Then he bound
ed a few feet away ar.d vigorously
shook himself. It was Carlo!
George was badly scared and some
what the worse for being strangled,
but he soon recovered. The other boys
hastily rowed to the shore. In their
joy to see Carlo, William and George
almost forgot their adventure. Carlo
was a hero, but they could not unravel
the mystery surrounding his appear
ance upon the scene. He had a leather
F'.rap around his neck, as if he had
been led by it.
They went to the house and related
their adventure. Mr. Raymond told
them that he had seen a tramp passing
by an hour or two before, leading the
dog, and going in the direction of flie
river. Then they believed that he had
been stolen, and this belief was con
firmed next day, when they had a letter
from their father, saying that Carlo
was missing, and ihat a tramp had been
seen a few miles away with a dog an
swering his description. What if the
tram]) had not stolen Carlo!—F. M. Bev
erly, in Oran?,e Judd Farmer.
here ltrides Are ISoiiKlit.
A wedding engagement in Turkestan
begins with the payment of a substan
tial consideration to the girl's parents.
If the girl jilts her lover, the engage
ment gift has to be returned, unless
the parents have another daughter to
give as a substitute.
BRANDING THE THUMB.
How Malefactors Were Ilrandcd li
4£nsland for Committing
Those "good old days." How simple
and direct were their methods in all
things relating to the preservation of
the social system, especially that part
relating to the punitive, some hundred
years or more ago! If you don't believe
it, look at the picture of the holdfast
with a hand in position that secured a
malefactor condemned to have the for
ever disgracing "M" brand on hfs thumb,
and near it bangs the terrible branding
Instrument. These articles are to be
HAND IN HOLDFAST.
seen to this day hanging in the dock of :o
the crown court at Lancaster castle, in
England. The prisoner's left hand was
thrust into the holdfast and there locked,
while the jailer seized the red-hot iron
and pressed it with might and main on 'c
the malefactor's thumb, thus marking
him for life, and preventing honest men
from giving him employment on his re
Prisoners appearing in this court were
invariably compelled to hold up their
left hands, in order that the jury might
see whether there was a previous con
viction against them." It is 100 years
ago since this barbarous punishment
with the branding iron was meted out
in Lancaster castle.—N. Y. Herald.
A CITY OF PIGEONS.
Constantinople Is tlie Home of In
numerable i'locks of Gray W liitc.
Birds of This Spvcies.
Constantinople is sometimes called
the City of Dogs, but it might be called
as well the City of Pigeons, for the«
pretty gray white birds are there in in
They are protected and fed by the
Turks, who hold them and the spider in
great veneration. The reason they give
is this: When Mohamet, the great
prophet, was fleeing to Mecca he found
one day that his enemies were in close
pursuit, so he hid in a cavern on the
road to Medina. After he got in a pair
of doves immediately built their nests
and laid two eggs at the mouth of the:
cave and a spider flung his web across
it. When the pursuers came along they
stopped, but seeing the nest, with the
eggs and the spider's web, they said:
"No human being has been here," and
on they went. This accounts for thi»
Turks' veneration for the dove and ten
derness for the spider, which tliey never?
These doves have a great kindness,
for the morques, wh-re tliry form great
garlands of black and white along thee
cornices ar.d about the platforms of the
inare1s. One reason for this may be
that in the courtyards of the mosques
there are always fountains and trees,:
while the imams, or priests, keep a hag
of corn or millet reed on h».nd to fted:
them. Many of the sultars, as well as.
private indi''idi'?lp, h?vo left n'or^v in
tlieir wills for the maintenance of Ihcte
holy birds. One mosque in particular,
built by Sultan Bayezid II.. is generally
called "Pmcon Mosque." or. account of
the specially large number of birds that
make their homes there. The tradition
about this is that when the mosque was
building a poor widow wished to help.
She had no money, hut she had a pair
of pigeons, so she gave these, (he best S
she had. The sultan was so pleased with
the gift that he decreed that no ono
should disturb the birds and their de
scendants. and so they have increased
and multiplied beyond calculation.:#
These piseons know a stranger, and as
soon as they see one enter the court
yard down they come, a feathered
whirlwind, with a sound like the roar
of a cataract, ready for the corn which
they have learned to expect. A Turkish
imam stands under the archway with
a basket of corn, which he sells to the
visitor for a few cents, just as the chil
dren here buy peanuts to feed the ani
mals at the circus or zoo.
At the mosque of Eyoub, which the
Turks consider too sacred for Chris
tians to enter, there is in the courtyard
th3 fountain called ""Pigeon fountain.
Close to the fountain is a beautiful
plane tree, which is something like our
buttonball, and when it is a hot day the
pigeons leave Ihe roofs and minarets
and settle under the thick leaves of the
tree until it looks as though there were
more pigeons than leaves. An old, gray
woman is employed to feed these birds.
Monkeys Cnudfht by Strataeem.
Ring-tail monkeys, one of the most
valuable and expensive of the smaller
animals, are caught in an interest
ing way. A cocoanut is split in two
and a banana with a piece cf wood
running through it placed lengthwise
through the nut, the two halves of
which are drawn together by wires.
Then a hole is cul large enough for
the monkey's paw to enter. The mon
key spies the tempting nut from nls
tree, lie hops down, looks it over,
sees the hole and smells the banana
inside. He is fond of: bananas. Put
ting his paw \n, lie grasps it, but the
wood preven'rs it from coming out.
Then the catchers appear and the mon
key runs for a tree. Put he cannot
climb because of the cocoanut on Ilia
paw, and he will not 1st go of that,
so he is captured, pawing wildly at tht
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