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TALK OF HEW YORK
DOINGS IN METROPOLIS THAT ABE INTERESTING. •M- OLD AND VALUABLE FENCE A Belie of Colonial Says That Is Being Preserved—Shopping Trust Is \, Possible—The Cost of Living. I New York.—That New York has a fence 130 years old. and more, of which it is so proud that it will spend a lot of money to pre serve it from de struction may sound inconsistent with its sorry repu tation for irrever ence. The fence is an ordinary looking iron affair, rather he a tioned and covered to the thickness of a quarter of an inch by successive coats Ye Old Pence. of paint. Rather a shabby fence, the more so as some mischievous person seems to have broken off all of the knobs from the tops of the pickets. One is tempted to suspect bad boys "in the next block," where the bad boys always live. In fact, the knobs were broken off four generations ago by grown men who wanted them to use as chain shot to shoot at King George's soldiers. There was in those days a statue of King George—on a horse—standing within thefence. That, being of good solid lead suitable to a monarch whose virtues were of leaden dulness rather than' bronze vigor, was broken up and moulded into bullets. For the little enclosure where it stood was the famous Bowling Green, then the fa vorite meeting place of patriots, now a tiny patch of green surrounded by 16 and 18-story buildings. The great $GO,000,000 subway—that portion which is to duck under the river to Brooklyn and which was two years later than the rest instarting—is leisure ly creeping down Broadway. No trace of it is seen upon the surface of the street. Here there is no offence and dis grace of streets long uplorn. At night a tew feet of Broadway are dug up. Be fore morning dawns, and with out inter rupting a car, plank bridging is substi tuted for the pavement and under this cloak of concealment digging goes for ward. Right under the spot where George looked proudly forth uponatwo Btory town of his subjects the mole-like highway of -the 32-story town which repudiated him is soon to be bored. Then the fence will come down. Every sec tion will be numbered and put away in %trict order and when the excitement is all over it will be put back again as good as ever and as available for showing to British visitors. Millions for Shopping Headquarters. Not a large transaction, as such mat ters go, the formation of an $11,000,000 merger to take over the management of a chain of great de partment stores is a sign of the times. The syndicate thus being formed is to take charge of a great shop in Chi cago, one in New York, another now being built here and one soon to be started in Boston. The average capi talization will be Shopping Trust Due? nearly, in time per haps quite, $3,000,000 per shop, and as none of it is for sale, there is no reason to suppose it watered. John Wanamaker •will have upon the completion of the an nex to his shop, once A. T. Stewart's, a far larger amount investelTin two shops,1 one in Philadelphia and one in New York. When the great Philadelphia shop is completed, by sections, so as not too greatly to interrupt traffic, I suppose these two places of retail trade will be worth some $10,000,000 each. There's nothing new in the plan of the merged shops. Years ago the famous "Scotch Syndicate" established a chain of drygoods shops in a number of New England towns, mainly for the economy of buying in large quantities. The.next great combination, and still in certain ways the most interesting, was that of three brothers of German birth in New York, who brought together practically under one management wholesale houses in the lower Broadway region, a great new shop in New York, one in Brooklyn under a different name, glass factories In Bohemia and other productive enter prises in different parts of the world. Will There Be a Shopping Trust? Of course a big drygoods trust, bigger than a mere "chain" of three or four houses, big enough to control the trade in any city and per haps in a number of cities, has been oft en talked of as pos sible. Looking for an Open- Pose o£ Lots of men now living can remember the beginnings of the big store develop ment in New York. In my first years in the city I heard from the lips of James Ridley himself how he started in busi ness on the corner of Grand street and Allen in a shop about 20 feet by 40, tended only by himself and his wife and by their sons as they grew big enough. Upon the same site he had then—20 years, ago— raised a mammoth structure with 2,000 employes. Nor was he an old man at the time. Neither Ridley shop nor Ridley name ia now in evidence upon Grand street, which for all its high-sounding name has become the main thoroughfare of the great East side Ghetto. Upon the Bite are half a dozen enterprising stores kept by Hebrews. The big stores are all with the single exception of Wanamaker, whom the Stewart tradition keeps to the ancient site, moving uptown. Even the "Big Store" of the Siegel-Cooper Co. no longer the property of the original own ers, is now rather far downtown, al though only a few years built. Wana maker alone is within two miles of Bowling Green and the ancient city. The most curious movement in shop dom now in New York is its centrifugal tendency. It is not now mere thread and needle shops alone that cling to the outskirts of the city, but great depart ment stores are springing up, or growing by degrees as "Ridley's" grew, in the heart of the outer wards, ten miles, it may be, from the city's center. The chief shops in Harlem to-day would have been colossal in the heart of town ten years ago. Women will not travel an hour and a half from Jamaica, for instance, to do a trifle of shopping that can be arranged for at an enterprising place near home. Perhaps that fact is at once the answer to i.he question why there is no shopping tr?.st, and the reason why youngmen to day have bright opportuntities in re retail trade. The Cost of Living. The same cause that feeds the subur ban department store feeds the suburban real'estate dealer. Agentsin the cen tral portion of the town ,are higher than in any other city in the world, except perhaps Ber lin, in proportion to wages. Years ago $5,000 was the top figure for the year ly rental of a flat. In the new "St Re gis" on Fifth ave nue one can pay $10,000 a year, and not be paying as high a rate of inter est upon the landlord's money at that. BMtUM The Spring HOUM Hunting. The same disparity between rent and income worries the poor man that brings puckers into the brows of the $10,000 a year family trying to live beyond its means. New York people habitually ex pend from 25 to 33 per cent, of their in come upon rent. As you approach the very pqor the proportion increases. In a fairly n&w tenement in the heart of the slums, surely not a pleasant place to live, rents range from five dollars to seven dollars per month for each tiny room. A suit of four apartments would cost $20 to $30 per month, much more than that if there was a bath or an exceptionally endurableoutlook. That sum would hire a whole house in the outer parts of Brooklyn. New York affords the cheap est as well as the dearest of everything. The outer wards afford rentals of ab surdly low proportions not to be sur passed even in Philadelphia, This perpetual drift of people to the outskirts has its political meaning. It is really half the secret of some of New York's surprising political overturns. The Churches Going Uptown. Churches scamper along with the rest of the procession. Almost the only a churches now left downtown are those which are cher ished for their his torical associa tions, like old Trin ity, St. Paul's, with its back contemptu ously turned upon r. a Prophesies. I haven't seen a sign of such a trust as yet. The nearest approach to it is a sort of loose combi nation between sev eral great firms, mainlv for the pur- securing ing united action in the matter of keeping down advertising rates, and hardly more of a real trust than a bar association is a trust of lawyers. But pernaps if Wall 6treet had not fallen upon such evil days yte should have heard of it. Broadway and its face to the river, the old John Street Methodist church and a few others in the same venerable class. Dr. Park- hurst's church, Dr. Rainford's and Dr. Greer's, now Dr. Park's, are exceptions. The two latter are institutional churches of vast activities, to which the neighbor hood of the tenements is a necessity of usefulness. The former is now almost the only political pulpit in New York. It is not so far downtown as the others named, either the point in its case is that it succeeded in selling its old site with out taking that opportunity of moving north. Instead, it is to erect a new church right across the street from the old' one, which is scon to be replaced by a section of what will be the largest of fice building in New York, the great Metropolitan, which is growing piece by piece upon the ruins of two churches, of the beautiful old Academy of Art and of several of America's famous historic homes. For neighbors besides this enormous two-acre structure, the Park hurst church will have the beautiful ap pellate courts, one of the many scattered buildings which in New York compare favorably with the best of Paris. Dr. Parkhurst is almost aloue an.ong conspicuous clergymen in delivering po litical prophecies with the old-time zest which made Beecher's public utterance so piquant. It was Dr. Parkhurst whe predicted that two weeks after Tam many's gaining possession or the munic ipal departments New York would bo "Hell1 With the Lid Off." It isn't true Except perhaps locally and furtively un. til the lively young Mr. MeClellan hears Of it. OWEN LANGDON. of a woman's wardrobe, and although details are very important, I advise people to be careful in the selection thereof. Such details as collars, ties, cravats, veils, tulle and chiffon bows, ruffles, stoles, berthes, sleeves, sashes, etc., are but fashions of an hour they re quire wearing with care and discrim ination, a few times Ironing, and then the rubbish basket! It is the same with artificial flowers When-fresh and really good they look charming, but directly they get a little passe nothing is more tawdry. A Hodgepodge of Fashions ALWAYS think the fal-lals of dress offer great tempta tion to the ordinary woman. As a matter of fact, a great deal too much money, out of a small dress allowance, is squandered on the trifles Fashion to-day decrees, and very rightly, that though our blouses and skirts need not exactly match they must be in harmony. That is to say, with a gray cashmere of crepe de chine skirt we may wear a blouse or picturesque bodice made of lace, but connected in some way with the skirt. We may not wear a black skirt and a cream lace blouse, but if we don a pale green cloth skirt we may wear a pale green chiffon blouse. We hear of the ready-made black silk skirt, and we realize that it is a most useful 8tand-by in our wardrobes in cases of emergency, and if we have a variety of black blouses they are all very well, but they will not do to wear with our pretty, dainty lacy tea-jacket such a combination looks exceedingly com monplace, and the little coatees at once A DAINTY VIYELLA BLOUSE. appear to have been manufactured out of sale remnants. Personally, I always think- a com promise in these matters is a mistake, and the best plan is to turn a toilette de reception of some lacy confection into a five o'clock picture gown, tea gown, or whatever you like to call it. There is a great fancy this season for the cream under-dress, covered with black Chantilly, black net or some oth er soft, light black fabric. Nothing is more useful than this and the same idea may be carried out with coffee lace over white which, in my opinion, is prettier still. A careful planning of these slips Parisian couturieres are more or less always faithful to the fashions asso ciated with the days of Louis and of Josephine. In the return to the old-fashioned chines, both for linings and underskirts, and, Indeed, for entire gown as well, we HAT OP B1.ACK CHIP DRAPED WITH CliANTlLLY LACE. I note the influence of La Pompadour, and this also appears in millinery in the form of wreaths of little button Banksia roses. These have been worn in the coiffure for some time past as well as on the debutantes' ball frocks they now have a revi^l on the early spring millinery. Then they have been copied in the little straw roses which have been a feature of the new flat plate-like Parisian chapeau. In some of the old brocide evening dresses we se# a revival of tha Louis with overdresses will be quite certain to ensure your having gowns suitable for many occasions, both for afternoon and evening wear. And with the pres ent-day fuller skirt, in souple fabrics this is an elegant as well as a useful fashion. The old-fashioned shawl can be turned into very pretty evening wraps. This is an excellent way, too, of utiliz ing a wedding veil. I have known, a Paisley shawl made into quite a charming garment after this wise. The successful draping of a' shawl is the work of the true artist, and very few A BLOUSE OF SILK AND LACE. women nowadays will give the neces sary time or trouble to the wearing of a shawl it is, therefore, better to have it made up into a wrap. The lace veil or shawl can be lined with chiffon a lining of soft satin could also be added for the sake of warmth. If this be frilled and trimmed with chiffon the effect will be charming. The possessors of good lace must exercise their in genuity in making up their valued possession to avoid cutting it: it is worth a little trouble, for it offers great possibilities for a summer opera cloak. We now hear and talk of the tiara hat, which simply means a toque of flowers standing up rather high in tiara fashion, the crown being filled in with tulle or chiffon. Such head gear is rather trying and the picture hat which affords some shade to the eyes is infinitely more becoming. Dainty blouse modes are almost in numerable. Two pretty, and compara tively inexpensive models are shown in the illustrations. One is of silk, with collar and front of lace, and un dersleeves of net and lace. The tabs and sleeves are edged with chiffon ruching. The'other is of Viyella of a floral design, with narrow bands of guipure insertion arranged in a becoming man ner. The rage for taffetas Increases and there is nothing so desirable for a real ly smart gown. It is supple, drapes gracefully, and yet has a crisp fresh ness, which makes it an ideal material for fan-reluches, gaugings and tuck ings. FASHION GOSSIP OF PARIS ARIS.—There is no doubt that over here we are very historical in our fashions. The leading couturieres, for weddings and such like gay occasions, certainly adhere to what is generally known as the picture style of frock that is to say, some special period is taken, but improved, embellished and brought up to modern requirements by the skill of the preseat day experts. Some new thin velvets are also very popular and they are likely to be worn until quite late in the spring. ELLEN OSMONDE. XVI. period this pointed corsage ef fect also appears in many of the recep tion frocks, showing the velvet cuta way habit coat with a velvet or plain cloth skirt. These coats are lined with old brocades, and very often have re vers of the same brocade or of em broidery, finished with an old lace ja bot—this quaint little accessory nearly always accompanying the coats of that period. The pointed waistbands now in vogue appear to be developing into the corsage and are quite as intricate to make as the old court bodice in fact,, some of these waistbands are veritable court bodices, fitted and boned with ex traordinary skill. Foile de sole, crepon de soie, eolien nes, crepe de chine, and chiffon voiles will be the leading fabrics among the hundred and one soft materials which are daily making their appearance and are indicative of early spring fashions. For practical and tailor-made walk ing frocks, canvases ar.d hopsacks of every description will be used in ad dition to cloths some spotted and checked alpacas, too, will be( among the novelties, while the most popular tweeds are of a rough and hairy de scription. Taffeta will be used as a trimming on almost all the smart gowns and wraps it is of a softer make than ever, and is treated in a variety of subtle and fascinating ways. There is a pleasing revival of old-world colors in these taffetas, including a vieux rose and a real lavender shade. These are quite charming, especially made tip into toilettes de reception, the skirt slightly full round the waist and fall ing in graceful folds, with a short waisted bodice and boned corsage, fin ished with an old-fashioned lawn flohu draped across the biist. Taffeta is a lovely and quaint mate rial, which is always rendered more becoming when softened with lace or embroidered lawns, which are in keep ing with the period when taffeta was first Introduced, ANNET'IV GIVRY. A Cold-T^jvi~^r Beast. "What do they mean by 'beastlv cold?'" "Oh, I suppose they mean it's /old enough to suit a polar bear."—Phila delphia Bulletin. MACADAM ROAD BUILDING. Cost Depends Largely on the Ease with Which Suitable Stone Hay Be Secured. Among the men whose names will live as long as civilization exists is that of John L. Macadam, the road build er. Not only has Ms name become a part of the English language, but the kind of roid which he built has been adopted by all civilized nations. The ancient Romans built stone roads, but they were very different and vastly more expensive than the macadam roads of modern times. They built a substantial foundation of rock, some times s-everal feet in depth and then covered it with a pavement of larg3 flat stones. This kind of road will outlast any other. Indeed some parts of the Appian way, the building of which was begun three centuries be fore Christ, are still in use, and in good repair. It remained for John L. Macadam, a modern Englishman, to prove that the great expenditure of time and money required in the build ing of the old Roman roads was large ly wasted. He demonstrated that a smooth hard enduring road could be built of crushed stone a few inches in depth properly spread and compacted on a foundation of earth. The main points in successful maca dam road building are (1) that the foundation be properly constructed and drained (2) that the surface of th$ road be slightly curved so as to shed water (3) that the surface of the finished road be made hard and smooth and as nearly waterproof as possible. The last of these qualities is secured by spreading on the stone in layers, beginning with a layer of the largest fragments and finishing with a layer C3 N L. MACADAM. (The Inventor of the Modern System 6f Hard Roads.) vv. ..-:"':-' of very fine crushed stone with which some sand is often incorporated. Each layer 13 well compacted with a heavy roller. Although the expense of building macadam roads is trifling compared with that of constructing a stone paved road like that of the Roman emperor, Appius Claudius, it is still so great as to form the principal ob stacle to macadamizing modern high ways. The cost, of course, depends largely on the ease with which suit able stone may be secured. Where the material has to be transported by rail for a considerable distance the cost is greatly increased. Some of the Massachussetts highways have cost $8,000 to $10\000 a mile while in some other states good macadam roads have been built for $1,500 to $3,000 jsr mile. S»me friends of the good roaus movement hesitate to join in the de mand for national aid because they are appalled by the enormous ex pense involved in macadamizing the entire road mileage of the country. Such persons are laboring under & mis take. The national aid bills now be fore congress do not propose to con struct any particular kind of road. They simply propose to "improve the public roadsj' and provide for "inves tigations and experiments to determine the best kinds of road material and the best methods of road building." In a recent article Representative Brownlow says: -My own individual opinion is that some 0* the principal thoroughfares ought to be macadamized. Well in formed road experts have estimated that if one-tenth of the road mileage of the country wero macadamized and the other nine-tenths were improved in other and cheaper ways, using the best local materials available, the cost of hauling the farm products of the United States to market would be re duced one-half." If this estimats is correct, the saving to the farmers would be enormous, and would ia a few years be sufficient to "over the en.ire expense of making the improvements. Besides lessening the cofct. of hauling, good roads will bring the people of the rural districts pleasures and benefits which can not be measured in money. The Profitable Dairy Cow. With all our wisdom and skill in breed ing, no one has yet produced a cow that will make as much milk from discomfort as she will from comfort. An animal of extreme hardiness may bo produced but good, paying cows are not built on those lines. They are an elaboration of the fittest not specimens ef animal hardihood. Which do you want?—Mid laud Farmer. SETTING THE FRUST TREES^ How au Orchard of Any Kind Kay Bd Made to Look Attractive as fe Well as Thrifty. ." Young orchards should be set so the| trees may be in exact rows. It requires little more work than the slipshod methods too often used. An orchard in which the trees are accurately set is a joy forever, while one in which they are set in a haphazard fashion is ai^ eyesore. The contention that sighting tb» trees themselves will not give perfect ly straight rows is also sound. I can scarcely conceive of the ordinary farm hand, or even an extraordinary on«t getting under a "light tripod" and dig- PLACING THE TREE. Lowering a weight down by the side of the trunk to ascertain when the tree is in the right place is likely to prove somewhat tedious if there are any branches on the tree to interfere. The accompanying diagram shows what has proved to be a most satisfactory devite for getting the tree exactly where the state originally stood. It consists of a board perhaps six feet long with a hole in either end and a deep notch in the middle. The land in which the trees are to be planted is first laid off in rows with a small stake where each tree is to stand. The board just described is placed on the ground so that the notch fits over the stake. A small stake is driven through each of the holes in the ends of the board. The board is removed and the hole dug for the tree. While this is being done the measur ing board may be used to set the guide stakes for other holes. W ging a hole for a tree without movlug the tripod. It might be possible if the tripod were so large as to give ample room for the operation of digging. In such a case it would be too unweildy «. to move easily. When everything is ready to set the tree, put the board back in place again,, place the tree in the hole so that it' fits in the notch, and fill in the soil. The result will be that the tree stands just where the original stake did. If planting is being done on a largo scale, there may be a half dozen or more of the measuring boards. If they are all of the same dimensions it wilir make no difference whether or not the same one is used in setting the tree that was used when the guide stakes were set.—F. C. Sears, in Orange Judd. Farmer. ATTRACTIVE FARM LAWNS-- There Is No Reason Why Every Do or Yard in the Land Should Not Be Beautified. Nothing so beautifies a dwelling as to be set in the center of a well kept lawn. There is no reason why the farmer and his family should not en joy the possession of an attractive door yard, since every facility is at hand: for grading, planting and keeping a pretty lawn. The dwelling should, if possible, be located on a slightly el evated knoll, but often the site has already been selected and the building erected in which case it may be neces sary to grade to the desired elevation. One can not endure a low sloppy door yard, hence the ground immediately around the house should be higher than at the outer edge of the yard. Early spring is the best time to sow the grass seed. Kentucky blue grass is a gener al favorite for lawns. This should be very thickly sown to produce a mat the first season. If, however, one suo» ceeds in getting a fair, even Btand, he need have no concern regarding the lack of density as this grass thickens up from year to year. In arranging the lawn, have very few shrubs or trees in the center. There should be planted at the outer edge, preferably at the rear and sides of the building. Do not obscure the view from the road way. If there are unsightly buildings a screen of vines run on a wire trellis will be found effectual in hiding them from the occupants of the dwelling as well as from passers-by. A very pret ty effect may be had by planting a few beds of profuse bloomers of dif ferent colors very near the house, at the ends or side of the porch or around the bay window. Provision may be made to have these beds in bloom froia early spring to late autumn, by using bulbs for early spring blooming, an nuals for summer, and chrysanthe mums, cosmos and other autumik blooming plants. Their beauty is en hanced by the greenery about them.— C. B. Barrett, in Epitomist. Bacterial Content of Cheese. In a report from the Ontario Experi ment station on a study of the bacterial, content of cheese are presented figures, that indicate the amount of work these little organisms do in the predlgestiDg of this food product. According to this report the number of bacteria present are usually largest when the cheese is but a day or two old. The products de veloped by the germs, being detrimental to their own existence, cause them gradu ally to deminish in number. The num ber of germs found in one «imple only two days old was 17,854,44^,500 na*. ounce of cheese. uight at oame.'