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-,; ==:==::=:- =:==== =- 1 Time . r i.. . 3 e 8 n 10 d an to pec ....ial 1ics are 0 er 75 10e more than 1 Yt............16 25 40 55,7 90 140 250 IegIlar advertising payable quarterly, as due. Transient advertising payable in advance. Special Notices are 80 per cent, more than reg. ular advertisements. I.'t1oi advertising, 15 cents for the first insertion; 1) ctntls per line for each succeeding Insertion; ilnes coutcd in Nonparlel measure. Job Work payable on delivery. PROFESSIONAL CARDS. ATTORNEYS. WM. J. GALBRAITH, . FT()RNEY AT LAW, R, s2 5 A 1 6, VAN (USUv & IIII.ER n OCK, Ss-.t.," I Adje. 4Montpir.na WELLIN', NAPT11N. AT FI()itNEY AT LAW. [COURT SQUARE]. DEER LODi;g. t' Specid Attention Given to Collecthsne. F. IV. COLE, B tte. H. R. Wnrrr.ILL, Deer Lodge. cOLE & WHITEHIILL, 'ATTI IN EYS .\ ' IAW .:rt a d Deer L:.d.e. M~,ttana ldl A16ll ald Atl0rn-y Ileer Luodle, *- M .,ll ann. HENRI'Y B. DAVIS. C. F.-'County and U. S. Deputy Mit teral NllrVey9Or. SMAGNLUS HANSON. C. E.-Dranbhtsman and.No. tary Pnallc. DAVIS & HANSON, Civil aid linil Engneers, Procurers of U S. Patents. Township and Mineral Plats on File. Office at Court House. DEERl LODGE, Mi. T. 115 tf PHYSICIANS AND .IURGEONS. C. F. REED, DENTIST Office Over Kleinschmldt's Store. IEIIEti LO.DGE, MONT. 951 3m J. A. MEE, PHYSICIAN & SURGEON, Deer Lodge, M. T. Diseases of Women and Chil dren a Specialty. O.lce on the corner, south of the McBurney House. JOHN H. OWINGS, 1. D., Physician and Surgeon, Offce--Kleinschmidt Building, formerly oc cupied by M. M. Hopkins. Doer Lodge, M- Mlonins,,. Calls in town or country will receive prompt at e ltion. 648 BANKS AND BANKERS. W. A. C.!,ARK, S. E. LARABIE. OLAlIK g LARABIE, BANKERIS, DEER LODCE, M. T. Do a General Banking Business and Draw Exchange on All the Principal Cities of the World. NEW YORK CORRESPONDENTS. First National Bank, New York, ,. Y. 778 First National Bank RELENA, - MONTANA. Paid up Capital..5....500.000 Surplus and Profits 8326,000 S. T. HAUSER, - - President. A. J. DAVIS, - - Vice-President. B. W. KNIGHT, - - Cashier. T. H. KLUI.NSCHrIDT, - Ass's Cash. DESIGNATED DEPOSITOEY OP T.U UNITED STATES. Wetransact a general Banking businesu,and bay,at ghest rates, Gold Dust, Coin, Gold and Silver Bul on, and Local Securities; Sell Exchange and Tele raphic Transfers, available in all parts of the United rates,the Canadas. Great Britain, Ireland and the Continent. COLsTIOclos made and proceedsremitted promptlv. Diirectors. 4I. T. HAUSER. JOHN CURTIN. A. M. BOLTER, R. 8. HAMILTON. IFIN II. MING, C. P. HIGGINS, R: W. KNIGHT, A. J. DAVIS. T. C. POWER, B.M. PARCHEN, T. f. KLEINSCHMIDT. 1501 P. PATTERSON, CAIPENTER AND BUILDER, DEER LODGE, MONTANA. Deigns furnished and close estimates made on Busi ness, Dwelling and ot!..er Houses. Do all Kinds Job Carpentering. SASII AND DOORS IN STOCK. Shop next door north of Murphy, Higgine & Co's Store. 30 ZExchango Saloon, One Door South of Scot. House, Ueer Lodge, - Montana. BAILEY & PETTY, Proprietors. Only the Very Finest Lquors all Cigars Over the Exchange Bar. A Shvre of Public Patronage Respectfully Solicited 877 tf TIlE FAVOIlTE SALOON THOM tS M. CONNIFF, Propor. Main & Second, DEER LODGE. Thoroughly Overhauled, Repaired and Renovated. All Drinks and Cigars, 12 1-2c Each. Ph. Best's Milwaukee Beer ON TAP. ALWAYS PLEASED TO SEE OUR FRIENDS RIFLES AT COST. Winm. Coleman is clos ing uot his stock of Sharp, Winchester and Marlin Rifles AT COST. Now is the time for Sportsmen to get a good, reliable gun almost at their own Price. Call early and get Your choice of the lot. 8.s tr. VL. 1, NO.38. DEERLODGE, MONTANA, MARCH 16, 1888. WHOLE NO. 97y. - ,ý· TOLEAVE THE LAND OFICE. WILL THE HARDY SONS AND DAUGH-k TERS OF ICELAND MIGRATE t ~-----.-----__._ There Is a Plan on Foot to Transport the Entire Popultion of the Island, 75,000 'oulP, to Malnitob--Some Feat ures of the Land and Race. N THE western part of ,/ c ' Pembina county, D. T., but a few miles from the Canadian boundary, lie three townships settled en tirely by Icelanders, most of whom lived a short time in Manitoba before crossing into the United States. Near Sioux Falls, in the same territory, are a few Icelanders; there is another settlement in Iowa, and still an other in Wisconsin, while in Manitoba the flourishing settlements of Gimli, Thingvalla and New Iceland contain several thousand of the same people. All these settlements, in both countries, have much the same history, and illustrate the painful fact that for the third time in its history Iceland is threatened with depopulation. For the third time the climate of that strangely interesting island is changing for the worse; and this time the change is so prolonged that a scheme is pro jected in the Canadian northwest to bring bll the remaining 75,000 in Iceland to the new world. The extinction of such a people would be a calamity to the sentimental, and we may well refuse to believe it possible; for no doubt a remnant will remain, will find life much more tolerable when the surplus population is removed, and, when nature again becomes genial, will thoroughly re people the old land. Iceland is the most interesting island in the world. About as large as Ohio, it contains as many volcanoes as this continent; and with a population never as large as a con gressional district, it has produced more poets and romance writers than any state, and has a history as fascinating as that of any na tion. When all Europe was sunk in the bar barism that followed the northmen's destruc tion of Rome, Irish priests and scholars founded a religious community in Iceland; - t . COAST OF ICELAND. and whou, civilization had revived in only a few ..l I ;rranean provinces, and that but feebl;-, Icelad was in its golden age of poets, preachers and scholars. There is good evi dence that Columbus obtained his first ideas of the western world in Iceland, and there is undoubted history that people of that race discovered America long before the Spaniards. Once in its 1014 years of au thedtic history a blight fell on Iceland, its population sank to a minimum, and for 200 years it had neither scholars nor historians; at another time the cold increased for a term of years and threatened general destruction, and now the same phenomenon is being re peated, with the additional evil that the ice flow from Greenland comes later in the season and has formed a permanent mass against the north side of the island. No class of foreigners become American ised so rapidly and easily as the Scan dinavians. This is true of the Swedes, Danes and Norwegians, and pre-eminently true of the Icelanders. Those in Manitoba are enthusiastic for the confederation, and liberal supporters of all English Canadian schemes of progress; they have several news papers in their own language, and maintain good schools and churches. In the three Icelandic townships in Dakota are some 600 voters, and the high standard of intelligence is remarkable. In the church library in the little village of Mountain (containing less than fifty houses) are several hundred vol umtnes in English, French German, Nor wegian and Icelandic, Greek and Latin, and the resident preacher (Lutheran) is a most accomplished scholar, both in the classical and modern language. There is no country in the world, probably, where education is so universal as in Iceland; the morals of the people are good, save the one vice of the Scandirsvians. We may judge the extent of that from a clause in the latest trade re port to the effect that the import of brandy has "declined to twenty-four quarts per capital" If the 75,000 people in Iceland must leave there (which all scholars will pray may not be) Manitoba could not get better settlers, and should they follow their kinsmen into the United States, they will add a valuable element to the much com posite Yankee. .a~f ICELANDIC COSTUME. Naddodr, a Norwegian viking, discovered 2aeland in 800, and four years later Garthar Svafarsson sailed around it. Ten years later Norwegians colonized it, but soon found that Irish Christians bad located there at least 150 years before. Their record adds that the remaining Irish left "when the Norse pagans came." The Norwegian settlers were disaf fected citizens, unwilling to submit to a new form of government just established in Nor way, and in 928 they made Iceland a repub lic; but 854 years afterward they renewed allegiance to Hisco, king of Norway, Iceland retaining her separate legislature. In 13S7 Norway and Denmark were united, and when again divided Iceland fell to Denmark, to which it is still attached. In 1874 the Ice landers celebrated the 1,000th anniversary of settlement, which attracted visitors from all part. of the world. The first era of cold and famine is but imperfectly reported, buf about 1750 a serei of calamities began, including volcanic eruptions. Nearly all the domestic animals died, and the population shrunk to 39,000. Prosperity returned, and the popu lation soon exceeded 100,000. Now it has shrunk to 75,000, not by famine this time, but by emigration. The climate is remarkable. Though the Arctic circle touches on the north, the aver age winter, in the valleys, is milder than that of Ohio, while the summer temperature very rarely exceeds 60 degs. The ice drifts from Greenland lodge on the north and northwest coasts, usually in February and March, but for many years past they have remained through the summer, so chilling the air that no considerable crops could be raised in the -northern valleys. The only grain used is imported; but heavy crops of vegetables aregrown The--wealth -of -the country is in cattle and sheep, fish and birds. The latter are wonderfully numeros, among them the eider duck, whose nests are strictly protected by the people, The white bear often comes on the ice from Greenland. Such are but a few of the interesting points of Iceland. Its literature is so voluminious that we cannot even give a list of the more important of its books. THE BIG TRUSTS. Work of the New York Legislature in Investigating Them. The New wUrk -lefgldture has been doing, in a feeble way, what the congress of the United States is soon to do-namely, investi gating the trusts. A committee of seven, appointed by the state senate, has overhauled such corporations ashad offices in NewYork, and while they have had a good deal of fun and worried some big enterprisers consider ably, they have only discovered enough to whet the public curiosity about trusts. And what is a trust? . Well, it may be briefly defined as a com prehensive incorporation of big corporations -a sort of "E Pluribus Unum" incorpbra tion, aone made by combining many. Thus, when experience shows that unrestricted competition has reduced the price of the product to a point too low to meet the be nevolent views of the producers the big firms combine and appoint trustees who manage the general business of the entire trust, decide how much shall be produced and what it shall sell at, and gener ally prevent that condition so alarming to a certain school of economists, and known popularly as "over production." If, as some times happens, certain firms refuse to "go into the trust," the big corporation proceeds to crush them by various processes, such as controlling the lines of distribution, com pelling small dealers to refuse to trade with the rebels, etc. It is no slander to say that these things are not done in the general in terest of consumers; and it is certainly very. natural that the people, through their rep resentatives, should order an investigation. Hence the late New York proceedings. Hence, also, certain very worthy gentlemen find themselves objects of great public in terest. At the head of these we may safely place CoL John E. Parsons, the able lawyer, at BLIss. torney for the trusts, whodraft- i ed mostof their ar guments and ap peaed ber HAVExEYER. WARNER. fore th e PARSONS. ROCKEFELLER. committee; and CoL Bliss, attorney for the committee. Other attorneys who appeared in the case were Messrs. Choate, Dodd and Camp for the Standard Oil company. The central figures among the trustees were John ] D. Rockefeller, of the Standard Oil, and his associates, T. Havemeyer, of New York, and W.S. Warner, of Philadelphia. The committee threw light on some toler-' ably extensive combinations: The sugar trust, the cotton oil trust, the oilcloth trust, the envelope trust, and many minor combi nations in window glass, beef and other nec essaries. But at the head of all, and the "daddy of all the trusts," is the great Stand ard oil combine, with a c.apitai (as a trust) of $50,000,000. In it are no less than forty one companies, in twelve states, New York and New Jersey of course having more than all the rest; and a very curious fact brought out was that, while the trust controls all the product of nearly all these, a few thought it prudent to go into the combination for only part of their product. And the small reser vation made in some instances raises a curi osity which Col. Bliss' cross question ing did not force the combiners to explain. Thus the National Transit company, trans porters of crude oil, with a capital of $25, 455,200, full half the tgtal capital of the trust, only reserved 6 per cent., putting in 94 per cent. of its product. This is only one of many points on which the public curiosity is whetted rather than gratified. The Standard Oil men appeared to base their case chiefly on the fact that their com bination had not raised the price of oil to the consumer; but several other trustees had to admit amanarked advance in prices after the combine, though, as they claimed, not in consequence of it. The fact was also made prominent that the Stand ard Oil trust had, by a judicious division of its patronage, secured enormous reductions on freight; and one witness "was of opinion" that in eighteen months the com pany had received $10,000,000 in rebates but, he added, with an air very like sadness, "the interstate commerce law has put an end to that." We have only presented facts enough to illustrate our main statement, that Mr. Bliss and his colleagues only did enough to convince the people that much more ought to be done; and the committee stopped just as it was in danger of becoming mighty in teresting. MISS IDA L , -RIFFIN. She Is a School Commissioner in Oswego County, N. Y. A portrait of Miss Ida L. Griffin, who was chosen a school commissioner of Oswego county, N. Y., at the recent election, will not be uninteresting to those who take an inter est in the progress of women, Miss Griffin's canvass was so well conducted that she re ceived a majority of 312 in 3,508 votes. The defeated candidate at first undertook to con test the election, on the ground that Miss Griffin was not a man; but so - stanch was her '. support that the gentleman, being given to under stand that if the elected candidate did not get the of flee he should not have it, gave it up, and Miss Griffin -. was suffered to en ter upon her duties. Miss Griffin is the daughter of a veteran of the war for the Union, and is 31 years of age. IDA L. GRIFFIN. Her father died in 1875. The daughter sup ported her mother and paid her father's debts by teaching district schools. In 1880 she was graduated at the State Normal Training school, at Oswego. When nomi nated for office last fall she was teaching at Marcellus, N. Y. The candidate took ground in the canvass of equal rights for all, regard less of se-. Miss Grifiin's salary is 81,200 a year. Ale::hIol for echanical ruPorposes. A certain doctor in this city was called upon the other day by a man who desired to get a grrscription for alcohol "For what purposans' asked the doctor. "Mechanical," said the man, with a countenance honest enough to look any judge in the country out of countenance. After writing the prescrip tion and handing it to the man. the doctor. said: "For what kind of mechanical purposes do you intend to use the alcohol?"' "Sawing wood, sir: good dlay, sir."-Augusta Journal. The Californlia papers report that on no count of the vandalism of the American t.r.urists th. ancient adobe church at Paso del .1..r has been closed to them. SCOURSE OF EMPIRE'S STA OCCIDENTAL MOVEMENT DURING THE CENTURY'S FIRST HALF. Filling Up the New States and Ter$ r tories-Freemont's Pathfading Exped B tions-The Movement of the Morm ; Toward the Setting Sun. HE first half of the Nine teenth century closed with a westward move ment in the United States without parallel in his tory Religious fanaticism and greed for gold played a strange drama on the broad theatre between the Missouri and Pacific coast; in some phases it was a comedy, in many a tragedy, and in all a series of startling and dramatic transformation seenes. In 1844-46 CoL John C. Freemont gave to the world his first general impressions of the far west; in 1840-48 about 20,000 white people, chiefly from Illinois and Missouri, as if seized with an uncontrollable impulse, rushed across the plains and mountains to the Mexican district of California and the disputed land of Ore gon; in 1847 about 10,000 exiled Mormons crossed to and located in Utah, and in 1848-49 all the loose footed adventurers of the nation turned themselves loose for the placer gold mines of California. This last movement continued with scarcely any decline till 1852. In five years about 400,000 people crossed the plains Gold was discovered in California in Feb ruary, 1848, more than half a year before the Mexican war was officially ended and Cali fornia made American by the treaty of Guadaloupe Hidalgo; but it is a great popu lar mistake that this discovery caused the beginning of the overland movement--the white pioneers of California were already there. In many Mormon sermons and state papers the assertion is made that "we broke the roads to these valleys," and the Mormon pioneers did reach the Salt Lake on July 28, 1847, but 7,000 white Americans had crossed to Oregon and northern California in the four previous years. Gen. John H. Bidwell and his party located his noted ranch near the present Chico, Cal., in 1846; and Oregon had a provisional "state government" two years before Salt Lake City was founded. Congress set it back into a territory by act of Aug. 14,1848, and the new government was organized on the arrival of Governor Joseph Lane, March 3, 1849. California was a state with 250,000 people at least three years before the Indian title was extin guished in eastern Kansas; and 300,000 white Americans lived far to the west of the Rocky mountains before the first stake was driven in the city of Lawrence. Hence arose this very curious state of affairs: But a little way west of the Mississippi settlement ceased; on the Pacific coast again were rich and prosperous settlements, and between was the great unknown, 1,200 miles of desert and mountain, rock an8 sand, treeless plains and barren mesas. Across this, in "prairie schooners," went the great immigration from 1850 to 1869, the Union Pacific railroad be ing completed in May of the last year. It was a curious immigraton and pro duced a curious development. From the line of the Missouri, settlement extended regularly westward, and from the Pacific coast the surplus of miners and adventurers, with a few settlers, poured eastward and over the mountains into Nevada, Idaho and Arizona. "Crossing the plains" was then an event to be talked of for the rest of one's life. Reaching the border in the early spring, the travelers outfitted at a border town; the covered wagons contained only what was necessary, the animals were expected to feed upon the dried grasses of the plains and mountains (the bunch grass is more nu tritious dry than green) and the people, men, women and children, walked most of the way. In big companies for security through the Indian country, but often in little groups of half a dozen wagons each, they made this long and wearing journey of 1,000 or 1,200 miles from the very last settlement on the east to the very first on the west, leaving the Missouri as soon as grass was green and reaching the Sacramento any time between August and November. This outfitting trade successively built up Independence, Far West and "St. Jo" in Missouri, then Atchison, WSyandotte and Leavenworth in Kansas, and finally centered at Omaha, and so remained till the railroad banished the prairie schooner forever. There were sad tragedies in those days. In 1840 the ill-fated Donner party was over taken by early snow in the Sierra Nevada and remained till two-thirds of their num ber had perished, the survivors living upon the corpses of the dead. In 1849 the cholera went with the California gold seekers; over 1,o000 diedina few weeks, and the disease was communicated to the Indians, killing thousands of them. In 1852, the year of heaviest family emigration, the grass was eaten out, the stock died and hundreds of people suffered the horrors of thirst and hunger. But the strangest tragedy resulted t from the mad fairticism of the Mormons in l881 AFTER THE STORM. Iearly 2,000 of these nmsguided people, chiefly from Great Britain, reached the Mis sours too late in the summer and were urged to wait till the next year; but pursuant to a "revelation" of one of their priests, thei started in August to travel with hand caru to their 'Zion!" Less than one-third of them were young and able-bodied men: about half were women and children; only four had ever been across the plains. Th: wretched mass of fanatics started to traverse 1,100 miles of mountain, plain and desert in the closing months of the season! The snows of winter came on that year a month earlier than usual; a blizzard overwhelmed them in the worst part of the Rocky mountains. The strongest struggled on toward "Zion;" the weakest fell and died, men dragging their children on hand carts in the forenoon and dying before night. Three hundred of them had died when a relief party from Salt Lake reached and rescued them; and some 200 more were maimed in various degrees, by the loss of feet, fingers, ears or eyes. Such were only the most prominent tragedies. Volumes have been written, and many more might be filled with tales of idian masacres and captivity, deaths by thirst and hunger, and all the manifold tribulations by which the great west was redeemed. GIVE THE TODDLER A CHANCE TO LEARN HIS MOTHER TONGUE. Young America, Even in His Cradle, Has His Rights- Endearing Epithets for Baby Are Admissible, but Not Gibber. ish and Jargon. I often wonder if otherwise sensible people realize not only how supremely ridiculous they make themselves, but what injustice do their children ha deluging themr with gual dish wash, popularly known as baby talk. I am well aware that in denouncing this little luxury I am flying in the face of public oinion, or father of public practice, for I dcnbt if opinion has much to do with the matter. This is a free country. Life, lib erty and the pursuit of happiness belong even to the poorest, and you invade one of man kind's most precious privileges when you as sail the right of the individual to make an ass of himself. But be it remembered that baby, too, has his rigLts. Young America, even in his cradle, has his constitutional guarantees. Let thembe respected. Give him a chance at his mother tongue. Don't defer his edu cation in order to indulge yourself in the pleasures of adult idiocy. Don't demoralize his ear for the sake of the satisfaction it gives his pren and severely proper maiden aunt to avail herself of her only legitimate chance at billiug and cooing. Let that esti mable spinsterbill and coo by all means-if not to a lover, to a baby; but, in either case, for the sake both of the victim and the language, l1t her do it without actual vio lence to the vernacular. Be the family rich or poor, high or hum ble, nothing is too good for his baby; and such mangled and mutilated fragments of language as fall to the lot of the average in nocent are not half good enough for him. Moreover, they are an insult to his intelli gence. No wonder the little stranger some times surveys the family field with a depre catory gaze of dignified disgust that says plainer than words, "Have I come into a world of utter idiots?" Far be it from me to enter a protest against diminutives. These have their uses. In ce' tain--and sometimes in uncertain-emergen cies, they are priceless. In fact, there is noth ing handier to have in the house. They are a very present help in time of trouble, a buffer in days of domestic vicissitude and danger. Would you appease an angry sweetheart, cir cumvent a cantakerous t'other half, pacify an incensed infant, the worth of the diminu tive can scarcely be overestimated. It is a most invaluable auxiliary of moral suasion. But, even in the shadow of your own lares and penates, look to it that it does not get the best of you. Facilis est decensus Averni. There is no law of God or grammar to pre vent your denominating the dog a doggy, or persuasively appealing to puss as pussy. Baby itself is a diminutive, and infinitely sweeter and dearer than its prototype. The trouble is that when people begin taking lib erties with a language they don't know where to stop. I merely and modestly file a caveat against the further maltreating of our mother tongue by the multitude. The odd thing is that the majority of man kind seem to think there is a sort of virtue in torturing and twisting the language out of all semblance of symmetry and sense before ap plying it to infantile uses. Milk for babies is all right, and has scriptural authority, but how about skim milk? Possibly, genuine, unadul terated, vigorous Anglo-Saxon is pretty strong meat for a toddler. But, however that may be, baby must learn to manage it at least half way decently if you expect him to be president of the United States, and of course you do. And how is he ever going to learn it it he never hears it? It is not only the first step that costs, but the first that counts; and it is a standing marvel that chil dren ever speak correctly when you consider the mangled and mutilated condition of the language when they first make its acquaint ance. Call the little ones "precious pets" and "rosy posies" and "pretty pearls." By no means abolish the one beauty of baby talk, its lov ingness. Administer every sweet and endear ing epithet you can lay your tongue to, but don't let the good old English words degener ate into gibberish and jargon. Put your caresses into your voice-some of our New England voices need them badly enough and put not your trust in dropped or trans mogrified consonants. It isn't so much what you say as the way you say it that matters. Some of Milton's stately but melodious lines would fall upon baby's tympanum with a far sweeter and more soothing sound than the senseless slop that is usually ladled out to him. You might call him a parallelopipedon, and, provided you pronounced the polysyllable torture of O Connell's fish fag with caressing softness, I'll be bound baby would like it bet ter than your "pitty itty sings," etcetera, ad nauseamn. Baby talk per se is all well enough. Its true in-ardnes= ap-. als to everybody. I animad vert only upsr,: its abuse and perversion by the te houhtl ss. The truth is that baby talk "as it is spoke" is a luxury only indulged in as a dissipation ,y the adult, without regard to the dlcm,: lizing effect it may have upon the infaut car and tongue. Most of you wh, are addicted to the prac tice prIbab:y thinks baby likes it. But does he? ]Dls t hat lit:ie apostle of sweetness and light, anll abate to jot or tittle of his joysl' Give him pleasure in full measure, pressed down and running over. but why take it for granted that this gratuitous display of idiocy delights himn? Oh, ye of little faith! Why insult baby by presupposing him as big a fool as you are? Mary -Norton Bradford in Boston Globe. Caring Side Bacon. In handling any of the products of the hog care must be exercised to kill the animals on a cold, frosty day, and see that the carcass is thoroughly relieved of its animal beat-but not frozen-before it is cut up. This is an important point; hence special attention is called to it. The fail ure )f much meat to keep is due to its be ing handled on a damp day, with a warm, muggy atmosphere. Another source of failure is the packing down of meat before it has become thoroughly cold through and through. It often happens that the surface of the meat may become actually frozen before the animal heat has all been expelled from around the bones. Such meat is sure to spoil. The large pieces of side meat for smoked bacon are best cured by dry salting on a platform made for the purpose. On this platform spread a layer of salt an inch deep; rub each piece of meat thoroughly on the sides and edges with salt, and lay the skin side down on the platform. When the first layer of meat is completed sprinkle a good layer of salt over it, and then rub and lay down a second layer in the same manner as the first, and so con tinue until all is packed. Finish with a generous layer of salt on top of the pile. :. .lt ought to be taken off and •-il WILli salt three or four times dur . the process of curing and j replaced ra at first. This rubbing may be done in a wide shallow box containing three or four inches of salt in the bottom which will be found quite sufficient for tse purpose. The time for curing varies from five to eight weeks, depending on thm thickness of the pieces of meat and temperature of the room where it is kept. In a cellar with an even temp"rature mett will take salt much sooner, than in a cold room with an occasional freeze, an it will be well to test the curing by cut ' g into a piece before taking it up for oking. The smoking requires about ten da.. Hickory wood is the best fuel for the s oke house, peath to Maarla, A decidedly hard frost always puts an end, for that season, to the danger of exposure to malarial inluence in the region where it oc cura JAMES REDPATH. SKETCHt O TMHE AND WORK OF A GREAT LIBERAL LIGHT. For More Than Three Decades This Sturdy Soul Has Fought for What He Has Thought to Be Right and Just as Between Man and Man. For more than thirty years James Redpath has patiently investigated all the problemsof man's nature and destiny as a social being, and has fearlessly given his radical concln s.a to t. world. In all that time he has been on the side of the people as against privilege, of the slave against oppression and of struggling patriots alike in Ireland, Italy and Russia, Cuba and the United States. Whatever may be the final judgment of mankind on his most "advanced social theo ries," it is unanimously conceded that he ex amined subjects diligently and wrote fear lessly. He was never, apparently, without hope; he seemed never to doubt that the larger liberty he advocated for this or that class or race would be wisely used and prove for the benefit of all classes and races. In short, he has maintained the broad doctrine that the overthrow of despotism was as good for the despot as for his victim. Mr. Redpath has at various times been a conspicuous figure.' A few years before the war he suddenly came into prominence as a trenchant anti-slavery writer. When the usual charge of the time was made, that he knew too little of the practical relations of master and negro, he boldly accepted the challenge to in vestigate it; he traversed the dis tricts where slaves were most numer ous, talked with men of both colors and all classes, and fortified himself with minute data. The result appeared , in 1859 in a work entitled, "The Rov ing Editor; or, JAMES REDPATH. Talks with Slaves in the Southern States." This was enlarged and republished in Boston in 1860, and had much influence in molding public opinion in the north. In 1859, also, he assisted in preparing an elaborate "Handbook to Kansas Territory," to aid in the settling of that long disputed region. Not long after his enthusiasm led him to join the ill advised movement of John Brown. All the facts of his connection with that wild raid are not yet known; but it is certain that he sympathized fully with the movement, and, like Brown, was fanatic enough to be lieve that an insurrection could be excited and be successful in the mountains of Vir-. ginia-a region where slavery probably as sumed a milder form than in any other sec tion, where if anywhere it was truly pa triarchal, where whites outnumbered blacks three or four to one and the military force of the state and United States could be con centrated in a few hours. He took the sword, but did not perish by the sword; he was on another mission when the attack was made, and the matter involved no more for him than a few months' seclusion. The next year he wrote and published the "Life of Capt. John Brown," and followed it with several articles and pamphlets on the subject, the last issued in London in 1862 and entitled "John Brown, the Hero of Har per's Ferry." These works were widelyread, and in the heat of the civil war were ac cepted as the correct presentation of the case; hence a sort of halo was spread about the memory of Brown, and in time he be came the object of a fierce hero worship. Of course this could not endure, and later re searches, since passion died away, have led the people to a very different view of the "Brown Raid." Mr. Redpath took up the idea, very preva lent for some years, that the West Indies would furnish the colored people a point of national development, and wrote a "Guide to Hayti." He also wrote and talked much on social reforms and the struggles for lib erty and national unity in Italy, France and Germany. Soon after the war he organized the Redpath Lecture bureau, which was for some years a decided success. He then re turned to journalism, more radical than ever. The case of Ireland interested him, and he remained many months in that island, corre sponding with American papers and dealing out most trenchant criticisms of the British government. On his return to the United States he set up a regular Irish Patriot Lit erary bureau, and devoted all his time and talents to enlightening Americans on the character of the Irish people and their griev ances. Not content with the political issues, he attacked the British writers on historical and ethnological grounds. He ridiculed the current idea that the English are an Anglo Saxon nation; presented facts to prove that the Celts (original Britons) were neither ex i!ed nor exterminated, and urged the con clusion that the basis of British and Ameri can character is essentially Celtic. In 'hort, carrying all his old enthusiasm into their defense, he became, as the old saying had it, "more Irish than the Irish themselves." Soon after he became involved in the dis cussion of moral and social questions con nected with so called liberal religion, which did not add anything to his reputation. Overwork prcduced exhaustion; he disap peared from journalism and was believed to be in perfect seclusion in the West Indies. Soon, however, he reappeared, active and radical as ever. At length he became one of the editors of The North American Re view, and worked so incessantly for a year or two that brain exhaustion resulted. Early in 1887 it was announced that his situation was precarious; but he was literally com pelled to abandon his work, and a long rest brought partial restoration. It was only partial, however; the mental machine had suffered too long and too severe a strain, and the opening days of 1888 found him com pletely prostrated. He is now, however, con valescent. Mr. Redpath's personal history is romantic. He was born Aug. 23, 1833, at Berwick-on Tweed, that ancient town so long in dispute between England and Scotland. Until quite a recent period acts of the British parlia ment specified that they were to be in force in "the kingdom of England, Scotland and Ireland, the principality of Wales and the town of Berwick-on-Tweed." Mr. Redpath says: "I was born without a country and forged one for myself." His father moved to the United States in 1849 and settled in the backwoods of Michi gan; soon after James left home and worked as a printer in various western cities, finally locating in New York. At the age of 19 he was a regular writer for The New York Tribune, a colleague of such men as Greeley and Dana. Taking a vacation on account of his weak eyes, he made his tour of the gulf and south Atlantic states; then went to Kan sas as correspondent of The St. Louis Globe Democrat. His letters on the struggle there were widely read and copied. After that the war, the lecture bureau and the Irish ques tion employed his energies. Though a very radical reformer, Mr. Red path maintains that all needed changes can be made by voters in the method prescribed by the Constitution of the United States. Only once in his life has he consented to the use of force-in the John Brown raid-and he is the determined opponent of all such schemes as those of the Anarchists. He is, in short, a radical reformer without being in the least a revolutionist. J. B. HBAsox. Beet Sugar in California. Recent reports from California make it appear that Mr. Claus Spreckels is in earan eat about attempting to produce beet sugar on a large scalp le that state. Beet seed has already been widely distributed among the farmers, and a manufactory costing $60,000 is promised to be in operation next falL It is claimed that this plant will have a capacity of producing 65,000 tons of sugar annually. THE UNION SQUARE THEATRE. Soniething About the Iur.aed Play House al-- n -Its -: ana|ge r. The Union Square theatre at New York, recently destroyed by fire, faced Union square, was in full view of the bronze equestrian statue of Washington, on a tongue of built property on Fourteenth street between Broadway and Fourth avenue. In 1871 Mr. Robert N. Butler, a variety man ager, began work on the theatre by tearing down a portion of the Union Place hotel, an old land work, and built in its stead the Union SuQarettheatre. . The.house was opened with a me lange called "Ulys ses; or, the Return W of U. S. G.," in which Felix Rog ers personated Gen. Grant. Then Har rigan and Hart, followed by the Vokes family and J. M. HILL-RUINS OF THE UNION SQUA3R THEATRE. Alice Oates, occupied the theatre during the summer. "Led Astray" ran 214 nights, and the sec ond season opened under the proprietorship of Sheridan Shook. The "Two Orphans" ran from Dec. 1, 1874, to June 15, 1875. In the stock were Clara Morris, Kate Claxton, Rose Eytinge, Charles Thorne, Jr., Stuart Robson and McKee Rankin, all since stars. Nearly all the plays which subsequently be came famous in America were given at the Union Square. Since 1884-5 the theatre has been conducted as a high class combination theatre by J. M. Hill, the enterprising west ern man who brought out Den Thompson (Uncle Josh) and Margaret Mather. Just be fore the opening of the recent season some 820,000 was spent in renovations and refit tings. ACQUITTAL OF SQUIRE AND FLYNN. It Is Causing a Goqp Deal of Talk In the City of New York. The acquittal of Rollin M. Squire and Maurice B. Flynn is being discussed with great vigor by the New York newspapers and by some that are not in New York. It will be remembered that they were indicted in 188t for conspiracy. Squire was then commissioner of public works, and it was JUDGE LAWRENCE. ROLLIN M. SQUIRE. MAURICE B. FLYNN. charged that he practically sold out his office to Flynn. The basis of the charge was a re markable letter, here copied in type: NEw YORK, Dec. 26, 1884. Maurice B. Flynn, Esq.: DEAR Sm-In consideration of your securing not less than four County Democracy aldermen who shall vote for my confirmation as commis sioner of public works, in the event that the mayor shall send in my name for that office, I hereby agree to place my resignation as commis sioner, in case of my confirmation, in your hands whenever you may desire the same; and further, to make no appointments in said office without your approval, and to make such removals therein as you may suggest and request, and to transact the business of said office as you may direct. Very truly yours, ROLLIN II. SQruRS. On Aug. 10, 1886, Flynn and Squire were indicted for a misdemeanor in conspiring to gether, and on Aug. 17 Squire was removed from office by Mayor Grace. The indictment was found during the incumbency of Dis trict Attorney Martine, and the acquittal was the ending of the first trial of alleged offenders against the municipality that has come up since District Attorney Fellows suc ceeded to the office. Squire and Flynn are called the two Dromios, because they look so much alike. Squire is the poet. He carries his muse about with him, and scribbles verses in such a "rapt, ecstatic way" that he forgets all about them the day after. Flynn, however is just the reverse. He is a plain, practical man, and is noted for his shrewdness. Testimonial to Gen. Paine. Gen. Charles J. Paine, the owner of the victorious Volunteer, has been presented wits a testimonial by the New York Yacht club, in the form of a silver S tankard, with han dle and cover. The base is com posed of corals, sea weed and shells boldly grouped. The handle is com posed of the rose of England, the thistle of Scotland and the shamrock of Ireland, an allu sion to to the vic tories won from the Genesta,Thistle and Galatea. The inscription reads: S "Presented by the New York Yacht TESTIMONIAL TO GEN. club to Capt. PAINE. Charles J. Paine, in grateful recognition of his unequaled skill and ability in thrice defending the America's cup." The most striking feature of the cup is the figure of a mermaid, the design and execution of which is pronounced excellent. Keep the Stable Free irons Odors. Attention is again called to what ought to be a well known fact-namely, that nothing will keep a stable so free from odors as the free use of dry earth. Everybody who keeps horses or cattle will find that it pays, with interest, to keep on hand a plentiful supply of fine dry soil to be used daily. A few shovelfuls of earth scattered over the floor after cleaning will render the air of the apartment pure and wholesome. TERMS--INVARIABLY IN ADVANCE. 6tlx] he. ......... .......................40 ,hzosonth........................ 0, Ths-o- Noth......... . .................... 1 CO Whma not paid In advance the rate will be Fi Dollars per year. NBWBP PUR DUCIBIONb 1. Aiycnewho takes apaperreularly from tb Postocs-whether dlecteitobla name or soother r wheth hehbe has subscribed or not-is responsible for the payment. 2. If ersonoders his paper discontinued, h. ýastpo al rrearagae, or the publisher will cone tinue to end ituntil payment is made and collect th boe a.nt, what thepaper is taken from the offce or not. 3. Thecourtsbaveecided that refusing to take thnewapapers or perIodicals from the Postofllce, or removing and leaving them uncalled for, is prima fase evidence of Intentional fraud, aper dered to any address ca be changed to anotr _addreat the option of the snbecriber. Remlitances by draft, check, money order, or regis. teredletter. may tr nt at our risk. All Poetmaster. arerequired toregister letterson application. GREAT CONFLICTING INTERESTS. Faets Relating to the Engineers' Strike on the C. B. *a 9. Two strong men were pitted against each other at the beginning of the great strike on the Burlington road-each representing a ASKING FOR WORK. strong combination-Chief Engineer Arthur, of the Brotherhood of Locomotive Engineers, and General Manager Stone, of the Burling ton road. Chief Arthur has for a long time held the locomotive engineers with a steady hand and managed their affairs so as to merit general commendation. Manager Stone fear lessly opposed the striking Knights at east St. Louis some few years ago, and carried the railroad's interests thrgugh successfully. It is not the policy of the engineers to strike. Chief Arthur is opposed to strikes on general principles; but he gave his con sent some time ago to the strike on the Brooklyn Elevated railroad, which strike ended in a failure. And he gave his consent to the strike on the Burlington road. The Burlington road is one of the longest in the country. It is over 8,600 miles in length, and employs 15,000 pesons. The Brotherhood of Locomotive Engineers con tains some 30,000 members in the United States, Canada and Mexico. The Brother hood is so large, the duties performed by its members are so important, and require so great skill that the organization has kept aloof from that general combination of workingmen, the Knights of labor, and from their younger rival, the Federation. In the recent Reading strike the Brotherhood men did not hesitate to step in and take the places of the discharged Knights; and since BUSY MANAGER STONE. the withdrawal of engineers on the Burling ton railroad, the men whose places were then filled have been returning the compliment, notwithstanding Mr. Powderly's manifesto discountenancing such action. WHF.RE REF.EFSTEAKS COME FROM. HOW THEY ARE PREPARED. The Establishment Where Cattle and Sheep are Made Ready for the Metro. politan Batchers' Stalls-A Sanguinary Current-Blood and Bones. Few of the thousands of men in this big town who are strengthened every day by a juicy beefsteak ever think how far that steak has been brought, or through what various processes it has been put before being placed smoking on the plate, savory and tempting. A reporter who was ignorant about the evo lution of the beefsteak started out for infor mation on the subject, and he incidentally learned something about mutton and veal. It was learned at the stock yards at the foot of Sixtieth street, close to the Hudson river, that New York state does not furnish cattle enough in one year to supply the market of this city for one day. The stock yards have accommodations for 3,000 calves, 10,000 sheep, and 7,000 cattle, but they are called upon very seldom to take care of such a large num ber; besides, the arrivals are only temporary boarders, consigned to large meat dealers in this city. The cattle sometimes remain in the stock yards but a brief hour, and never more than a day. A great many of them however, have but a short distance to go to the shambles. At the foot of Fifty-ninth street is situated one of the best equipped slaughter houses in the United States. Four hundred cattle are killed there every day and 500 sheep and calves are there made ready for the butchers' stalls. This immense building is built of brick and covers at least two acres of grounr. If there is any virtue in being killed neatly and quickly, the cattle brought to this slaughter house have reason to be congratu lated. No tough sinewed Texan cattle are brought here to have their hides taken off, but fat, juicy critters from Illinois and Indi ana, and the knee deep blue grass region of Kentucky. There are but two floors to the building. To the beams of the upper floor are fastened thousands of iron hooks, pendant from which there hung yesterday a half acre of beef, veal and mutton. Great stalls, ribbed with iron bars, are ranged along one side of the upper floor, and into these the cattle are driven early in the morning. Two men are required to kill a steer. A stout rope is fastened around the animal's hind legs, and his body is lifted in the air by means of a windlass, so that his fore shoulders anid bead rest on the floor. Simultaneously a sharp blow is struck upon his forehead Tnd his jugular vein is severed. A SANGUINARY CURRENT. Those who are anxious to see the crimson flood spoken of in story books should go to the shambles at any time during the day be. tween the hours of 6 a. m. and 6 p. m. Each animal bleeds from one-half to two gallons, and this sanguinary current flows steadily all day and pours through an iron shoot in the asphalt flooring into an iron cradle on wheels, placed there to receive it. The contents of these cradles is poured into an iron vat, where it is boiled to a thick, dough like consistency. From the vat it is placed in bags and pressed In a huge machine, from which it issues in the shape of big cakes two inches thick. These cakes are then thrown into a machine, which dries and grinds them so that a substance as fine as coffee is thrown out of the machine. It is then put in bags and sold for fertilizing purposes. Blood prepared in this manner is of great value as a manure and brings from $40 to $50 a ton. After the bullock is dead he is hoisted up clear of the floor and his jacket is taken of. His heart and liver are removed, and he is cut into two pieces down the back. The loose flesh around the neck is carefully skew ered up and he is ready for the market. In the meantime the other portions of his body which are not marketable as food, with the exception of his hoofs, are tried out and the fat separated. The residuum is dried and ground. A fertilizer is made from this re mainder which brings $30 a ton. The horns are sold and made into knife handles and buttons, and the hoofs are sent to the late Peter Cooper's glue factory. The skulls, after every particle of meat has been removed, are ground into bone dust. The hides are salted down for a week or ten days and then disposed of to leather manufacturers. Every night at 6 o'clock the place is treated to a bath, and when the workmen are through squirting a portion of the North river around the floor the establishment is clean and sweet as a kitchen floor in a well regulated house. New York Evening Sun.