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r o _- · 2 1TAW '07. PB ~ ~ --a slm EM VOL , NO. 14. EER LODGE, MONT A, SEPTEMBER 28, 1888 WHOLE NO. 1,003. ROSY MORN. I nerm. ldr-,,ha .. -....Al_ .. .. ........ RATES OF ADVERTISIMG. A g 1 lTnt 8 5 6 10 12 15 25 4 2 ....... 4 7 8 12 14 20 s3 4 1 10 12 18 24 85 60 2 .............. 9 22 80 0 70 ......... 15 25 8550 75 100 ear .........6 25 40 55 70 0 140 21 Regular advertising payable quarterly, as due. Transfient advertising payable in advance. Speelal Notices are 50 per cent. more than re ar advertisements. Locadvertising, 15 cents for the first inserUtlo 10 cents per line for each succeeding inr.eto. lnes counted in Nonpariel measure. job Work payable on delivery. FROFESSIONAL CARDS. ATTORNEYS. WM. J. GALBRAITH, ATTORNEY AT LAW, Ro, )s 5 AND I6, VAN GUNDY & MILLER B.-OCR, I)ecril .l ge, %Iontana. 9649-- WELLIN'G NAPTON, ATTORNEY AT LAW [COURT SQUARE], DEER LODGE. WgSpecial Attention G!ven to Collectioans. 912 F. W. COLE, Butte. H. R. WHITEILL, Deer Lodge. COLE & WHITEHILL, ATTORNEYS AT LAW Butte and Deer Lodge, Montana. 932 O. B. O'BANNON, Iad A1gent all Attorley Ioeer Lodcge, - - Monl ana. HIENRY B. DAVIS, C. E.-County and U. S. Deputy Mineral Surveyor. MiAGNUS HANSON. C. E.-Draughtsman and No. tary Publc. DAVIS & HANSON, Civil andl MIill Elnlieer s, Procurers of U.'S. Patents. Township and Mineral Plats on File. Office at Court House. DEER LODGE, A1. T. 415 tf PHYSICIANS AND SURGEONS. C. F. REED, DENTIST Office Over Kleinrschmidt's Store. ISEERI LODGE, MONT. 9513m J. A. MEE, PHYSICIAN 1 SURGEON, Deer Lodge, M. T. Diseases of WLmen and Chil dren a Specialty. Office in the n:w Kleinschmidt Building. JOHN H. OWINGS, M. D., Physician and Surgeon Office--Kleinschmidt Building, formerly oc cupied by M. M. Hopkins. Deer Lodge, - 1MontanA Calls in town or country will receivre prompt at tention. 648 BANKS AND BANKERS. W. A. CL.ARK, S. E. LARABIE. OLAUKE LARAD - -_A...T ER-,S, DEER LODCE, M. T. Do a General Banking Business and Draw Exchange on All the Prinolpal Oltles of the World. NEW YORK CORRESPONDENTS. First National But, lew York. N T. 775 First National Bank! HELENA, - MONTANA. Paid up Capital ...... 500.000 Surplus and Profits 8325,000 S. T. HAUSEB, - - President. A. J. DAVIS, - - Vice-President. S. W. KNIGHT, - - Cashier. T. H. .KLEINSCHXIDT, - Ass' Cash. OESIGNATED DEPOSITORY OF TEE UNITED STATES. We;ransact a general Banking business, and by, at gi eat rates, Gold Dust, Coin, Gold and Silver Bul on, and Local becurities; Sell Exchange and Tele raphic Transfers, available in all parts of the United rates, the Canadas, Great Britain, Ireland and the Continent. COLLnTIorx made and proceednremitted promptly. Directors. S. T. HAUSER, TOHN CURTIN, A. M. HOLTER, R. S. .HAMILTON. JOHN H. MIND, C. p.HIGGINS, E W.KNIGHT, A. J. DAVIS. T. C. POWER, H. M. PARCHEN, T. H. KLEINSCHMIDT. r50. E. H. IRVIN E & SON, Real Estate, Mining AND COLLECTION AGENCY, East Cranite St, BUTTE, M. T. We solicit the business of any who desire to buy or Sell improved or unimproved ranches; city property either in Butte or Deer Lodge; or who may have notes and accounts for collection. Our extensive ac q.uaintgnce throughout Deer Lodge and Silver Bow counties gives us a superior advantaee in our line of business. We refer by permission to Clark & Larabie, Deer Lodge, M.T. TELEPHONE 85. P. PATTERSON, AiRPENTER AND BUILDER, DEER LODGE, MONTANA. Designs furnished and close estimates made on Busi ness, Dwelling and other Houses. Do all Kinds Job Carpentering. SASII AND DOORS IN STOCK. Shop next door north of Murphy, Hilggins & Co's Store. Exchange Saloon, One Door South of Scott Hoese, Ueer Lodge, - Montana. BAILEY & PETTY, Proprietors. Only the Very Finest Liqors and Ciars Over the Exchange Bar. A Shiare of Public Patronage Respectfully Solicited n71 tf Aras'Tolsorial Parlors AND BATE B.OMS, Van Cundy & Miller t Deer LefddeCs Building, . Msq unal, HAVINEG JUST OCCUPIED MY SPLENDID new Parlors in the above building, I am pre pared to do all work in my line to suit the most fas tidious. The Baths are fnest nickle-plsted and complete in every respect, with hot and cold water, recep'iom room and private entrance. Patrons are assured Entire Satisfaction. 970 JOHN H. ARMS, Proprietor·. ROSY MORN. The morning sitsand swigs In her hamo of roe and gold, Her feet Just touch the sea, And the hem of her garment's told; She wafet a breath to me Of the blossoms of hope and laye, As swinging to and fro She croons like the brooding dove. Ring soft, swing low, oh, rosy morn! Clasp to thy breast the day, new born. The morning aswings far out Oer the foam of the misty sea. And lights with rosy glow The tops of the tallest trees; The sleeping flowers wake At the touch of her qulck'nlg lip. And drink the dewy showers That fall from her finger tips. Sing soft, swing low, oh, rosy morn, Clasp to thy breast the day, new born. -Louise Phillips in Outing. CANDIDATES A PLENTY. PARTY STANDARD BEARERS CHOSEN IN A NUMBER OF STATES. Here Are Portraits and Sketches of D. B. Hill, J. P. Richardson. Luzon B. Morris, V. J. Shipman, Oliver Ames and Job A. Cooper. All Gubernatorial Nominees. Nominating conventions have been held by both the leading parties in most of the states now, and the state canvasses are well under way. Here are portraits and sketches of a number of the candidates lately put up: David Bennett Hill, renominated by the New York Democrats, is a bachelor, 44 years old. He was born in Havana, Schuyler (then Chemung) county, N. Y., Aug. 29, 1844, and began to take an active interest in politics years be fore he was a voter. In the social sense, he is rather a lonely man; both his parents are dead and he has neither brother nor sister living. For the twenty-one 'years that he lived in Elmira it is as D. a. ILL serted thathe never once appeared at a "swell party," though the best houses were open to him, and the ladies certainly did not slight the handsome and successful young lawyer. For many years he had a suite of rooms, elegantly furnished, in the Chemung Canal bank building. The governor is singularly regular in his habits. It used to be said in Elmira that "you could set your watch correctly by the hour he went to his office or hismeals." The law is his life, politics his recreation. As other men spend money on music or yacht ing, dogs, books or pictures, Governor Hill spends his in politics. He is, however, quite fond of theatrical and minstrel entertain ments, and is a very discriminating critic. One of his friends says he would as soon hear Governor Hill give an account of a drama as to witness it himselL His political rise has been quite steady, and he has generally gained votes for his ticket. In 1871 he was elected to the assembly; was a delegate to the national Democratic conven tion of 1876, and has many times been dele gate to various conventions. He took an a tive part in the reform movement of 1871-72, which resulted in the impeachmentof Judges Barnard and Cardozo, and thus secured the lasting friendship of Samuel J. Tilden. In 1875 Governor Tilden named him as one of the commission to provide a uniform charter for cities, but his professional engagements for bado acceptance. In 1881 his ward, which was Republi can, elected him al derman, and in the spring of 1882 he was elected mayor of Elmira. Soon after he was nomi natedforlieutenant LUZON B. 3o081S. governor on the same ticket with Grover Cleveland, succeeded to the governorship when Cleveland became president, was elected governor in 1885 and is now a candidate for re-election. Most men who meet Governor Hill for the first time are agreeably disap pointed, as his manner is quite engaging and he puts every one at ease. In his political career he seems to have made no personal enemies, but in his early life as a lawyer he had a tragic experience. Beingemployed by a lady to protect her property rights against her husband, from whom she was separated, the husband attacked Mr. Hill In his oflic and inflicted a dangerous stab in hisneckand back. After serving a short term in the penitentiary the man came to Elmira and again threatened the life of the lawyer; but as he was crossing the street near Mr. Hill's office he was run down by a street car and terribly mangled, dyingin a few hours. The governor still bears an ugly sear as a me mento of that experience. Luzon a. Morris, aned by, th conc cut Democrats, has been prominent in the politics of his state for many years Job A. Cooper, who has been nominated for governor by the Republicans of Colorado, was born in Bondcounty, Ills., in 1840. Until 10 years of age he lived on a farm. Then he went to Knoxville and attended school till he was 15. From Knoxville he went to Galesburg, where he studied at Knox college until 186L In that year he entered the t United States ser vice in the One Hundred and Sev enteenth Illinois volunteers. Hewas in Memphis when Gen. Forrest made his famous raid on / that place and dis r tinguished himself JOB A. COOPER for hisbravery. At the close of the war he returned to Knox college, and graduated with high honors in 1865. He studied law and was admitted to practice in 1867. In 1868 he was elected clerk of the circuit court of Bond county, and served as such for four years. It was in 1872 that he went to Colorado and settled in Denver. In 1876 he was elected vice president of the German National bank, and in December of the same year.he was chosen cashier, which post he now olds Governor Oliver Ames, recently nominated for a third term by the Republiucauns of s sachusetts. has had a varied career, both politically and fi nancially; but his remarkable success in extricating his father's estate from its embarrass ments proved his capacity as a busi ness manager. He is now several times a millionaire, but still a business, man of fine execu tive abilities and an untiring worker. He was born at North Easton, Mass., Feb. 4, 1831, oravan AXML and by the time he noted O e, reached msalhood his fathe, henotdOss Ames, was already a prominent maufore turer and plitician e was therefore, placed in his father's shovel manUfaCtofor" five years. mastering the -dail of the bush naes, b.fore he enteredion his college course; and he has tollowed th eample byp in his own sons in the eau l, whereth. y rate as other employesi n theirspeclal lines. After preliminary swidy at other place be finished his education; at Brown university, arnd soon after joined his brothers in taking charge of the vast nt~res left insuch con fusion by the death Of their father at the very beginning of the disasters of 1873-78 The decline in values was so great, the col lapse in manufacturing so complete, that it was then supposed tlat the immense debts due Oakes Ames' estate could not be made to pay more than forty cents on the dollar, and consequently that the estate was hopelesly insolvent. Yet the young men went reso lutely to work, kept even through the hard times, paid every debt with interest when the better days cam , and not only made fortunes for themsel but paid legacies to the amount of $1,0000 out of the estate. Governor Ames is president or director in several bigral roads, has business interests all over the west and south, is trustee of seve ral savings banks and other institu tions, and ranks generally as one of " the most successfnl business men in the United States. His flrst venture in pol0 itics was in 1880, S when he was elect ed to the state sen J. P. BCHARDSO. ate. In 1882 he was elected lieutenant g vernor, and was re elected every year til promoted to the gov ernorship. In 1887 h was re-elected to that office, and is new a candidate for a third term. J. P. Richardson, pamed by the Democrats of South Carolina, is the present incumbent. CoL V. J. Shipmanwho has been nomi nated for governor of Florida by the Repub licans, was born in 1839 in New York state. His early life was devoted to agriculture, but he managed to acquiro a thorough busi ness and scientific education. At the age of 23 he joined, together with thirty-two of his schoolmates, an in dependent com pany of sharp shooters on the side of the Union army, and in this com pany, which, with several other com panies, was in the field formed into a battalion known as the First New York State sharpshoot ers, Shipman won considerable dis Linction for brav ery. He was wounded in 1864 at Spottsylvania court house. He participated in the battle of Get tysburg, and in many other hard fought bat tles of the war. I In the latter par of 1864 he moved to Iowa and embarked m farming and business, but in 1878, owing to a catarrhal disability, he moved to Lawtey, Fla., where he now re sides. In 1880 he was a delegate to the na tional Republican convention at Chicago. A GREAT JOURNAL'S HOME. The New Building fhe New York Times, Neow Nearbg Completion. The new building now being rapidly pushed to completion for The New York Times, in New York city, is designed to be one of the finest newspaper buildings in the world. It is already many stories high, and is built partly of magnificent white granite and partly of Indiana sandstone, which glistens brightly in the sunlight, and makes the tow ering brick buildings surrounding it look dark and gloomy. The architecture of the building is rather severe, but is beautiful and impressive if for nothing else than its clean cut simplicity. Something rather remarks ble about the con struction of this building is the fact that the offices of The Times were not removed from the 44 EORGa JONE -Bs8cxONxRtCTION. site of the new building at all; on the con trary, the old building was torn down and the new one is being erected without in the least disturbing the plant of the newspaper office. This is a clever feat of engineering, which is quite frequently performed in New York city. The walls of the old building were completely torn away, disclosing to view temporary walls of wood, covered with tarred paper and tin, and the numerous floors were braced 'and held in position by heavy scaffoldings under each, which were gradually taken away as the new walls made them unnecessary. When these walls were finished the new floors were put in, starting from the top and going downwards, thus enabling the office to continue its business without interruption. raE NEw mS eUILDNG. The building is tc be thirteen stories high The thirteenth story will be 23 feet from floor to ceiling, is windows looking out above the highest structures of the city on all sides, and its slake and iron roof pierced with several skylights This story will be occupied, as was the top floor of the former building, by the ýomponini room of The Times, and the 100 or more printers and proof readers empl4yed there have reason to expect that, in the new structure, theirs will be the finest workroom of its kind in the world. The New York mes, as is well known, is owned by Mr. George Jones, who is ac counted a man of great wealth, nearly all of which he has made out of his paper. The British dade does not button his cufi s as ourown curled darling, e brings the Stwo edges flat together, back to back, and skewers them with a short shanked double eaded button. Sosays the diminutive ar shall P. Wilder, who proudly sports the in novation.-Clem, 5t and Ladles' Wear Review. NEW YORK'S DEFENSES. HOW A FLEET OF HOSTILE SHIPS. WOULD REACH THE CITY. The Forts Are Not of Any Consequence, but Big Vessels Can Only Enter the Harbor Through a Narrow Channel De fensible by Torpedoes. L L the nations hav o revolution ized their systems of naval warfare within the last twenty-five years. The Crimean war first demonstgatcd that the -old sya tems of bombard ment must go out of use; the Ameri can civil war in troduced many new to .tures, and since that closed Europe has arnried the construction of sea going ironclads to an extent undreamed of in 1860. In 1':5 the United States stopped improve men-ts, and, according to the naval engi neers, made no advance whatever for eight een years; 305,000,000 were worse than wasted in patch:ing old wooden vessels, and in 1P83 the d:lartment decided that the en tire navy was practically obsolete. In the meantime England and France were running a race in the improvement of iron vessels and narlnaments, and the other powers were followin, as fast as their means would permit. Even China has supplied herself with immense ironclads of the latest pattern, while Spain, Chili and other second rate and third rate powers have formidable navies. Some of the figures are startling. England has seventy immense ironclads, varying in speed from twelve to nineteen miles per hour, and of these the Inflexible has com pound iron and steel plating to the thickness of twenty-five inches. In 18G2 the American 200-pound Parrott gun was thought the ultimate of effective cannons. Ten years later the English con FORT HAMILTON. structed a 100-ton gun, using 550 pounds of powder and firing a projectile weighing one ton. In 1584 the monster Armstrong gun, firing an 1,800-pound projectile with 900 pounds or powder, was first constructed and satisfactorily tested. At 1,000 yards distance the solid ball penetrates thirty inches of wrought iron. In 1885 the great Krupp steel gun was completed, weighing 119 tons, with a bore of 15% inches; and the French are now trying their ingenuity on the construe tion of a gun which is to weigh 124 tons, have a caliber of nearly 19 inches and fire a projectile weighing 2,645 pounds with 575 pounds of powder. But its success is very doubtful, as the limit in that direction is probably reached. All this time the ingenious have been ex perimenting with new explosives and pro jectiles. The latter are now made chiefly of chilled and thoroughly tempered steel Powder has been improved, and dynamite, melinite and other dynamics tasted in prac tical use till such efficiency has been secured that another complete revolution may be looked for in a few years. As fast as the destructives have progressed, the defenses have almost kept even pace. Ironplating increased from four to twenty five inches, and when the limit in solid plat ing was reached, compound plates were em ployed. The demonstrated results alarmed the Americans. It wasshown that the projectile of an 80-ton gun, at an easily obtainable distance, penetrated twenty-five feet of granite and concrete masonry, and thirty two feet of the best Portland cement con crete. The conclusion need not be stated. Every such fort on the American coast is worthless. And, worse yet, the increased range of projectiles makes the forts near the coast cities worthless in any event. Only a vague uneasiness was felt by Americans till 1883; then for a time there was something like a panic. At the opening of the congress of 1885, the Hon. Samuel J. Tilden addressed a letter to the speaker of the house urging immediate action, citing the well known facts that the twelve great coast cities of the United States were prac tically defenseless, and that in them $5,000, 000,000 worth of non-removable property was subject to destruction. The naval de partment has since put forth considerable energy, largely in the line of improved coast cruisers and torpedoes; a::d with recent de velopments abroad, the government now knows what must be dipse. New York is of course the chief point to be defended; and the merest tyro has but to glance at thede fenses of the upper harbor to see how com pletely obsolete they are. For convenience sake the city's defenses are here considered in inverse order-that is, from the city south ward to Sandy Hook Hook and the open ocean. - As the eucursionist starts down the bay Governor's Island rises directly in his way, but half a mile from the Battery, sixty-three acres of trap rock covered with a soil of rare fertility, straight south of the Battery, and so near the city that it is within the bounda ries of the First election district of the First assembly district, First ward, and residents otherwise qualified register and vote there. In the United States official list it is known as Fort Columbus, and is the headquarters for the military division of the Atlantic, Maj. Gen. John M. Schofield in command. It was long the official residence of Gen. Win eld Hancock, who died there. FORTS WADS WORTH AND TOMPKINS. Castle William, at the northwest point of the island, attracts every visitor's attention; it is as nearly like an old circular tower of the middle ages as any building in the na tion, is built of red sandstone and is just as valuable now for the defense of the city as if it were built of cobs or clapboards. One or two of the oldest cannons in the country still rust is the old embrasures; the birds build their nests in them, and they add a trifle to to the Spicturesqueness of the situation. The castle was begun in 1807 and completed in 1811. On the other end of the island is the South battery, which sometimes has a gun or two in place; and near the center is Fort Colum bus. These and the quarters for officers and soldiers are the only buildings This island was the first occupied by the Dutch, but they moved in a few days to Manhattan, and the former was set apart as the official perq l. sito of the successive colonial governors sent from Holland and England. Hence the name. Tihe colonies fortified it in October, 1775; in 1794 quarantine was established there; soon after the United States took pos assion, and still retains it. But its useful ness for defense has long since passed away, and the island will probably soon be re gained by the city and made a park. Proceeding down the bay six miles one en ters the Narrows, between the extreme west ern projection of Long Island and eastern projection of Staten Island; and here effect ive defenses might be made, as the distance from the city is great enough. On the Long Island side of the Narrows is Fort Hamilton; on the other are Forts Wadsworth and Tompkins, and a little of the Long Island aide, south of Hamilton, is the noted Fort Lafayette-place of sorrow to many an American between 1861 and 188.,ad cos ae sing probably more unauld materal- for romance than any other fortress on the •coast One plan of defense suggests two re volving armored turrets on the site of Fort Lafayette and two on the other side, with batteries added so as to command the entire channel, the whole supplemented by tor pedoes planted in the center of the channel Lient. Eugene Griffin, of the United States engineers, early in 1886 presented a very elaborate plan for defenses at this point, and at a similarly convenient point east of the city where Long Island sound first narrows towards East river. Each revolving turret, in his plan; was to have two 100-ton guns and two casemated batteries, each pierced for ten 50-ton guns. There were also to be on each side two earthen barbette batteries, each armed with ten 20 or 30-ton guns, mounted on disappearing carriages, and two mortar batteries, mounting tort; eight mor. t&.s each. These defenses would be six miles from the extreme southern point of the city, and would command not only the Narrows, but all the approaches down to Sandy Hook. In like manner the defenses of Long Island sound at Willett's Point and Throgg's Neck would effectually prevent entrance there; and thus all New York and nearly all of Brook lyn would be thoroughly protected. Lieut. Griflin was still of opinion, however, that vessels might approach near enough to the Coney Island shore to reach the southern part of Brooklyn. Since his report was published, however, completed soundings and experiments with artillery and torpedoes have convinced many engineers that the true point for cheap and efficient defense is more than twice as far from the city, namely, at the north end of Sandy Hook, and on the adjacent "banks." A glance at the annexed map of the lower bay will give the reader a good idea of the reasons for this opinion. As the excursion ist sails over the broad expanse of blue water stretching from Coney Island southward to Sandy Hook, he naturally forms the idea that there is unlimited range for incoming vessels from the open ocean through the lower bay until they reach the Narrows. In fact their available route is very limited. much more limited there than in the Nar rows itself; and the New York pilots will tell you that although the channels change much more slowly than at the mouths of most large rivers, yet they are always chang ing. At present, as for many years past-es it probably will be for as many years as the present systems of naval warfare will last a broad submarine "bank" puts out from the west end of Coney Island, and extends nearly half way to Sandy Hook, and after two narrow breaks another "bank" shuts up the channel to a line quite gar the Hook. Bang DIAGRAM OF C ANL . TIhus there are but three narrow ways: the northeast or 14-foot channel, the Swash and the main channel. The name of the first in dicates its depth, the Swash is useless except for the lightest craft, and thus the only channel to be provided for is conveniently defensible from Sandy Hook and from forti fications which could easily be raised on the "bank" just north of the main channel. Of course the same system could be adopted here as that suggested for the Narrows, with such improvements as the most recent expe rience may suggest. In addition to those hitherto mentioned there is a small fort on Sandy Hook, one at Willet's Point on the sound, and Fort Schuy ler opposite, on Throgg's Neck, and these are all the fortresses New York has. And yet there are some engineers'who insist that even now New York could not be captured by any foreign fleet if a day or two of notice could be had. They point to the large fleet of yachts, tugboats, tramboats and small but solid and heavy craft perpetually plying in the harbor, and say that the government could, as it certainly wou!d, seize enough of them to completely close the channels of approach by sinking them with stone, as has been done in other wars. It is certainly true that nat ure has favored New York in the way of very narrow channels at the entrances to her harbors, all at safe distances; but it is best to have the more scientific and permanent de fenses ready. Lieut. Griffin presents a careful and com plete estimate of the defenses needed, and the cost for the principal coast cities of the United States, making the total cost $60, 145,000. This includes iron turrets, case mated batteries, barbette batteries, torpedoes and torpedo boats and ample armament for all, and the amount for New York is $17, 560,000. The total for all the cities is but 1Y per cent. on the property to be protected. It only remains to add that the experi ments with new explosives far more powerful than powder are proceeding satisfactorily, and that the demonstrated success of Lieut. Zalinski's dynamite gun--or, rather, pnen matic gun, projecting a dynamite torpedo though as yet at comparatively short range, promises a new system of immense utility for national defense. J. H. BEADLE. Candidates' Wives. The public is already very familiar with the pictured face of Mrs. Cleveland, and reasonably so with those of Mrs. Harrison, wife of the Republican candidate for presi dent, and Mrs. Morton, wife of the Re t. BAIr. RAnBSON. Ma. MORTON. xRS. CLaVELAND. MRS. TRUBRAI. publican vice presidential candidate. Mrs. Thurman, the most elderly of the quartette, has been pictured less than any of the others. They are all intelligent looking ladles, and whichever party wins the prise, the "first ladies of the land" will be well fitted for their high social position. The Multiplying Copies. Those who use multiplying processes em ploying positive cr unreversed stencils of wax paper, through which the ink is forced from a roller upon the paper beneath, will be interested to know that it is not necessary in making a stencil to have under the wax paper the ribbed or roughened metal plate generally, used for that purpose. Any hard, smooth substance will answer. Nor is a special stylus needed; a hard lead pencil is all that is necessary.-8& Louis Republic. THE DEAD ASTRONOMER. RICHARD ANTHONY PROCTOR A VICTIM OF YELLOW FEVER. The Career of the Scientist Briefly Told. How the Yellow Fever Has Before Vis Ited the City of New York-Some Inter eating Information. It is well known that Richard Anthony Proctor, the famous English astronomer,who recently died of yellow fever in New York city, did more for the popularization of the science of astronomy than any other scienti fli writer in his generation. Hewas a man of large attainments, and some of his re markable astronominal thors ea wdussame. thing like a revolution in that science. Professor Proctor was born in Chelsea, England, March 23, 1837, when his father, who was very well to do, had retired from business, and received his early education first at home, then at an academy at Milton, on the Thames At the age of 17 he became a clerk in a London banking house. A year later he entered King's college, London, to pursue his studies, and in the following year was able to enter St. John's college, Cam bridge, from which he was graduated in 1860. He married before the close of that year, and devoted himself for the next three years chiefly to historical and literary stud lee. But by 1864 his attention had become entirely centered in astronomical and mathe matical pursuits. In 1866 his fortune was lost by the failure of a bank, and he then re solved to devote himself to authorship pro fessionally. He wrote a number of works on astronomical subjects, gaining somewhat of a reputation, but on the publication, in 1870, of "Other Worlds Than Ours," he sprang into fame at a bound, and from that time he became one of the most popular writers on scientific subjects, as he has certainly been one of the most facile and fertile. In 1878 he followed the example of Froude, Tyndall, Macdonald and others of his distinguished countrymen by visiting America to lecture, in which field he was quite successfuL He made another tour in 1879, after which "he spent a whole year lecturing in Australia, where his success was un precedented. In 1884 he returned to S America and aicaxD pýpg established his cA . Paoc homeatSt. Joseph, Mo. In 1887 he removed to Oaklands, near Orange Lake, in Florida, where the state purposed to build an astrOnomical observa tory for him, and where he remained until a few days before his death, when he went to New York city on his way to Europe, and was stricken with a sporadic case of the deadly fever. Yellow fever in New York city is very rare, and most of the cases have been communica ted by refugees from infected districts. Since the year 1800 there have been 446 deaths in New York city from yellow fever. There has scarcely been a year during the century in which there has not been at least one death from the fever. In 1805 the plague visited the city and over 100 deaths ensued. In 1822, hundreds of people were stricken with the scourage, and 166 died. In the intervening years, between 1822 and 1870, there were from one to fifteen deaths a year from the disease. In 1856, between April 10 and Oct. 4, seventy-nine infected vessels arrived in the bay of New York, and anchored four miles above and below the Narrows, between Long Island and Staten Island, from Graves end bay to within a short distance of New Brighton. The fever extended to the land along the borders of each island, opposite the line of infected vessels and no further, except one spot on the south side of Governor's Island and another about opposite on the Jersey shore. Thirteen deaths from the dis ease occurred in New York, but they had all been infected outside of the city, and no cases originated in either New York or Brooklyn. During July, August and Sep tember sixty-four cases occurred on Gov ernor's Island and several hundred along the shores of Long Island and Staten Islad. There are many who recall the fearful epidemic of 1870. Yellow fever in its most terrible form was then rampant. The city itself was not so much afflicted as Governors Island, where the germs of the disease were planted and blossomed forth, and where a great many people died. How the microbes got there none knew, nor was the disease known until three persons had died. It had been first described as remittent and inter mittent fever. The disease raged there until October, when the welcome arrival of frost killed it off and stayed its ravages. Nearly 800 out of 800 soldiers had felt the effects of the scourge, and fifty-two deaths ensued. The quarantine system of New York is as perfect as any in the world, and it is said that, with the present sanitary arrangements of the city, it would be almost impossible for the dreaded fever to make much headway. It is said on good authority, moreover, that the disease is not so contagious in northern cities, like New York, as is smallpox; indeed, some physicians of high standing go so far as to say that it is not contagious at all. The weight of evidence, however, would seem to indicate that it is. It is not generally known that there were two deaths from yellow fever in Brooklyn about a month before Professor Proctor died of the disease in New York city, but such is nevertheless a fact. A ship from the south brought the cases, but was quarantined and so thoroughly fumigated that the disease was killed. trouble with the Farey. The French managers of the Exposition and Palace of Industry took the trouble to bring the novel gunboat Farcy to the grounds, but as yet have not succeeded in getting it afloat, and so it is exhibited on wheels-"in the manner," the Parisiarpaperssay, "which the Americans once proposed for a railroad ship canal (!) at Panama" This gunboat, known to the French as La Canonniere Farcy, is 65J feet long and 10 feet wide, carrying a cannon of fourteen centimetres bore (nearly five inches), which weighs 13,200 pounds. The boat is of such TB GUNBOAT FARCY. light draught that it was brought up the canal from Burgundy by way of Youne and the Haute Seine, passing through 233 locks; then the great problem was to get it from the nearest canal anchorage tothe grounds of the exposition and into the basin designed for vessels. The first step was effected by constructing an inclined track-very like those with which American travelers were familiar a few years ago, when railroad trains were ferried across western rivers and taken up to the track on the other side without breaking freight or disturbing passengers. Thence the land transportation by "joined wagonettes" was comparatively simple till they reached the walls of the exposition grounds, where another, and so far insuperable difficulty, presented itself-the gate was too narrow. Various schemes were proposedand rejected; so, for the present, the Parisians and visitors take pleasure in seeing a "gunboat on wheels"-such a "railroad" canal as the Americans wanted at Panama, as aforesaid. The gunboat was built in 1888 by popular subscription, which makes it a sort of idol. ADVENTURES IN THE AIR. The Patality That Iefell Aeronaut Sim mons-Belgian Balloonists' Misfortunes. Another prominent aeronaut is killed, his two companions are crushed almost to .leath, three others are dropped in the Atlantic and barely saved from drowning, and we are no more masters of the balloon than they were a century ago. None of the theories of per manent and reliable air currents are verified, land the direction a balloon may take can no more be decided by the best aeronaut today than it could by Montgolfler in his last voy age. One important fact, however, isproved: That whirlpools in the air create vacuums, in which the air is so light that a balloon with ordinary inflation SIxMOSs AoD HIS BALLOON. will drop in it like a billet of wood. It is just as if a man walking on solid ground should step into a deep well, and this, no doubt, explains the sudden fall of balloonsin cases where the globe was not broken, which have heretofore been so mysterious. Unless the whirl of air moves on and allows the bal loon to strike a denser stratum before get ting near the earth, destruction is certain. The last aeronaut killed was Simmons, of England, who had had thirty years experience and made many notable ascensions. On the 27th of August he went up from the Olympia grounds, Kensington, where the great Irish exhibition was in progress, his immense bal loon, the Cosmo, having 62,000 feet of gas as an estimated lifting capacity of 2,400 pounds. With him in the car were a Mr. Field and Professor Myers, of the Natural History museum of South Kensington, and they had made their calculations to strike a current which would carry them over to France. For two hours they moved southward, then, sighting the sea coast, resolved to anchor for the night, as they were rapidly nearing the earth. The anchor caught in a tree just as the balloon was whirled upward by a fresh current of air. It then struck a sort of ai vacuum and fell, was whirled upward again and fell again, and repeated this for the third time. Mr. Simmons was killed and the other gentlemen badly but not fatally injured. Deceased had had some perilous adventures before, and was twice barely rescued from drowning in the English channel. In 1878 he ascended with Lee (roof, the celebrated Belgian "flying man." The latter attempted to descend by a parachute of his own inven tion; it broke, and he was killed by the fall. Mr. Simmons had made successful ascents in France, India, Egypt and the United States. A few days before his death three Belgians, Capt. Mahanden, Lieut. Croy and M. Coulet, ascended from Bercham, Belgium, and were whirled out and over the North sea. De scending in the dark, they saw their danger, threw out ballast and rose again; at dawn they dropped to the water, but succeeded in getting off again. Perceiving a steamer, they thought best to descend near it; all three were thrown into the water, but were rescued by a boat from the steamer when almost exhausted. Relieved of their weight, the balloon again rose, and when last seen was hovering over the Scotch coast. it was on the 12th of lieptember, 1784, that the first notable success was achieved, as on that day a balloon seventy-two feet high and forty-one feet in diameter (an oval), con structed byStephenMontgolfier, ascended be fore a commission in France; but no one went up with it. On the nineteenth of the same month another of the same size was sent up before Louis XVI, Marie Antoinette and the whole court at Versailles, carrying a sheep, a rooster and a duck, all of which descended safely. Soon after the Montgolflers made their first ascension, and in a few years aero nautics were about as perfect as they are to day, except that the general use of gas has made inflation easier. Every year we read or hear that some one has invented a flying machine which "positively will go," but that is all we ever hear of it. Even during the siege of Paris it was found that though a man could get out of the city easily enough he had to go where the air took him, and for mail transportation the balloon was far infe rior to the carrier pigeon, which knew where it wanted to go and went there. ESCUE OF BALLOONISTS-M. COULET. Professor C. E. Myers, of Mohawk, N. Y., and his wife, better known as "Carlotta," have presented some novel theories of air currents and practicable routes of aerial travel drawn from their experience, but little is proved. All conclusions drawn from the sailing of a vessel across the wind are neces sarily misleading, for the vessel is guided by working the force of one fluid against another; the sails take the wind, but the hull rests in the water, a vastly denser fluid, and so the rudder uses that force to partially cir cumvent the other. But an air ship would all be in the same fluid, and would inevitably take the course of the wind, sails, hull, rudder and all. "Steering" is out of the question. Commander-in-Chlef Warner. Maj. William Warner, of Missouri, elected commander-in-chief of the Grand Army of the Republic, at Columbus, O., is now serv ing his second term in congress. Upon the breaking out of the civil war, he raised Company C of the Thirty-third Wisconsin, and was made adju tant of the regi ment. Some time afterward he was made captain of Company D of the same regiment. President Lincoln later appointed him assistant adju tant general to the \ commander of his division. Stillater he was promoted to the majorship of the Forty-fourth Wis consin infantry, which position he held until mustered out of the service in 1865. Maj. Warner was born in Lafayette county, Wis., in 1840, and was educated at Lawrence and Ann Arbor university. At the close of the war he took up the practice of the law in Kansas City, but his talents were soon recog nized by the people, and before his election to congress, he was chosen city attorney and later was raised to the office of mayor. No Publicity Wanted. "So there was ia row at your house last night, Quigley?" "Yes, my uncle was badly hurt. But how did you hear about it? I took every precau tion to have the affair kept quiet." "What precautions did you taker' "I engaged several detectives to work on the case."-Lincoln Journal. TERMS--INVARIABLY IN ADVANCE. OneYear ..........4 00 _xont ...... ............................... 0 Mee Xonth ........................ . 100 Whan not paidin advance the rate will be Five Dollars per year. NEWSPAPER DECISIONS 1. Anyone who takes aoaperresnlarly from the Pao.tce--whether directed to his name or another. or whether e has sabacribed or not-is responsible for the payment. 3. If a permon ordersis paper diseontmnued, hb must pay all arrearages, or the publisher will con tinue to send itnntil payment is made and collect tbhe whole amount, whether thepaper is taken from thc office or not. 3. Theeourtshavedecided that efumsina to take thenewspapers or periodicals from thePostoffice, cr removing and leaving them uncealled for, is prtse licl evidence of intentional traud, Fapes ordered to any address can be changed to another address at the option of the subscriber. Ramittances by draft, check, money order, or regis. needletter may re sent at our risk. All Postmasters are required to register letters on application. IN THE SECRET SERVICE. A. L DRUMMOND, TILL RECENTLY HEAD OF THAT DEPARTMENT. Somo of His Ezxperiences Have Been Thrilling, and One of Them, Which Ta Here Belated, Will Be Found Interesting to Moeat Readers. Probably no prominent person in the United States has had a wider or more varied ex perience with the more intellectual class of lawbreakers than A. L. Drummond, who for many years was the head of the secret ser vice of the treasury department. His pro fessional experiences were in many cases stranger than fiction, and if published would make a volume of the most interesting sort. One of his oddest stories is as follows: About 1883 opium smuggling became so systematized and successful that the treasury receipts showed a heavy falling off. The at tention of the customs officials was called to the matter from headquarters, and every precaution imaginable was taken to prevent the fraud upon the revenue. As fast though as one trick was exposed the smugglers in vented another. Their expedients were re markably ingenious, especially when it is remembered that nearly all the opium in the market is brought in vessels from China and the British possessions in Hindostan. In one case they filled a lot of fine bamboo canes with the drug. In another they hid cans of the prepared article in jars of sweetmeats, boxes of dried fish and barrels of oriental liquors. In a third instance they filled sau sage skins and mixed these in a lot of Chinese sausages. The temptation to smuggle was very great. The duty was high-something like $15 a pound. So strict a watch was kept by the authorities and so many were the seizures and confiscations that at length it seemed as if the smugglers had been routed foot and horse. The arrests grew fewer in number, the convictions rapidly diminished, and the treasury returns rose until they were about normal Satisfied with the success which had accompanied their endeavors, the vigi lance of the officials became somewhat relaxed. The enemy nevertheless were on the watch, and immediately took advantage of the confidence of the in spectors. Only the shrewdest or most reck less again endeavored to evade the law, but these were the very men who realized the largest profits from their dishonest ventures. In how many different ways they succeeded in eluding the representatives of the treasury will never be known. In one instance they played a trick with absolute success, which was accidentally discovered a fewdays there after. A ship had arrived from the east and was moored to one of the New York wharves. - A custom house inspector was on guard, who suspecting that some one on board might at tempt smuggling silk, opium, manilla cigars or other dutiable articles, was keeping a sharp watch upon vessel, crew and all visitors. About 11 o'clock in the morning, on the day after the arrival, a decent looking Chinaman, about 30 years of age, who carried a large open grocer's basket, came upon the wharf, and was about to go on board, when heo was called back by the inspector. The Mongollan explained in broken English to the best of his ability, and it must be said to the extreme bewilderment of the official, that he wished to peddle fruit and vege tables to the crew, among whom were a number of Las cars, Malays and Chinese. The vig ilant inspector not only looked over the contents of the basket, but search it thoroughly. -t contained some twenty odd cans of tomatoes, and a large quantity of o oranges, apples and nhtn rdr~nit ·Phman L, DRUMMOND. was nothing extraordinary about the fact, as all Orientals are great lovers of fruit and vegetables, and buy them in the most liberal manner. The officer having satisfied himself that the would be visitor was acting in good faith, allowed the peddler to go on board, but not being certain of his purpose watched him carefully. The peddler sold most of his fruit and was beginning to dicker about a can of tomatoes, when one of the crew play fully knocked his hat over his eyes and pre tended to steal the basket. The enraged peddler struck at the man nearest to him, and in a moment a lively row was in full progress. It was soon over, and resulted in the peddler, hatless, bloody and torn, being thrown down the gang plank to the wharf. The officer, a large muscular man, sympa thized with the victim, and gladly volun teered to protect him and get back his hat, basket and tomatoes from the grinning crew. The two ascended to the deck, whereupon the latter, as if fearful of the official, dis persed, most of them retreating to the fore castle. The hat, basket and unsold fruit were speedily recovered, but the canned tomatoes remained invisible. Only by threatening to arrest all present and send them to jail did the officer succeed in inducing the reluctant seamen to restore the booty they had cap tured from the peddler. The latter stood scowling, as the cans were handed back, and checked them one by one, till all were re turned. When the lot had been restored, he grasped the inspector's hand and warmly shook it, exclaiming: "You velly good gen nelmen! you like smokef' Upon the officer's saying that he was a devoteeof the weed, the peddler pulled a half dozen Havanas from some mysterious recess in his blouse, and handed them to his benefactor. Then as he was about to leave the ship, he turned and cursed the crew in the wildest burst of pro fanity that the English, Chinese and Malay languages allow. The inspector accompanied him to the street, and saw him safely on board a horse car. Two days afterwards one of the mates found in a dark corner of the forecastle two dozen odd fresh cans of tomatoes. As these were never used on board of the vessel, his curiosity was excited, and a thorough search of the place was made. Nothing was found, however, but an opened tomato can which contained a small quantity of opium pre pared for smoking, but which had previously been full of that drug to the very brim. The inspector who had witnessed the search sud denly saw that he had been duped. The guileiess peddler had brought on genuine canned tomatoes. The peddling, row and theft was simply a clever dodge, under the cover of which the parties who were in col iusion with him had concealed the cans of tomatoes, and when compelled to disgorge had substituted tomato cans filled with pre pared opium. The peddler had succeeded in passing at least fifty pounds of the nar cotic without paying duty under the very eyes of the law, and had probably cleared a profit of at least $500 by the transaction. The inspector did everything in his power to lay his hands upon the rogue and the opium, but never succeeded in getting the slightest trace of either. Description of the Stiletto. The stiletto is a peculiar weapon. There is nothing of American manufacture like it. In length it runs from six to fifteen inches. The blade is about twice the length of the handle, dagger edged, thick at the narrow guard and tapering off to excessive thinnessat the point. At the guard the diameter of the blade is dia mond shaped, and the two extra edges run almost to the point. The real edges, which are razor sharp, make a wound which the auxiliary edges, more blunt than sharp, aggravate to a terri ble degree. So effective is it and so murder ous in the hands of a dexterous man that the Italian government has recently been ex perimenting with it as a weapon at close quarters, and in the Massowah campaign several companies were armed with shields ad long stilettos. The weapon is carried in i sheath like an ordinary dagger.-New York Graphic.