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i - f 333~~~~3333~_: " O " ""- I ::: " 4· 44* L~=? V O L. 2 0, N o.at 2 3 D E E L O D G E,~ M O N A,- N O V E M B E 3 0, 1 8 8 8.L W H L N O~ 1 0 2 RATES OF ADVERTISING. 4 8 , t I I p i C. . 5610 12 15 3 24 7 I'............. 4 7 8 1 i 20 3.2 ,.l...... ... 5 8 10 14 1 " ^3 , :, 7 . ............. 12 18 24 :11 ic .,, .,. 12 9 15 22 S 3050 7,o 1 Year ..........16 2 40 70 in) 140 I'l Regular advertising payable quarterly, as due. Transient advertising payable in advance. Special Notices are 50 per cent. more than reg. nlar advertisements. Local advertiliug.15 Cents for the first insertion; 10 cents per line for each succeeding insertion; lines counted in Nonpariel measure. Job Work payable on delivery. pROFESSIONAL CARDS. ATTORNEYS. WM. J. GALBRAITH, ATTORNEY AT LAW, Rou )S 5 A.D 6, VAN GUNDY & MILLEI B,.ocg, Deer Iodge, SMontana. 969 WELLIN( NAPTON, ATTORNEY AT LAW, [COURT SQUARE], DEER LODGE. t Special Attention Given to Collections. 952 p. W. COLE, Butte. I. R. WHITERILL, Deer Lodge. COLE & WHITEHILL, ATTORNEYS AT LAW sButte and Deer Lodge, Montana. O. B. O'BANNON, Laid Aglet a Ail Hlon IDeer LAodge, - Mornt ana. IlENRY B. DAVI.. C. R.-County and U. S. Deputy Mineral Surveyor. SIAGNUS BANSON. C. E.-Draughtsman and No tary Public. DAVIS & HANSON, Civil ail ini ti EnlI oors, Procurers of U. S. Patents. Township and Mineral Plats on File. Office at Court House. DEER LODGE, M. T. 965 tf PHYSICIANS AND SURGEONS C. F. REED, DENTIST Offce Over Kleinschmidt's Store. DEER LODGE. MONT. 95183m J. A. MEE, PHYSICIAN $ SURGEON, Deer Lodge, M. T. Diseases of W.men and Chil dren a Specialty. Office in the n'w Kleinschmidt Building. JOHN H. OWINGS, M. D., Physician and Surgeon Office-Kleinschmidt Building, formerly oc cupied by M. M. Hopkins. Deer Lodge, - M1ontana Calls in town or country will receive prompt at t ention. 648 BANKS AND BANKERS. W. A. CI.ARK, S. E. LARABIE. OLAiK H LARABIN, DEER LODCE, M. T. Do a General Banking Business and* Draw Exchange on All the Principal Cities of the World. NEW YORK CORRESPONDENTS. First National Bankl, New Yort. P T. 7761 First Hational Bank! L' IrAB` IYA .V.wun 1 .... RELENA, - MONTANA. Paid up Capital ......500.000 Surplus and Profits 8325,000 S. T, HAUSER, - - President. A. J. DAVIS, - Vice-President. E. W. KNIGHT. - - Cashier r. H. KLEINSCHMIDT, - Ass's Csh. DaSIGNATED DEPOSITORY OF TU UNITED STATES. We.ransact a general Banking buasineses,and huny.at gh est rates, Gold Dust, Coin, Gold and Silver Flul on, and Local Securities; Bell Exchange and Tele raphic Transfers. available in all parts of the United "ites, the Canadas, Great Britain, Ireland and the intinent. COLLxCOTIOis made and proceedsremitted promptly. I)lreotors. S. T. HAUSBER TOHN CURTIN. A. IM. HOLTER, R. S HAMILTON. JOHN H. MING, C. p-HIGGINS, K W.KNIGHT, A. J. DAVIS. T. C. POWER. H.M. PARCHEN, T. B. KLEINSCxHMIDT. 1fl E. H. IRVINE & SON, Real Estate, Mining AND COLLECTION AGENCY, East Cranite St, BUTTE, M. T. We solicit the business of any who desire to buy o' sell improved or nnimproved ranches; city property either in Butte or Deer Lodge; or wbo may have notes and accounts for collection Our extensive ac quaintisnce throughout Deer Lodge -ad Silver Bow counties gives us a superior advantate in our line ot business.. We refer by permission to Clark & Larabie, Deer Lodge, M. T. TELEPHONE 85. P. PATTERSON, CARhENTIIR AND BUILDBER, DEER LODGE, MONTANA. Designs furnished and cloe estimates made on Busi ness, DwelliLg and oiler Houses. Do all Kinds Job Carpentering. SASII AND DOORS IN STOCK. hop next door north of Murphy, Htggine , Co's store. Exchange Saloon, One Door South of Scott hosse, Deer Lodge, - MZo nlaite BAILEY & PETTY, Proprietours. Only the Very Finest Ircors and Cigars Over the Eachtnge Bar. A Share of Public p:tronage Respectfully Solicited. 879 tf Arms' Tofsorial Parlors AND BATE RCOO3, Van Gundy & Miller I aeer ltd Une, Building. I TAVING JUST OCCUPIED MY SPLENDID inew arlors in the above building, I m pre Ipared to do all work in my line, to suit the most fas The ath re Iest ielel-plated and complete in every respet, with hot and cold water, ie eptiuo room and private entrance. Paronom and private assured Entire Satisfaction. 0 r JOHIN H. ARMS, ProFritor. Uil NEW YORK LETTER. AN OLD LAWYER'S ILLUSTRATION OF HOW "BLOOD WILL TELL" A Romanee in real Irlfe Unearthed by Our Correspondent in the Io.sy Metrop eIls--Io tou Leally Think the Story Proves the I'oint? ISpecial Correspondence. I Now YORK. Nov. 19. S HERE are sepre sentatives of every country and clime in this metropolis; but I find, afterall, more pleasure in studying the repre sentatives of the Sthirty-eight states S 4 and nine territo rics of the Union; for they are all well represented. There are, for in stance, more ex Confederate sol diers in this than in any southern city, and many of them are flourishing in a style they never dreamed of during the "unpleas antness." Ah, if one could only trace the changes of life's phases which bring so many men here who have made failures elsewhere, what stories lie could write. But I observe that the old fellows who locate in New York are much more ready to talk of others' queer experience than their own. Especially is this the case with lawyers and next to them with southern men generally. I have just lis tened to one narrative by a western lawyer, illustrating the Kentucky idea of blood, and to avoid the interview style, I give it here in direct narration. "Thay ain't no use o' tryin', squire," said an old client to this lawyer at the close of a long conference, "the blood will tell I've no sort notion o'. havin' any of my grandchil dren go to the penitintiary, and that's just what this marriage will lead to if it goes on. I know the blood-there'sthief in that blood, and thief it'll le to the fourth generation." The speaker was an Indiana farmer of the old fashioned type, one who had learned to talk in his boyhood's home in Kentucky, and had grown up a firm believer in the Blue Grass doctrine that "there's everything in blood." Arriving in the Wabash valley in a:, early (lay he had acquired large landed possessions; honesty and industry had given him a high character, and the progress of the country had aided to make him wealthy, but his early peculiarities of dress, speech and manner were but slightly changed. "I know that family," he continued. "His great-grandfather was a sneakin' Carolina Tory in the Revolution, his grandfather was a bushwhackin' thief, and his father was jist able to keep straight and only jist-three straight generations o' cussedness, an' apos tolical succession, as the preachers say. They's jist got to be another generation of it, 1 tell you-one more generation anyhow and I'm in no mind to let my blood mix in with that stock." "But the young man seems quiet and well behaved," replied the lawyer, "and surely, Mr. Manson, you are not the man to refuse because he is poor?" A flush of what might have been anger reddened the farmer's chock, and, as all to bacco chewers do under great excitement, he crunched a mouthful of the weed with a rapid working of the jaws, while striving to re gain his self control; then everted his leath ery lips and with a "thlurp" that made the sensitive lawyer shrink, discharged about a gill of nicotian juice into the fireplace, after which came the words: "You've no call to say that, squire, and you know it. But off my girl shall go, soon as her mother can get her things ready. She's always been a-talkin' about a long visit to her cousins in Kaintucky, and now she'll go while he's out o' the neighborhood, and she'll stay till I feel easier in my mind. An' I want my will made right away, an' I want you to sort o' hint around, not straight out, you know, but jist enough to make peo ple talk lively, that everything goes to my old woman and boys-not a red to Susan, not in fee, jist an allowance and the fee to her children. You don't need to tell nothin'. A hint'll set 'em to talkin' fast enough." As Lawyer Allen had said, there was noth ing in the appearance of Nathan Mowry to suggest an evil nature, and certainly nothing in his conduct since he came to that section. He was tall, fair and blue eyed, just such a lad as would have attracted the fancy of any sprightly brunette like Susan Manson; but it would perhaps have been a passing fancy but for one of those accidents that make or mar so many fortunes. Nathan htd to go through the "seasoning" which most immi grants from the older states then suffered in the west. Hoe was employed on her father's farm when the "fever an' ager tuck him," and by the social common law of the coon try there was the place for him to go through his "spell," A pale and fairly good looking youth, wrestling alternately with ague and quinine, wearing away dull days in a quiet farm house; a handsome, vivacious brunette cheering his days of slow recovery while ma larious September gave place to brown Octo ber and till frosty weather restored him. Need the rest be told? The conjunction of sickness and youth, of beauty and suscepti bility, was as the astral conjunction of Venus and Mercury-it meant mischief. So Farmer Manson suddenly woke up to the fact that he had a serious question to wrestle with. The old Kentuckian was entirely too wise to storm or threaten, much less to abuse the young man outright to his daughter. He had seen too many "matches" hastened in that way. He had, as he told the lawyer, known the young man's family in Kentucky; he knew their record, and he almost hated the lad be cause he had not yet done anything to main tain that record. He could not have told you why, but as he looked into Nathan Mowry's face he saw there a some thing that reminded him of the old "bush whacker from Carolina." and of that bush whacker's son in Kentucky, who was only just able to keep honest. An acute physiog nomist would have pointed him to the weak, almost infantile chin and the tremulous un certainty of the lip, which scientists of his sort claim to be signs that the subject's char acter and career will be determined entirely by the company he falls into; but the farmer could not so localize the matter. lie only saw a sign of something against which his doep instinct warned hins, and his liiowlelge of the family made him "suspicious o' the breed." Well, hearts do not break if their way war'1 inipulses are guided in time, and Susie Muaso:i was so delighted with her lKentucky cousi:ns that the winter passed -apidly way; her view of the world was vastly enlarged, and she met many young r:Iun as tall and fair as athan LMowry, but without the ia fantile chin and imndecisivo lip. Amid, as tLe shrewd father had calculated, a hint from the lawyer about that will had Lien: amnpo motive power for mlany tongues. It is ns tonishing how nagny people will tal; about a an's last will and testament. sou couldn't start a subject of more universl i:nte~is in a rural nehghrcrhool. perhaps occailse it is ons everyln.lY can understand. They may be a little foggy on the tariff, and altogether at eale oei C-tal aid social science, but on the divisiol "f laud and money every man and woman! of them is a philosopher. And did Nathan MoAty break his heartor ",go to the hadi" Not at alL ie simply irifted onl in his indecisive way, took the -ue of the homiest peotle about him, married s, well to do farmer's daughter, and long -jeer after was influential enough to be of some inalortn ina local politics and to start 'his only son William on a very promising career as deputy of the county treasurer, whom the highly respectable father had aid quarter of a enury had passed since i-be first conversation above related, and "'Old Lawyer Allen," as they called him h~ero--thouugh we still think him young in New York-was visititn. his old honm on the Wabash. Sitting one any in an office, dis cussing the "late war" with an excited vet eran, he heard a commotion on the streets which showed that the town of R- was thrilled with unusual excitement, and out of the uproar rose distinctly such words as these: "Seven thousand dollarsl-Canada, I reck. on. Yes, gone to jine our school trustee," and then a laugh which indicated that the last speaker had struck the popular sense of humor. About that time several school trus tees had transferred their allegiance to Can ada. The new sensation soon reached the lawyer in these words: "Bill Mowry has skipped. Got two days the start. Been a stealin' for ye'rs, they say. Gone with the cussed trustees; blast the whole lot of them." It was too true. The hereditary taint had been developed by the sight of public money and the power to take it. "It was," said the old lawyer in giving these facts, "like one of our 'lost creeks' in the limestone region of Kentucky, that goes down in one county and olmes up in the next, perhaps. That old Blue Grass Granger was smarter than I gave him credit for. le hadn't bred cattle thirty years for nothing-he knew that the mean streak would come out once more before it died out. Yes, sir, it was in Bill Mowry's blood to steal and it had to come out. It was all in the blood, sir." But, reader, do you really think it was? J. H. BEADLE. A MASSIVE MONUMENT. It Will Be Erected by the 7V. C. T. U. in the City of Chicago. [Specialc C'orrespondeece. CnIcAco, Nov. 2J. -The National Women's Christian Temperance Union has decided to erect in this city a massive building, which shall serve at once as a monument to the cause for which they labor, and a magnificent meeting place for the organization. They are now collecting the money to purchase the materials for the building and they have the plans completed. The: structure will be sit nated on Dearborn street, Chicago, and will front the postoflice and custom house. It will be one of the most handsome buildings in a city remarkable for handsome structures. Matilda B. Carso, a tower of strength in the Illinois union, was the originator of the plan. For five long years she bas been thinking how to raise the money. Some little time ago the Chicago Central union took hold of the plan; was incorporated so that it might hold property, and then pre sented it to the National union, which will be the owner. It was found impossible, how ever, to purchase the lot upon which the building will stand, so a perpetual lease has been taken at a rental of $35,000 a year. It will cost $800,000 to put the building up, and the style of architecture will be the late Gothic of France. The building will be two stories of dark stone, surmounted by ten stories of dark gray brick and terra cotta. About the main entrance there will be a profusion of carv ings, which will include the coats of arms of all the state organizations belonging tq the National union and the heraldic devices relating thereto. In the large tympana, ý.. I- PROPOSED W. C. T. U. BUILDLG. above the outer and inner entrance to the main doorway, the general coats of arms of the National union, and the name of the building will be wrought in glazed mosaics, which will be equally brilliant by night or day. Beyond the general hallway there will be a large rotunda, which will open in the memorial hall proper, to be known as Wil lard hall. A large fountain will decorate the centcr of the rotunda. In Willard hall there will be many memorial tablets, scriptural inscriptions, and stat nary, and in time it is expected that the hall will become in every sense significant of the purposes of the union. Two large foun tains will adorn: the courts of the main front. The tower will dominate the entire building, and will be ornamented with a final of the Madonna and Child. Across the front of the top of the Iuilding there will be'eight niches for eight colossal stone busts. These will not be filled at present; the women say they will wait for a time to decide who are the eight celebrities worthy to stand guard over the building. The structure will be quite fire proof. The hall, staircase and wainscoting will be of white marble. Much of the building will be rented, and it will contain room enough to bring in an annual income of $191,500. Ten years hence it is believed that the rental will be t250,0l0 at least. There are strong hopes that the corner stone will be laid by May 1. L.C. ·R HON. DWIGHT M. SABIN. United States Senator from Minnesota. His iIse in the World. It is said that Senator Dwight May Sabin, of Minnesota, who is rumored in some quar ters to have declined to become a candidate for re-election to the United States senate, is a native of Illinois, having been born in Iatulius. Bureau county, ini 1843. His father was a farmer on a largeo scale in Illinois, and the boy grew up on the farm, working sn the . fields during the season. In 1S7, after the father's deat h, the son set tied in Stillwater, Mins., being then DWIGHT SABIN. about 25 years old. He began dealing in lumber in a small way, but was very successful, and at last got to be a very prominnct lumber man. Being the owner of a large number of mills in the pine ries, he enjoys an annual income from the profits of his various enterprises of nearly Senator Sabin early became identified with politics in his state, and for three terms was elected a member of the state legislature and two terms to the state scnat. HIe has been for several years a member of thle PRepublican national committee for ii eseta,1 anid was a delegate to the Republic.n national conventions of 1S72, 1S70 and 1880 respectively. Was elected chairmani of the Republican national committee Dec. 12,1883, hb a unanimous vote. h r. Sabiu was elected to the United States at -to o succeed William Windom, and took his seat March 4, 1883, his term cpxrmng March 3, 1889. A Meaningless Title. Small loss would "Esq." be if Amerricans discarded it. It is absolutely without mean ing hi its current use, and does nothing to compensate for the time it takes to ,write it. _Rochester Union. HARRISON GOSSIP. HIS FIRST BOW BEFORE THE POLITl ICAL WORLD. Some of His Personal Characteristles-HIs Home and His Family-"The General Is Out Taking a Walk"-He Is Not Emo-, tional. Benjamin Harrison first became nationally prominent in 1876, and then under circum stances peculiarly embarrassing both to him and his party. Down to that time the rule had been for the Democrats of Indiana to hold, their state conventions on the 8th of Jane uary-jocularly called "St. Jackson's day" -and the Republicans on the 22d of- ebri ary. The experiences of that year ledboth. parties to adopt a much later date, and now the campaign in that state is short and hot. At their convention the Republicans nomi nated for governor the Hon. Godlove S. Orth, whose long experience on the bench and in congress peculiarly qualified him fr the post; but imme diately after the convention a charge was made against him in con nection with cer tain transactions in Venezuela of such a complicated nat ure that it would have taken all the campaign to ex plain them, and then the people would have been I c skeptical. So Judge Orth withdrew,and RS. M'KEE. the committee sub stituted Gen. Harrison, who had held no higher civil office than that of reporter of the supreme court, and was almost unknown to most of the voters. Coming in as "second choice" and sneered at as a "kid gloved aris tocrat," he suffered the additional disadvant age of being a candidate in the worst year, indlustrially and commercially, that the state had ever known, and when all currents were against his party. Yet he made a "strong race." The plurality of his opponent, "Blue Jeans" Williams, was very small, and Genu. Harrison at once took rank as one of the coming men of his party. It is just a little odd that Gen. Harrison should have been so vehemently denounced as an "aristocrat," for he was born in a log cabin, reared in a pioneer country, educated only by pinching economy, and has never been rich. In fact, he began married life with barely money enough to buy the neces sary furniture, and was so poor for the fol lowing ten years that the small bffice of re porter of the supreme court was quite a boon to him. Of late years his successful law practice has brought him a competency. It is admitted, however, that he is not "mag netic" in the sense that word is applied to politicians. He does not shine in conversa tion, and there is nothing at all effusive in his manner. With new acquaintances he is quite reserved. MR. IIARRISON'S LIBRARY. As a lawyer he is extremely methodical not at all eloquent. One never reads any quotations from his speeches in the popular collections of oratory, nor do the people refer to any of his "brilliant efforts," as they do to those of Voorhees, Cumback, Morton, Lamb, Beveridge, Nelson, "Dick" Thompson or other Indiana politicians, young and old. It is believed that all his speeches are written out in advance. Personally he is as little like his illustrious grandfather as any other man might be. The latter was tall and spare almost to painful attenuation. The president-elect is the short est man ever chosen to that office, rather stout in build, with fat cheeks and a broad, smooth forehead. His temperament seems more lymphatic than nervous, and one would say that his face is that of a man not much disturbed by popular excitement or party clamor. - His domestic life is a model of quiet duty and enjoyment. His wife was a noted beauty in her day, and his married daughter, Mrs. McKee, is a lady of striking beauty. She has made her home with her parents for some time, and will go with them to Wash ington. Her boy is the pride and delight of the family, and will add a new featuro of life to the White House, where the patter of childish feet has not lately been known. It is one of the odd facts of American history that every third president elected was childless from Washington to Buchanan inclusive, and the record was only broken in 1876 by a contest so close that all patriots hope it may never be repeated. Gen. 1.'r-ison's mnusemen" s -re of the thereply to ny aious cales since the election. For a vhile he was almost a pris oner in !lis own house, ai his .appea:ance o:t the strets wase the signal for a demo:,stra ftion; but since the jollifications ceased. he has resumed his habit of taking long walksc , for which:, by the way, no city ii the natioa has better facilities tihan InUiancplis. Outside of the business centers it is one wide, extendedl suourban city of retired country seats, with elegant drives, fine paveaInnts and handsome houses, just far enough apart to give room for rural surroundings. Gen. Harrison's residence, at No. 674 North Delaware street, is in no wise conspicuous, except that visitors have lately carried away the picket fence and damaged pavement, door step and front hall by extensive t ampming. In doors are the usual parlor, back parlor, li brary, sitting room and household rooms. To the first the great American public ap peared to be welcome at all reasonable hours during the campaign; but for private con sultations the library was reserved. It is no secret that the general was not enthusi astically confident of his own election, as he is not unreasonably elated over it. Inii short, the Amlerican people have chosen for chief executive a caln, cool, rather unemo tional, cautious and conservative man Connectficut is a comparatively small stat. mut it has alshat maOOO l sie of stone feue's PHOSPHATE MINING. 6o0uth Carolina's Marvelous Natural Pro 'duet-A tecently Developed Industry. [Special Correspondence.l NE YORng, Nov. 19.--Within seven years the annual value of South Carolina's mineral resources has increased from $1,371,939 to $2,093,0.8, and of this about 83 per cent. is phosphate rock. Visitors to the New Orleans Exposition in 1384 and 1885 will remember a pyramid formed entirely of this curious de posit. It may now be seen at the spacious hall of the state department of agriculture in Columbia, S. C., where it towers from a base twenty feet square to the height of thirty feet. Long known to geologists, it was not until1S867 that the commercial importance of South Carolina phosphats was recog nized, yet more than 3,000,000 tons of the rock have been mined and shipped since the peculiar industry was established. A dozen land and twenty river mining com panies, now actively working, have $4,000, 000 invested. During the three years, 1868, 1869 and 1S70, only 20,000 tons were raised, 90 per cent. of which was land mining. In 1880 125,000 tons were produced from the land mines and upwards of 65,600 tons of river rock. Last year the total output was 483,000 tons, almost equally divided between the two varieties. Most of the river rock is sold in Europe It is officially stated that notwithstanding the comparatively low price of phosphate rock, during 1887, the value of this product alone was more than three times as great as the aggregate value of precious metals un earthed in the entire south in the same period. This remarkable deposit is found in beds on the South Carolina lowlands running par allel to the Atlantic seaboard and from eight to fifty miles distant from the coast. It is also roughly massed with fossil bones and teeth in creeks and rivers. The nodules have developed, on analysis, from 55 to 62 per cent. of tricalcic phosphate and from 5 to 11 per cent. of carbonate of lime, with various minor constituents. These phosphates form the basis of superior artificial fertilizers largely consumed throughout the United States and in foreign countries. The chem ical working reduces the rock to powder of a most insidious nature. In the manufactories the men who are employed to pack this dust into bags are compelled to wear handker chiefs bound across their mouths and nostrils. South Carolina's phosphate mines are lo cated in Beaufort, Colleton and Berkeley counties. What is known as the Coosaw Mining company is the only river dredging phosphate syndicate that has exclusive rights. There has recently been much talk of "pools" and "trusts" among the river companies, mainly with a view to pro tect the price of rock. The principal opera torsin Beaufort county, besides the Coosaw syndicate, are the Oak Point Mining com pany and the Sea Island Chemical company. Next January the Port Royal Mining com pany will begin rock dredging. The Cooper and Ashley river marls are composed of minute shells, and their granu lar texture is frequently so compact that the dark gray mass is suitable for building ma terial Fragments broken from the irreg ular surfaces of these marls, rounded by wave action, have become converted into the nodules that are so rich in phosphate of lime. The rock which is now extensive:y mined in South Carolina is always found overlying the marL Much darker in color than the land deposit, and palpably harder, the water rock is found at a dredging depth of fifteen to twenty feet at the bottom of creeks and rivers that are feeders of Port Royal harbor or St. Helena sound. Land rock is usually mined at a depth of five to seven feet from the earth's surface. It varies greatly in size of the nodules. Found in clay, mud, sand or peat, it is marked with the fossil re mains of mastodons, elephants, deer, horses, cows and hogs; not imbedded in the rock but mingled with the loose layers. Beautiful specimens of sharks' teeth, from two to four inches long, are not infrequent. Scientists have been mentally exercised to account for the changing of a marl which originally contained 60 per cent. of carbon ate of lime and only 3 or 4 per cent. of phos phate of lime into one which shows by analy sis 55 to 62 per cent, of phosphate of lime, and from 5 to 11 per cent. of carbonate of lime. In the exhaustive and deeply inter esting reports of South Carolina's state board of agriculture, it is mentioned as a noteworthy circumstance that while the greater part of eocane marls in that region have preserved their constitution almost unchanged, a very re markable mutation is observable at the be ginning and end of the series, in the buhr stone on the northern border, and in the widely removed phosphate rock on the south ern. In the buhr stone the original carbon ate of lime composing the shells has been re placed by silcia, rendering huge masses of rock, that once might have imparted valu able properties to the soil, worthless to the agricnlturist; while in the phosphate belt there has been a curious but vastly beneficial tvolution. Two theories are offered for explanation of the change from carbonate of lime to phos phate. One of these theories assumes that the fragments of marl were charged with sweepings from guano beds formed above them by congregated flocks of sea birds. But no remains of birds have been found among the other fossils discovered in these wonder ful beds. The other theory as to the forma tion of these rocks is that certain mollusks have the power of separating the phosphate of lime from ocean water, and that through their instrumentality the marl (especially its upper strata) became charged with phosphate of lime. That the proportion of phosphate, thus obtained, to the whole body of the superficial layers of marl was afterwards in creased: First, by the removal of a consider able quantity of the carbonate of lime ren dered soluble by the percolation through it of rain water containing carbonic acid, de rived from the decomposing vegetable matter in the soil overlaying the marl Second, by a well known proneness of phosphoric acid, when diffused, to concentrate and to give rise to concretionary processes similar to those strongly marked in the flint nodules and pebbles of English chalk. This theory agrees with the diffused occurrence of phosphatolf lime in the superflcial layers of the marl, as well as with the fact that the upper layers of the deposites and the outside of the nodules are richest in phosphate. It substitutes a general cause for a local one, commensurate at once with the widearea oc cupied by the phosphate rocks and by the phosphatic marls of the south Atlantic coast line. One ton per day of the rock can be raised by an ordinary laborer. lie is paid for this work 81.5. A royalty of $1 for each ton mined is paid into South Carolina'streasury. In 1883 phospha.o rock was marketed at $9 per ton, but of late years lower prices have ruled. Working one and one-half hours on the ebb and the same length of time on the flood tid., at a depth of ten feet or more, the Coosaw divers earn as much as $18 a week rai-ing river rock. This labor is neither un healthy nor perilous. HEaRY CLAY LUKnS. Novel Form of Lifeboat. A certain line has furnished each of its steamers with two folding canvas lifeboats of the pattern invented by an English clergy man. The boat is twenty-five feet long, is double pointed, and is made of oiled canvas fastened tto longitudinal elm wood ricks which are secured to posts ateither end. An air space hetveen the canvas coverings ren ders the boat unminkable, There is a folding bottom hinged in the center. -The seats fold upward when not in use. The boat weighs 1,800 pounds, and will hold 100 persons. Boston Transcript Belle-Introduce me to your Pittsburg friend, dear. 1 hate to see a girl want all the good things in life. Nell-How did you know he was a Pitt burg man! Belle-By his Ironical smile and steel blue eyes-Boston Budgt. MR. CLEVELAND'S FUTURE. IT 13 NOT YET DECIDED WHAT IT WILL BE. Perhaps He Will Travel for a Time and Then Become a I.anker-How Other Ex Presidents Have Occupied Their Time After Leaving tle Highest Office. [Special Correspondence.] WAemrIGTox, Nov. 19.-There has been much speculation for somo days concerning President Cleveland's future. The president is only 51, has been but a few years married, and in the ordinary course of human events should have many years of activity and com fort before him..: Afte hi-~.ta White House the president will probably soon come face to face with the necessity of adding to his income by professional labor. He is worth no more than $150,000, a large part of his property being unproductive. He owns Oak View and somen other outlying property here in Washington, and a small business block and a residence in Buffalo, but the in come from all this could hardly be sufficient for the needs of his family. According to the president's friends nothing Is settled concerning his future except that he will notreturn to Buffalo. The prevailing opinion is that after a journey to Europe he will sell his Washington property and seek to place himself at the head of some financial institution in New York city. Though a trained and successful lawyer it is not thought probable he will care to resume the practice of his profession. Certain it is that until within the last few days the president has hardly given a thought to his future, not so much from a blind confidence in his re-elec tion as from a pressure of other duties and topics and his characteristic disinclination to borrow trouble. For the president this problem of his future now becomes a more serious one than is apparent to the casual observer. Even were the question of income so settled as to give him no further concern, and by modest living and prudent management his rentals might suffice to sup port his family, there still remains the prob lem of congenial employment. Mr. Cleve land is not old enough to find contentment in a retired life, and not enough of a student to find in his declining years the solace of a scholar. - In the after life of his predecessors Mr. Cleveland cannot find much to comfort him. Washington lived only two years after his re tirement, and the peace of even this brief period of release from public duty was broken by the rumblings of a war with France and by labor at the plans of reorgan ization of the army, which were intrusted to him by President Adams. After twenty-five years of public service John Adams retired to private life, feeling bitterly his defeat for re-election-a bitterness which was in no wise relieved by a consciousness of the fact that while he had saved the young republic from a war which might have ended in its ruin the country had chosen for his suc cessor the leader of the war party. Though 62 when inaugurated, John Adams lived twenty-five years after leaving the White House. But he had the immense advantage, which so few of our modern presidents en joy, of the possession of a farm and a fond ness for its cultivation. Adams left Wash ington in haste at the expiration of his term, not waiting even for the inauguration cere monies, and took up his residence on his farm at Braintree, ten miles southwest of Boston. There he read much, enjoyed correspondence with Jefferson, the men having been recon ciled by the aid of mutual friends, and served in a state constitutional convention when 82. His declining years became more and more tranquil as the bitterness engendered by poli tics slowly disappeared. Jefferson's after life was much harassed by financial difficulties, and the fifteen years which he spent at Monticello after leaving the White House cannot be described as years of contentment. Madison was more fortun ate. Retiring at 66, he spent nineteen years with his books and his friends at Montpelier. Monroe was 67 when he left the White House, and the cloud of his declining years was the inadequacy of his income. He lived till he was 73, but his wife died soon after his re tirement from public life, and he spent the remainder of his days in the home of his daughter, Mrs. Gouverneur, in New York city. Only two presidents have re-entered public life after bidding good-by to the White House. One of these was John Quincy Adams, who retired in 1820, and two years later appeared in the house of representatives, where he remained, the "Old Man Eloquent," till stricken down at his post seventeen years later. This reminds me of a prediction recently made by one of Mr. Cleveland's Buffalo friends. "If the president failsof are-election," said he, "I expect him to return to Buffalo in a couple of years and resume the practice of law. I also expect to see him once more mayor of Buffalo or a member of congress from our state. He may not be a second John Quincy Adams, but I know that Mr. Cleveland does not look upon the presidency as an office which precludes its incumbent afterward returning to his former vocation, or performing further public service, no mat ter in what capacity, if called thereto by his fellow citizens." Andrew Jackson lived eight years after leaving the White House, and the evening of his life was noteworthily calm and in strik ing contrast with his tempestuous career. He became a devout Christian and took great delight in reading the Scriptures to his fam ily and servants. Martin Van Buren retired from the presi Sdency in '41, and lived in quiet and elegance at Kinderhook, N. Y., till his death in 1862 Van Buren was elected president in 1836, was defeated in '40, was much talked of for the nomination in '44, and in '48 ran once more, this time as the candidate of the anti-slavery wing of the Democratic party. After leav ing the executive chair Tyler lived seventeen years in contentment at his ideal home, Bher wood Forest, Charles City county, Va. Polk died within a few months after retirement. Fillmore traveled in Europe after his defeat in '53, and in '50 accepted the nomination of the American party. He lived quietly in his palatial home at Buffalo till his death in "74. When Mr. Cleveland retires from the presidency he will bea younger man than any of his predecessors was on leaving the White House. Next to Cleveland in point of youth was Pierce, and it is to be hoped Cleveland's after life will be more pleasant than Pierce's was. Pierce failed of a renomination by his party, traveled three years in Europe, lost all his sons andl his wife, and his own ammless existence was terminated by death at the age of 65. Buchanan lived but seven years alter leaving the presidency. Johnson is the other president who re entered public life, though he reappeared but for a moment. Upon his retirement in '6~ Johnson at once set about securing an official return to the Capitol in which he had been the center of so much turmoil He was de teated for the senate in 1870 and for congress at large in '72, but in 1874 was elected to the United States senate. He died the next year. Gen. Grant lived but nine years after re tiring from the presidency, then #arely past his prime, and his last years were not with out many troubles and disappointments. Hayes, the only livin, ex-president, seems placid and contenot in his 6(th year, while his immediate successors met their fate untimely, the one while yet in office by an assassin's bullet, amid the other of a broken heart be cause of his party's falinure to make him its candidate. What is to be the future of President Clevelandi IloDEP. Gnr.avpa. gometalang of a Finaneler. A wealthy but innocent merchant, wishing to inculcate habits of economy in his son and heir, promised him $5 for every $1 he might accumulate during six mronths. At the end of the half year the young scapegrace hadn't saved a cent, but, being something of a fiuan cier, borrowed $200 and coolly struck his unsuspecting parent for C1,000.-Shoe and Leather Ilenorter. THE EMPRESS OF AUSTRIA. She Will Shortly Visit America for a Period of Rest. [Special Corresponadence] VIENNA, Nov. 5.-Europe, as every reader knows, is well supplied with emperors, kings, queens and other princely personages whose chief and most important occupation, aside from being the figure head of their respective states, cousists in the drawing and spending of their magnificent appanages while their tax burdened subjects groan under a yoke almost intolerable. Notable among the afore said has for a long time been the empress of Austria, and this for various reasons. In her halcyon days she was undoubtedly the most beautiful sovereign that ever graced or disgraced a throne; and even now, though hbe beauty, cosidtelitbt she Ii5Vter old, is somewhat faded, she is still a very at tractive woman. Not only her beauty, but also her various eccentricities have from time to time called public attention to her. She was married in the year 1854 to her pres ent husband. Francis Joseph; but if the rumors that have from time to time been noised abroad have not been entirely ground less, their married life has not been without many and violent tempest. Persons who are in a position to know claim that neither the emperor nor his spouse have been over faithful to their vows made at the altar. And if an indicatiomn that this be true is found in the fact that child ren usually follow in the foot steps of their pa-' rents, we find much confirmation of those allegations in e n. the many and shocking escapades of a similar char EMPRESS ELIZABETH. actor that the son and nephews of the emperor have participate.l in. For instance, it is hardly a year since one of the arch dukes, a u, phew of the emperor, was, in the presc·:n- of a family council, repri manded, and even received a box on the ear by the emperor, as the head of the family, for disgracing himself and all of his relatives by an act of astonishing brutality. But to return to the empress. She is also a very passionate equestrienne and huntress, and sometimes darts like lightning from one part of the country to another, or spends her time in similar pastime in England, which is a favorite retreat of hers. The empress is quite liberal with her money and, unlike her husband, who is a zealous Catholic, inclines toward liberal and even free thinking opin ions. When some months ago the idea was broached to erect in Germany a monument to the poet Heine, she volunteered a contribu tion of, if I mistake not, 50,000 florins, but as Heine in his time wrote some rather remark able things, not at all flattering to the Hohen zollern family, the Emperor Francis, now the ally of the German emperor, felt himself compelled to remonstrate with the empress for devoting her money to such a purpose and she withdrew her offer. If it be asked in what regard the empress is held by her subjects we must first remark that to those who have not been brought up or lived a long time in monarchical countries, it is utterly impossible to understand the feeling that these people have for their sov ereigns. Their early education, prejudice, inborn awe before royalty, and inability to ascertain the truth of things happening in their own country with which their rulers are connected, all combine to give them an untrue conception of their rulers, which is in almost every case in favor of the latter. We must distinguish between the different classes of subjects. The most ignorant and bigoted are nearly always the most loyal. Then there are the higher and better educated classes who, for various rea sons, find it to their profit to think, or affect to think, well of their sovereigns. Besides, it is a very dangerous thing to express in a public place, or even before witnesses, a derogatory opinion of them, for in these bureaucratic countries it requires very little to construe the crime of lese majesty, which is one very severely punished. Thus we see that for a stranger unacquainted with the character of the peo ple it is impossible to arrive at a correct view of their regards for their rulers. There of course exists also a largeclass who openly, or by insinuation, cast their reflections upon the shady sides of the character of their sov ereigns, but they either do it only when they are in the society of like minded or their in dignation or hatred gets the better of them, and they utter their aspersions feeling con scious that the state will board and clothe them for some years to come. Taken all in all, the average Austrian citi zen does not think that the Empress Elizabeth has a very arduous life, since, as be fore remarked, his training andl education have given him the idea that it is the natural and divine prerogative of sovereigns to live on the best of the land and to be amenablo only to God. They will excuse in their emperor or empress things for which they would think several years of penitentiary too slight for an ordinary mortal. HE.NRY MAYER. PERRY S. HEATH. Will le Be the Dan Lamoent of President Elect Harrison? Perry S. Heath, the clever Washington correspondent of The Indianapolis Journal, has been mentioned as the probable private secretary of President-elect Harrison. He would make an excellent one. He is scarcely 30 years of age, and is a bright, well educated fellow of irreproachable character and wide acquaintance with men and affairs. He was on intimate terms with Mr. Harrison when the latter was in the s-nate, and he has kept up a correspondence with hinm ever since. Mr. Harrison respects him highly and trusts him implicitly. Heath is a good looking bac helor (nearly all of the Washington corre spondents are sad bachelors) with a handsome pile of cash, which he has gathered by hard work and lucky in vestments, so that he could afford to give up his news paper connections and tak3 the small $2.500 salary of the PERRY S. HnATIL president's private secretary without fear of financial stress. Heath has been abroad, too, published a volume of his recollection; if Russia and can dispose of the pcrtinacionus office seeker in three languages. He i.s tll, straight and thin, with a large, long face, red cheeks and a light mustache. He is, of course, one of the members of the Gridiron club, which contains the cream of the Wash ington correspondents, and is one of the best after dinner poets. lie would be very popu lar with the newspaper men if he ,ucceeds Col. Laur mt. No Danger. Burglar-I have followed the profession of housebreaking for ten years and have never been arrested. I have a new job nearly every night. Pickpocket-But aren't you afraid the po lice will get the drop on you? Burglar-Not much. I live next door to the station house.-Hotel Mail. The Correct Time. Dumley (who has sold a watch)-You told me, Robinson, that if I would let you have the watch you would pay me in thirty days. It's a good deal more than thirty days now. Robinson-Not by that watch; that watch loses twelve hours out of the twenty-four. New York Sun. Canned sweet potatoes are the latest grocery novelty. TERMS-.INVARIABLY IN ADVANCE. neaYear............................ 0.......$4 0 BSx Months...................... ...... 2 00 Three Months.......................... 1 00 When not paid i aidvance the rate will be Five Dollars per year. NWSPAFPBR DUCISIONh 1. Anyonewho takes anaperrealarly from the Postomfoe-whether directedto his name or another. or whetber he has ancribed or not-Is responsible for the payment. 2. If a person orders his paper discontinued, be mast pay all arrearae, or the publisher will con tinne to send ituntil payment is made and collect the whole amount, whether thepaper l. taken from the office or not. 8. Thecoartshavedecided that refusing to take thenewspanpe or periodicalstrom tbePostoffce. or removing and leaving them uncanled for, is prim ra.d evidence of intentional fraud. Papers rdered to any address can be changed to another ddres at the option of the sbecriber. Remittances by draft, check, money order,or regis. tered letter, may t sent at our risk. All Postmasters ae required to register letterson applhcation. FEDERAL BUILDING AT AUGUSTA, GA. It Will Be a Handsome Structure anad Will Cost $150,000. [Special Correspondenco. AUGUSTA, Ga., Nov. 20.-A bill passed the Forty-ninth congress appropriating the sum of $150,000 for the erection of a public build ing at Augusta, to be used as a postoffic United States district court house and other purposes. The Platt lot, on the corner of Greene and Campbell streets, was selected for the site, for which the sum of $30,000 was paid. According to the terms of the pur chase, the lot was to be delivered clear of buildings, which necessitated the removal of the beautiful Platt mansion. To accomplish this it was necessary to cut the building in two; rollers were placed under the parts, which were removed to an adjoining lot, where they were reunited,pthe whole opera tion causing but slight inconvenience to the occupants. Excavations for the foundations of the building were tegun in July last. The work was temporarily delayed by the high water in the Savannah river of Sept. 10, and after the subsidence of the flood the body of a drowned man was found in one of the trenches. The architectural design of the building is exceedingly ornate. The structure is rectan gular in shape, fronting 110 feet on Greene street and 90 feet on Campbell. Red pressed brick and granite are the materials to be used. It will be built on a system of isolated pillars, and will be three stories in height, exclusive of basement. At the northeast corner, springing from a square base, an octagonal tower rises live stories to the height of 145 feet. A handsome stone parapet, dec orated with terra cotta grotesques, orna ments its top. Over the Greeneo street en trance and surmounting the center of the AUGUSTA'S FEDERAL BUILDING. building is a slender turret dormer whose graceful proportions add greatly to the ef fect. There is an entrance from each street, open to the lobby, each having four large doors and approached by a broad flight of stone steps. The first floor will be devoted entirely to the requirements of the postal service, including the general delivery, working department, postmaster's office, lobby vaults, etc. The floor will be tessel lated with handsome marble tiling, and the whole interior will be finished in hard woods in the most artistic as well as substantial manner. The second floor will be supported by iron columns carrying iron beams, and conse quently will be fire proof. Here will be found the United States district court room, judges' room, clerks' room, witness room, file rooms and offices of the commissioners and internal revenue collector. It will be fur nished in the same manner as the first floor, and will be provided with all necessary ap purtenances and conveniences. The specifi cation makes no provision for the completion of the third floor, which will probably re main unfinished until the necessity may arise for its use. The fifth floor and deck of the tower will be used by the United States signal service, and will prove a very conveniently arranged and well located station. In the basement of the building will be located the vaults and steam heating apparatus. A cen tral shaft will furnish adequate ventilation for the entiro building. Altogether the Au gusta pnblic building will be a very hand some and well appointed structure and in all respects creditable to the beautiful city it will adorn. It will be completed in eighteen months from the inception of the work. _ _ . L. P. THE CASE OF O. N. DENNY. He Has Been Foreign Adviser to Corca's SKing, but Now He "M-ust Go." The case of Judge Owen N. Denny, the for eign adviser of the king of Corea whose re call has been demanded by the viceroy of China, is not very well understood by most people. Corea is a dependency of China. There is a Chinese viceroy in Corea who represents the celestial emperor. The United States has treaties with both China and Corea, and in the first article of its treaty with Corea it is distinctly stated, with refer ence to the United States, that "if other powers deal unjustly or oppressively with either government, the other will exert its good offices, on being informed of the case, to bring about an amicable arrangement, thus showing their friendly feelings." The Chinese government has been accus tomed to furnish the Corean king with a confidential adviser, of whom it was expected that he would not only advise the king as to the in terests of Corea but also con sistently with the interests of t he Flowery Empire. Mr. Delnny occu pies this losition and was recomn mended thereto by , the Chinese. He is a citizen of Ore gon, though it is said that he has married a Corean wife. In 1880 he was appointed United States con- O. N. DENNY. sul general to Shanghai, the salary attached to which position is $5,000 a year. In 1884 he was removed and returned to California, but was summoned to Corea by Li Hung Chang, the Chinese viceroy in Corea. He was then offered the position of adviser to the king, accepted and entered upon his duties. Now Denny last February prepared an elaborate memorial in which he gave the status of Corean affairs and criticised the at titude of the Chinese government toward that coantrv. IIe sent this document to Sen ator Mitchell, of Oregon, who laid it before the United States senate last August. It at tracted the attention of the Chinese legation at Washington, who doubtless transmitted a copy of it to the Chinese government. Hence the demand for the recall of the king's ad viser. Whether the l:ing of Corea, having come to possess an advi"er who stands by his interest, will consent to give him up, is a de batable point. Judge Dnnyuy is a mnan about 55 years of age, broad sihouldlerd, of medium height, with a florid face, and hair brushed straight back. He wears a low necked collar which exposes an inch or two of his chest; much of the time he wears the native costume. As to the matter at issue Judge Denny claims in his memorial that he was promised the cordial support of the viceroy which had since been denied hi'mu. He then touches upon the dangerous ground China is trying to occupy with reference to Corea. IIe closes his communication by asserting that there is no doubt in the minds of Coreans as to who are the projectors of the recent foul murders of foreigners committed on the streets of the capital. In an article on courage in The Fortnightly Review Lord Wolseley contradicts the idea that little men are braver than big men. One of the very bravest he ever knew was 6 feet 4 inches. Among the nations he singles out Turkey with special praise for her fight ing qualities: "Among all the great armies of the world, none is composed of a finer or braver fighting material than that of Tur key. The early life, the training, laws, man ners, customs and, above all, the religion of the Turk combine to make him the most for midable of soldiers."-New York Sni.