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principal and premium, and what it would
have paid fort interest at the rate specified on the bonds itf they had run to their ma turity, is about $27,165,000. At first sight this woult seem to be a profitable and sen sible transaction on the part of the gov ernment, but as suggested by the secretary of the treasury, the surplus thus: expended for the purdhase=of bonds.~ wa money drawn from the people in 4icess of- any actual need of the 'government and was so expended rather than allow it to remain. idle in the treasury. If this surplus, un der the operation of - just and, equitable laws, had been left in the hands of the peo ple, it would have been worth in their bis iness at leagt 6 per cent per annum. De ducting from the amount of interest on the principal and the premium of these bonds for the time they had to run at the rate of 6 per cent, the saving of 2 per cent made for the people by the purchase of such bonds, the loss will appear to be $55,760,000. This calculation would seem to demonstrate that if excessive and 'innecessary taxation is continued, and the government is forced to pursue the policy of purchasing its own bonds at premiums which it will be neces. sary to pay, the loss to the people will be hundreds of millions of dollars. Since the purchase of bonds was undertaken, as mentioned, nearly all that have been of fered were at last accepted. It has been made quite apparent that the governmenl was in danger of being subjected to com binations to raise the price, as appears by the instani-e cited by the secretary of the offering of bonds of the par value of only $P26.000, so often that the aggregate of the sums demanded for their purchase amount ed to more than $19,700,000. Notwith, standing the large sums paid out in the purchase of bonds. the surplus in the treas ury on November 80, 1888, was $12,284, 610.01, after deducting about $20,000,00X just drawn out for the payment of pen sions. At the close of the fiscal year ended June 30, 1887, there had been coined under the compulsory silver coinage act $266,988,28( in silver dollars, $55,504,810 of which weri in the hands of the people. June 80, 1888 there had been coined $299,708,790, and ol this 855.829,805 was in circulation in coin and $200,887,876 in 'silver certificates, fo, the redemption of which silver dollars t( that amount were held by the government November 80, 1888, $812,570,990 had beer coined; $60,970,990 of the silver dollars were actually in circulation and $287,418,846 it certificates. The secretary recommends the suspension of the further coinage ol silver, and in such recommendation I con cur. For further valuable information ant timely recommendation I ask the carefu attention of congress to the secretary'! report. THE ARMY. The secretary of war reports that the army, at the date of the last consolidated returns, consisted of 2,189 officers and 24, 549 enlisted men. The actual expenditures of the war department for the fiscal year ended June 80, 1888, amounted to $41,165, 107.07, of which sum $9,158,516.683 was ex pended for public works, including river and harbor improvements. The board of ordnance and fortification, provided for under the act of September 22, last, was convened. October 30, 1888, and plans and specifications for procuring forgings for eight, ten and twelve-inch guns, under the provisions of section 4, and also for pro curing twelve-inch breech-loading mor tars, cast-iron, hooped with steel, under the provisions of section 5 ot said act, were submitted to the secretary of war for ref erence to the board by the ordnance de partment. Those plans and specifications having been promptly approved by a board and the secaetary of war, the neces sary authority to publish advertisements inviting proposals in the newspapers throughout the country was granted by the secretary on November 12, and on November 13 the advertisements were sent out to the different newspapers designated. The bids for steel forgings are to be opened on December 20, 1888, and for'the mortars on December 15, 1888. A board of ordinance officers was con vened at Watervleit arsenal October 4, 1888, to prepare the necessary plans and specifications for the establishment of an army gun factory there. The preliminaries of this board, with the estimates for shop buildings and officers' quarters, was ap proved by the board of ordnance and forti fication November 5, 6 and 8. The specifica tions, form of advertisement and instruc tions to bidders have been prepared and an advertisement inviting the proposals for the excavation for shop buildings and for erectingtwo sets of officers' quarters have been published. The detailed drawings and specifications for the gun factory building are well in hand, and will be fin ished within three or four months, when a bid will be invited for the erection of a building.. The list of machines, etc., is made out, and it is expected plans for the large lathes, etc., will be completed within about tour months, and after approval by the board of ordnance and fortifications bids for furnishing the same will be in vited. The machines and other fixtures will be completed as soon as the shop is in readiness to receive them, probably about 1890. Under the provisions of the army bill for the procurement of pneumatic dynamite guns, the neces sary specifications are now being prepared and advertisements for proposals will.call for guns of fifteen-inch calibre and to fire a prfpjectile that will carry a charge each of 500 pounds explosive gela tine, with the full calibre projectiles. The guns will probably be delivered in from six to ten months from the date of the con tract, so that all the guns of this class that can be procured under the provisions of this law will be purchased during the year. I earnestly request the recommendations contained in the secretary's report, all of which are in my opinion calculated to in crease the usefulness and discipline of the army, may receive the consideration of the congress. Among these the proposal that there should be provjded a plan for the ex amination of officers to test their fitness for promotion is of the utmost importance. a suitable age, are sent to the Indian schools at Carlisle and Hampton, and last summer some charitable and kind people asked permission to send two teachers to those Indians for the purpose of instructing the adults, as well as such children as should be found there. Such permission was readily given, accommodation being provided for teachers, and some portion of the buildings at the barracks were made available for the purpose. The good work contemplated has been commenced, and the teachers engaged are paid by the ladies with whom the plan originated. I am not at all in sympathy with those benevolent, but injudicious people, who are constantly Insisting that these Indians should be returned to the reservation. Their removal was an absolute necessity. If the lives and property of citizens of the frontier are to be at all regarded by the government, their continued restraint -at a distance from the scene of their repeated and cruel murders and outrages is still necessary. It is mistaken philanthropy, every way injurious, which prompts the desire to see those savages returned to their old haunts. They are in their present loca tion as the result of the best judgment of those having official responsibility in the matter, and who are by no means lacking in kind consideration for the Indians. A number of these prisoners have forfeited their lives to outraged law and humanity. Experience has proved they are dangerous and cannot be trusted. This is true not only of those on the warpath, who have heretofore actually been guilty of atrocious murders, but of their kindred and friends who, while they remained upon their reservation, furnished aid and com fort to those absent with bloody intent. These prisoners should be treated kindly and kept in restraint far from the locality of their former reservation; they should be subjected to sfforts calculated to lead to their improvement and to the softening (f their savage and cruel instincts; but their return to their old home should be persis tently reieated. The seretary in bhi re port gives a graphic history of these In dians, and recites with painful vividness their bloody deeds and the unhappy failure of the gouernment to manage them by peaceful means. It will be amazing if a perusal of this history will allow the survi val of a desire for a return of these prison ers to tiheir reservation upon s-entimental or other grounds, . THE NAVY. The report of the secretary of the navy demonstrates very intelligent mananage ment in that important department and discloses the most satisfactory progress in the work of the reconstruction of the navy during the past year. Of the ships in course of construction five,viz., the Charles ton, Baltimore, Yorktown, Vesuvius and The Petrel, have in that time been launch and are rapidly approaching completion, and in addition to the above the .Philadel phia, San Francisco, Newark, Bennington, Concord and Berreshop, torpedo boats, and all under contract for delivery to the de partment during the next year. The pro gress already and being made gives good ground for the expectation that these eleven vessels will be incorporated as part of the American navy within the next twelve months. The report. shows that notwithstanding large expenses for new construction and the additional labor they involve, the total ordinary or current expenditure of the de partment for the three years ended June 80, 1888, are less by more than 20 per cent. than such expenditures for the three years ended June 80, 1884. The various steps which have been taken to improve the business methods of the department are reviewed by the secretary. The pur chasing of supplies has been consolidated and placed under a responsible bureau head. This has resulted in the curtailment of open purchases, which in the years 1884 and 1885 amounted to over 50 per cent. of all the purchases of the department, to less than 11 per cent., so that at the present time about 90 per cent. of the total depart mental purchases are made by contract, and after competition. As the expendi tures on this account exceed an average of two millions annually, it is evident that an important improvement in the system has been inaugurated and economies intro duced. THE POSTAL SERVICE. The report of the postmaster general shows .a marked increase of business in every branch of the postal service. The number of postoffces on July 1, 1888, was 57,576, an increase of 6,124 in three years and of 2,219 for the last fiscal year. The latter mentioned increase is classified as follows: New England States, 5; Middle states, 181; Southern states and Indian territory, 1,406; the states and territories of the Pa cific coast, 190: the ten states and terri tories of the west and northwest, 435; total, 2,219. Free delivery ofihces have in creased from 189 in the fiscal year ended June 30, 1887, to 858 m the year ended June 80, 1888. In the railway mail service there has been an increase in one year of 168 routes, andin the numberof miles traveled per annum an increase of 150,715. The estimated increase of railroad service for the year is 600 miles, but the amount of new railroad service actual ly put on was 1,275 miles. The volume of business in the money order division, including the transactions in postal notes, reached a sum upwards of $148,000,000 for the year. During the past year parcel post conventions have been concluded with the Barbadoes, the Baha mas, British Honduras and Mexico, and are now under negotiation with all the Central and South American states. The increase correspondence with foreign countries during the past three years is gratifying, and is especially notable and exceptional with the Central and South American states and with Mexico. As the greater part of the mail matter exchanged with these countries is commercial in its character, this increase is evidence of im proved business relations with them. The practical operation of the parcel poet con ventions, so far as negotiated, has served to fulfill the most favorable predictions as to their benefits. In January last a general post convention was ne gotiated with the Dominion of Canada, which went into operation on March 1 and which practically makes one postal territory of the United States and Canada. Under it a merchandise par cel may now be transmitted through the mails at fourth class rates of postage. It is not possible here to touch even the lead ing heads of the great postal establishment to illustrate the enormous and rapid growth of its business and the needs for legislative readjustment of much of its machinery This reform has been before commended in the reports of the secretary, and its ex pediency is so fully demonstrated by the argument he presents in its favor, that its adoption should be no longer neglected. The death of Gen. Sheridan in August last was a national affliction. The army then lost the grandest of chiefs, the country lost a brave, experienced soldier, a wise and discreet counsellor, and a modest and sensible man. Those who in any manner came within the range of his personal as sociation will never fail to pay deserved and willing homage to his greatness and the glory of his career, but they will cher ish with more tender sensibility the loving memory of his simple, generous and consid erate nature. The Apache Indians, whose removal from their reservation in Arizona followed the capture of those of their number who engaged in a bloody and murderous raid durin 1885 and 1886, are now held prison ers of war at Mount Vernon barracks, in the state of Alabama. They numbered October 31, the date of the last report, 83 men, 170 women, 70 boys and 59 girls, in all 382 persons. The commanding officers state they are in good health and con tented, and that they are keptemployed as fully as is possible under the circum stances. The children, as they arrive at that it has outgrown. For these and valu able recommendations of the postmaster general, 'attention is earnestly invited to his report. A department whose revenues have increased from $19,772,000 in 1870 to $72,700,U00 in 1888, dhspite reductions of postage, which have enormously reduced the rates of revenue, while greatly increas ing its business, demands the careful con sideration of the congress as to all matters suggested by those familiar with its opera tions, and which are calculated to increase its efficiency and usefulness. A bill proposed by the postmaster-gen eral was introduced at the last session of the congress, by which a uniform standard in the amount of gross receipts would fix the right of a community to a public building to be erected by the government for post office purposes. It was demonstrated that aside from the public convenience and the promotion of harmony among citizens in variably disturbed by a change of leasingRs and of site, it was a measure of the highest economy and sound business judgment. It was found that the government was pay ing in rents at the rate of 7 per cent. per annum on what the cost of such pub lic buildings would be. A very great ad vantage resulting from' such buildings would be the prevention of a large number of bills constantly introduced for the erec tion of public buildings at places and in volving an expenditure not justified by public necessity. I trust that this measure will become a law at the present session of congress. Of the total number of postmas ters 54,874 are of the fourth class. These, of course, receive no allowances whatever for expenses in the service and their com pensation is fixed by percentages on the receipts at that respective offices. This rate of compensation may have been, and probably was, at some time just; but the standard has remained unchanged through the several reductiona in the rates of post age. Such rednuctions have necessarily cut down the compensation of these oficials, while it undoubtealy has increased the business performed by them. Simple jus tice reauires attention to this subject, to the end that fourth class postmasters may receive at least an equivalent to that which the law itself, flng the rate, intended for Another class of postal employes whose condition seems to demand legi 1 tion, is that of clerks in postoffices; and I call es pecial attention to the repeated recom mendations of the postmaster general for their classification. Proper legislation of this character for the relief of carriers in the free delivery service has been frequent Provision is made for the promotion of sub stitutes, for holidays, and limiting their hours of labor. Seven million of dollat. have been appropriated for the current year to provide for them, though the total number of offices where they are employed is but 858 for the past fiscal year, with an estimated increase for the current year of but forty, while the total appropriation for all the 9lerks in offices throughout the United States is $5,950,000. The legista tion affecting the relations of the govern ment with railroads is in need of revision. While for the most part the railroad com panies thrq ghout the country have cor dially co-opeated with the postoffice de partment in rendering excellent service, yet under the law as it stands, while the compensation to them for carrying the mail is limited and regulated, and al though the railroads are made post roads by law, there is no authority reposed any where to compel the owner of a railroad to take and carry the United States mail. The only alternative provided by the act of congress in case of a refusal is for the post master-general to send the mail forward by pony express. This is but an illustration of ill fitting legislation, reasonable and proper at the time of its enactment, but long since outgrown and requiring read justment. It is gratifying to note from the carefully prepared statistics accompany ing the postmaster-general's report that notwithstancing the great expansion of the service, the rate of expenditures has been lessened and efficiency has been improved in every branch, that fraud and crime have decreased, that losses from the mails have been reduced, and that the number of com plaints of service made to the postmasters and tethe department are far less than ever before. THE DEPARTMENT Of JIEJTICE. The transactions of the department of justice for the fiseal year ended June 80, 1888, are contained in the report of the attorney general, as well as a number of valuable recommendations, most of which are repetitions of those previously made, and eught to receive consideration. It is stated in this report that while judgments I in civil suits amounting to $552,021.08 were recovered in favor of the government dur ing the year, only the sum of 182,9834 was collected thereon, and that though fines, penalties and forteitures were imposed amounting to $541,808.43, only $109,648.42 of that sum was paid on account thereof. These facts may furnish an illustration of the sentiment which extensively prevails, that a debt due the government should cause no inconvenience to the citizen. It also. appears from this report that though prior to March, 1885, there had been but six convictions in the territories of Utah and Idaho under the laws of 1862 and 1882, punishing polygamy and unlawful cohabitation as crimes, there have been since that date nearly 600 convictions un der these laws, and the statutes of 1887, and the opinion is expressed that under such a firm and vigilant execution of those laws, and the advance of ideas opposed to the forbidden practices, polygamy within the United States is virtually at an end. The suits instituted by the government under the provisions of the act of March 8, 1887, for the termination of the corporations known as the Perpetual Emigrating Fund company and the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints have resulted in a de cree favorable to the government, declar ing the charters of those corporations for feited and eseheating their property, such property amounting in value to more than $800,000, is in the hands of a receiver, pending further proceedings, an appeal having been taken to the supreme court of the United States. THE PUBLIC LANDS. In the report of the secretary of the in terior, which will be laid before you, the condition of the various branches of out domestic affairs connected with. that de partment, and its operations during the past year, are fully exhibited. But a brief reference to some subjects discussed in this able and interesting report can be here made; but 1 recommend the entire report to the attention of congress, and trust the sensible and valuable recommendations it contains will secure careful consideration. I cannot too strenuously insist upon the importance of proper measures to insure a right disposition of our public lands, not only as a matter of present justice, but in the interest of future generations. The broad, rich acres of our agricultural plains have been long preserved by nature to be come her untrammelled gift to a people civilized and free, upon which should rest, in well distributed ownership, the numer ous homes of enlightened, equal and fra ternal citizens. They carpe into the na tional possession with the warning example in our eyes of the entail and of the iniqui ties in landed proprietorship which other countries have permitted and still suffer. We have no excuse for the violation of principles cogently taught by reason and example nor for the allowance of pretexts which have sometimes exposed our lands to colossal greed. Laws which open the doors to fraudulent acquisition or administration, which permit and favor to rapacious seiz ure by a favored few of expanded areas that many should enjoy, are accessory to offenses against our national welfare and humanity not to be too severely condemned or punished. It is gratifying to know that something has been done at last-to redress the injur les to our people and check the perilous tendency of the reckless waste of the na tional domain. That over 80,000,000 acres have been wrested from illegal usurption, improwvident grants and fraudulent entries and claims to be taken for the homesteads of honest industry, although less than the greater areas thus unjustly lost, must af ford a profound gratification to right-feel ing citizens, as it is a recompense for the labors and struggles of recovery. Our dear experiences ought sufficiently to urge the speedy enactment of measures of legislation which will confine the future disposition of our remaining agricultural lands to use of actual husbandry and gen uine homes. Nor should our vast tracts of so-called desert lands be yielded up to the monopoly of corporations or grasping indi viduals, as appears to be much the ten dency under the existing statute. The lands require but the supply of water to become fertile and productive. It is a problem of great moment how, most wise ly for the piblic good, that factor shall be furnished. I cannot but think it perilous to suffer either these lands or the sources of their irrigation to fall into the hands of monopolies, which by such means may ex ercise a lordship over areas dependent on their treatment for productiveness. Al ready steps have been taken to secure ac curate and scientific information of the conditions, which is the prime basis of In telligent action. Until this shall be gained, the course of wisdom appears clearly to lie in a suspension of further disposal, which only promises to create rights antagonistic to the common interest. No harm can fol low this cautionary conduct. The land will remain, and the public good presents no demands for hasty dispossession of na tional ownership and control. I commend also the recommendations that appropriate measures be taken to complete adjustment of various grants to states for internal improvements and of swamp and overflowed lands as well, to adjudicate and finally determine the valid ity and extent of numerous private land claime. All these are elements of greatin justice and peril to settlers upon localities affected, and now that their existence is more pressing than ever, it is the duty of congress to fix as soon as possible their bounds, and terminate threats of trouble which arise from uncertainty. THE INDIAna. 'rhe condition of the Indian population continues to improve, and proofs multlply that the transforming changes so much to be desired, which shall substitute for bar barism enlightenment and civilizing edu cation, is in favorable progress. Relations have been disturbed by no disorders, but rather marked by a better realization of their true interests and increasing confi dence and good will. .Thes.q.opditsns: testiffto the value of the highier ton of copsidration and ~ium i~m .hich _1as governed later methods of dealing lth them.' I comlmend its Dontinlied oberv ance. Allotments in severalty have been made on some reservations; untilF alr those enK' titled to land thereon have had their shares assigned, and the work is still continued. In directing the execution of, this duty I have not aimed so much at rapid dispatch as to secure just and fair arrangements which shall best conduce to the objects of law by producing satisfation with the re sults of the allotments made. No measure or general effect has ever been entered on from which more may be fairly hoped if it shall be discreetly administered. It prof fers opportunity to that independence of spirit and life which the Indian peculiari ties need, while at the same time the in alienability of title affords secgrity-against the risks his inexperience of affairs or weakness of character may expose him to in dealing with others. Whenever oegun upon any reservation, it should be made complete, so that all are brought to the s ime condition, and as soon as possible community in land should cease by open ing such as remain unallotted to settlement. Contact with the ways of industrious and succersful farniers will perhaps add a healthy emulation, which will both instruct and stimulate. But no agency for the amelioration of `this people appears to me so promising as the extension urged by the secretary of such complete facilities of education as shall at the earliest possible day embrace all teachable Indian youths of both sexes and retain them with a kindly and benefi cent hold until their characters are formed and their faculties and dispositions trained to such pursuits or some form of useful industry. The capacity of the Indian no longer needs demonstration; it is estab lished. It remains to make the most of it, and when that shall be done the curse will be lifted, the Indian race saved and the sin of their oppression redeemed. The time of its accomplishment depends upon the spirit and justice with which it shall be prose cuted. It cannot be too soon for the Indian nor for the interest and good name of the nation. The average attendance of Indian pupils in schools increased by over 900 during the year and the total enrollment reached 15,212. The cost of maintenance was not materially raised. The number of teach able Indian youths is now 40,000, or nearly three times the enrollment of the schools. It is believed that the obstacles in the way of instructing all are surmountable and that the necessary expenditure would be a measure of economy. The Sioux tribes on the great reservation of Dakota refused to assent to the act passed by congress at its last session for opening a portion of their lands to settle ment, notwithstanding modification of the terms was suggested which met most 01o the objections. Their demand is for im mediate payment of the full price of $1.25 per acre for the entire body of land the occupancy of which they are asked to relinquish. The manner of. submission insured their fair understanding of the law, and their action was undoubtedly as thoroughly intelligent as their capacity admitted. It is at least gratifying that nc reproach of overreaching can in any man ner be urged against the government, how ever advisable the favorable completion ol the negotiation may have been esteemed. I concur in the suggestion of the secretary regarding the Turtle Mountain Indians the two reservations in Colorado and the Crees'. They should, in my opinion, re ceive immediate attention. PENSIONS. The number of pensioners added to the rolls during the fiscal year ended June 80 1888, is 60.252. and increase of pensioni was granted m .5,716 eases. The names oi 15,780 pensioners were dropped from the rolls during the year for various causes and at the close of the year the number o1 persons of all classes receiving pensions were 452,557. Of these there were 806survi vors of the war of 1812,10,787 widows of those who served in that war, 16.060 soldiers oi the Mexican war, and 5,104 widows of said soldiers. There are 1,02 different rates oi pensions to be paid beneficiaries, rating from $2 to $4166 per month. The amount paid for pensions during the fisca y.ar' was 8$78,775,861.92, being an increast over the preceding year of $5,808,280 22 The expenses attending the maintenance and operation of the pension bureau dur ing that period was $3,262,524.67, making the entire expenditures of the bureau $82," 038,886 59, being 214 per cent. of the total expenditures of the government during the year. I am thoroughly convinced that our gen eral pension laws should be revised ant ad justed to meet, as far as possible, in the light of our experience, all meritorious cases. The fact that 102 different rates of pensions are paid cannot, in my opinion, be made consistent with justice to the pen sioners or to the government, and the numerous private bils that are passed pre dicated upon the imperfection of the gen eralla-ws, while they increase in many cases the existing inequality and injustice, lend additional force to the recommenda tion for revision of the general laws on this subject. The laxity of ideas prevailing among a large number of our people regarding pen sions is becoming every day more marked. The principles upon which they should be granted are in danger of being altogether ignored, and already pensions are often claimed because the applicants are "as much entitled as other successful appli cants," rather than upon any disability reasonably attributable to military service. If the establishment of various precedents be continued and the granting of pensions be not divorced from partisan and other un worthy and irrelevant considerations, and if the honorable name of veteran unfairly become by these means but another term for one who constantly clamors for the aid of the government, there is danger that in jury will be done to the fame and patriot ism of many whom our citizens delight to honor and that a prejudice will be aroused unjustto meritorious applicants for pen sions. AGRICULTURE. The department of agriculture has con tinued with a good measure of success its efforts to develop the processes, enlarge the results and augment the profits of American husbandry. It has collected and distributed practical information, intro duced and tested new plants, checked the spread of contagious diseases of farm ani mals, resisted the advance of noxious In sects and destructive fungus growths, and sought to secure to aericultural labor the highest rewardsof effort and the fullest immunity from loss. Its records of the year show that the season 1888 has been one of medium productions. A generous supply of the demands of consumption has been assured and a surplus for exportation, moderate in certain products and bountiful in others, will prove a benefit alike to buyer and grower. Four years ago it was found that the great cattle industry of the country was endangered, and those en gaged in it were alarmed at the rapid ex tension of European lung plague or pleuro pneumonia. Ierious outbreaks existed in Illinois, Missouri and Kentucky, and in Tennessee animals affected were held in quarantine. Five counties in New York and from one to four counties in each the states of New Jer sey, Pennsylvania, Delaware and Mary land were almost equally affected With this great danger upon us, with the contagion in the channels of commerce, with enormous death and indirect losses being caused by it, and when only prompt, energetic action could be successful, there were in none of these states any laws an thorzilg this department to eradicate the malady or give state officials power to co operate for this purpose. The department even lacked both the requisite appropria tion and authority. By securing state co operation in connection .with authority from congress, the work of eradication has been pressed successfully and this disease h e etirpated from the western s.te ndallso from the eastern states with thei. ecepion of; a few, restricted states, w . behare till untler supervision. Danger ;ii.s thus ben removed and trade and com merce have been freed from the vexatious state restrictions which were deemed :itcessary for a time. During the past four years the process of diffusion as applied to the manufacture of sugar from sorghum and sugar cane has been introduced into this country and fully perfected by experiments carried on by the department of agriculture. This process is now universally .considered to be the best and most economical, and it is thought the sorghum sugar industry has been es tablished upon a firm basis and a road to its future success opened. The adoption of i this diffusion process is also extending to Louisiana and other producing parts of the - country, and will doubtless soon be the t only method employed for the extraction r of Sugar from the cane. An exhaustive study has also, within the 1 period,. been undertaken of the subject of e food adulteration and the best analytical e methods for detecting it. A part of the e results of this work has already been pub - lished by the department, which, with the -. matter in course of preparation, will make d the most complete treatise on that subject a that has ever been published in any coun lt try. Tthe department seeks a progressive de if velopment. It would combine the discov W eries of science with the economies and f amelioration of rural practice. A super s vision of the endowed experimental IS station system recently provided for 's is a proper function of the depart - ment and is now in operation. d This supervision is very important and d should be wisely and vigilantly directed, it to the end that the pecuniary aid of the 0 government m favor of intelligentagricul )- ture should be so applied as to result in the t, general good and to the benefit of all our 1I people, thus justifying the appropriation n made from the public treasury. )f THE RAILROADS. . The adjustment df the relations between ,n the government and the railroad companies which have received land grants and the guiranty of the public credit in aid of the Is construction of their roads, should receive ie early attention. The report of a majority ;d of the commissioners appointed to examine t the affairs and indebtedness of hese roads, . in which they favor an extension of the y time for the payment of such indebtedness, s. in at least one case where the cerporation appears to be able to comply with d well guarded and exact terms a of such extension and the reinforcement of their opinion by gentlemen of undoubted in business judgment and experience ap t pointed to protect the interests of the gov r, ernment, as directors of said corporation, z. may well lead to the belief that such an ex ie tension w4,uld be to the advantage of the f government. The subject should be treated as a business proposition, with a view to 1 final realization of its indebtedness by the e government, rather than upon preju,;ices Sor by way of punishment for previous in wrong-doing. THE DISTRICT GOVERNMENT. The report of the commissioners of the District of Columbia, with its accompany ing documents, gives in detail the opera tions of the several departments of the dis trict government and furnishes evidence that the financial affairs of the district are at present in such a satisfactory condition as to justify the commissioners in sabmitting to congress estimates for desirable and needed improvements. The commission ers recommend certain legislation which, in their opinion, is necessary to advance the interests of the district. I invite your special attention to their re quest for such legislation as will enable the commissioners without delay to collect, digest and properly arrange the laws by which the district is governed and which are now embraced in several collections, making them available only with great dif ficulty and labor. The suggestions they make touching desirable amend ments to the laws relating to license granted for carrying on the retail traffic in spirituous liquors, to the observance of Sunday, to the proper as sessment of taxes, to the speedy punish ment of minor offenders, and to the management of the reformatory and charitable institutions supported by con gressional appropriation are commended to care and consideration. I again call attention to the present in convenience and the danger to life and property in granting the operation of steam railroads through and across the public streets and roads of the district. The propriety of such legislation as will properly guard the use of these railroads and better secure the convenience and safety of citizens is manifest. The consciousness that I have presented but an imperfect statement of the condi tion of our country and its wants occasions no fear that anything omitted is not known and appreciated by the congres- upon whom rests the responsibility of intelligent legislation in behalf of a great nation and a confiding people. As public servants we shall do our duty well if we constantly guard the rectitude of our intention, main tain unsullied our love of country, and with unselfish purpose strive tor the pub lic good. GROVER CLEVELAND. Washington, D, C., Dec. 3, 1888. To Run the Machine a Year. WASHINGTON, Dec. 8.-The secretary of the treasury has transmitted to -congress estimates of the appropriations required for the government service for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1890. They aggregate $328,467,488, which is $8382 305 less than the estimates for 1889., and $4,530,511 more than the appropriation for the current fiscal lear.Ol'he estimates are as follows: Leg islative establishment. $3.381.963; executive establishment, $18,955,081; judicial estab lishment, $436.000: foreign and interior in tercourse. $1.947,565; military establish ments. $25,298,372; naval estahlishments, $25,162,028; Indian affairs, $5.475.410; pen slons, $81,758,700:public works, $21,204,909; p'stal service, $4 808,414; miscellaneous, $26,856.385; permanent annual appropria tions, $108,691,055; total, $323.467,488. France and the Pope LONDON, Dec. 3.-The Standard's corre spondent at Rome says the French govern ment has secretly advised the pope to leave Rome in the event of a rupture between France and Italy, and has offered all pos sible assistance in the event of his deciding to go to France. To Settle In Washington. CHICAGO, Dec. 3.-The Washington ter ritory colony of Chicago was organized to night for the purpose of buying and im proving a tract of land to be selected here after in Washington territory, near Ta coma. The capital stock is to be $10,000; divided into 1,000 shares. Twomblety In America. NEW YORK, Dec. 38 -Dr. Twomblety, who was suspected of being connected in some way with the Whitechapel murders in Lon don, arrived in this city yesterday from lavre. The police have him under sur veillance. Freight Rates Fixed. Now YOBRK, Dec. &--Commissioner Fink said to-day that with the exception of a few details all matters connected with fix Sfreight rateshave been practically set FOR TEN DOLLARS. Frank Graver, a Carpenter, Shot and Fatally Wounded by a Woman of Ill Repute at Anaconda. POLITICS THE CAUSE. Rose Bennett Makes a Wager, and When it is Decided Against Her, Shoots Instead of Paying, and is Jailed. ANACONDA, Dec. 3.-[Speciai to the in. dependent. ]-A pistol shyot in a notorious section of this city startled the inhabitants close on to midnight Sunday night. The report came from the honun,, of ,.ose Ben. nett, a woman of ill repute, who stood in the door as the officers entered With a pis tol smoking in her hand. On the floor of her parlor lay Frank Graver, a young car. penter, in a pool of blood, who received a bullet wound in the abdomen. ile was re moved to his home, and after great suffer. ing, died at 7 o'clock. The circumstances, as near as can be learned, are that the de ceased and a companion entered the house about 10 o'clock. After drinking some of the men engaged in a discussion on the late election. The politics of Rlhode sland drew forth an animated debate, and to set tie the matter a bet of ten dollars was made between the woman and Graver. To decide the bet some person was sent down to look up information on the question, which resulted in it being decided against her. She refused to pay the $10, and after a lively interchange of words she drew a revolver and fired, with the result as stated above. The woman was arrested and placed in jail. Graver is a sinole man and comes from Wisconsin. It is said that this was his first visit to a place of this charac ter in this city. He was always highly spoken of and usually of a quiet disposi tion. . WANTS TO FORECLOSE. Suit of the F armers Loan and Trust Company Against a Montana Cattle Company. GREAT FALLS, Dec. 3.--Special to the Independent.]-A case of considerable in terest to cattlemen came before Judge Bach in the District Court to-day. The Farmers Loan and Trust company, of New York, sues to foreclose a mortgage given to it as trustee for the bondholders of the North Montana Cattle company. The suit is based on alleged breaches of the terms of the mortgage. The bonds issued by the cattle company are $750,000 in amount, and are held by the above named trust company. The breaches alleged are failure to keep defendants herd up to 22,000 head, as agreed, the failure to pay in terest on the bonds and the sale of cattle by which it is asserted the number was diminished. The defendants demurred to the complaint on the ground that the suit was prematurely brought, claiming that no suit to fore close could be brought until twelve months after interest on the bonds was due, and that no defa'alt was made until Jan uary, 1888. The court overruled this de murrer, and the case went to trial to-day. The plaintiffs called two witnesses and in troduced the record as evidence. The de fendant moved for a non-suit on the ground that no breach had been proved, holding that all decrease in the herd resulted from the severity-of the winter and act from sale. The defendants stand on the de murrer and the motion for non-suit. Judge Bach has taken the case under advie ment. The attorneys are Chumasero & McCutcheon and E W. Toole for the plaintiffs, and Carpenter, Buck & Runt for the defendant. Messrs. Chumasero, Hunt and Bach are here. L. A. Walker, the former secretary of the cattle company, is also here. The North Mon tana Cattle company was formed in June, 1886. It succeded to the business of the Montana Cattle comrn pay, and issued boitds to take up the indebtedness of that concern. Among those interested in the North Mon tana Cattle company art some persons of note. They include 1,Russell B. ltHarrison, son of the president-elect; W. H1. HI. Miller, of Indianapolis, Gemn. Hlarrison's law partner, J. C. Johnston, of Washingtln: John S. Blair and J. K. MecCalnnn. The two last named were formerly aesistt'aurat torney generals of the United States. Banqueting O'Connor. ToRnoNTo, Dec. 3 -Forty thousand per sons gave Win. O'Connor a reception to night that eclipsed the one given to lnlant - on his return front the American centen nial. He was presented with an addcress, a check for $1.000, and a purse (coraining $300 in gold. A telegram conveying the governor-general's congratulations was read and many prominent citizens made speeches. Oomocratic Gains CHARLESTOIt, W. Va., De 3. --The re count in this county was conplet.d to night. It thows Alderson (dem-,ocrat) for congress from the Third district. alined twenty-five in the city. which elects him by seventeen. Fleming ((lemterat) tor governor gained twenty-ei'tht. l'his will, it is believed, give the democrats the gov ernor also. Cash for Mosby. WAsnINCwTON, Dec. 3.-The court of claims to-day gave judgment for $13,839t in favor of Col. John S Mosby, late United States consul ea-neral to China. This rep resents fees for ce-rtilicates to Chinese' emi grants to the United States, etc., -colltect'd in his official capacity, and for whicih the accounting officers of the treasury refused to allow him credit. Escaped the Noose. INDIANAPOLIS, Dec. 3.-The trial of Ed Chamberlain, at Logansport, for the mur der of his sweetheart. Ida Wittenberg, was terminated this morning by the suicide of the defendant. The evidence against him was overwhelming and the death penalty would, urely have been inflicted. Cham hbrlain' hanged himself with a strip of bed tloking. Editor Dana. of New York, is to be given a reception by the American Catholic clergy at Rome.